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Full text of "Angelic wisdom concerning the divine love and the divine wisdom"

Jioofe^o y Lm^30 

General library 

of t!)c 

iiogton goung iMea'g 
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L. B. Cat. No. 1 137 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

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http://www.archive.org/details/angelicwisdom1915swed 



ANGELIC WISDOM 



CONCERNING 



The Divine Love 



AND THE 



Divine Wisdom 



BY 

EMANUEL SWEDENBOEG 

ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN LATIN AT AMSTERDAM 1763 



STANDARD EDITION 



NEW YOEK 

THE AMERICAN SWEDENBOEG PRINTING AND PUBLISHING 

SOCIETY 

3 WEST TWENTY-NINTH STREET 
1915 



\/ 



5 



Published by The American Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society, 
organized for the business and objects solely of printing, publishing and circu- 
lating the Theological Works and Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg for charitable 
and missionary purposes. Incorporated in the State of New York, a.d. 1850. 



TEAITSLATOE'S NOTE 

For this new edition of this work the previous translation 
has been carefully revised. In this revision the translator 
has had the valuable assistance of suggestions by the Rev- 
L. H. Tafel and others. The new renderings of existere and 
fug ere are suggestions adopted by the Editorial Committee 
and accepted by the translator, but for which he does not 
wish to be held solely responsible. 

John C. Ager. 



^^95 



CONTENTS 



PART FIRST. 

Love is the life of Man (n. 1). 

God alone, consequently the Lord, is Love itself, because He 
IS Life itself, and angels and men are recipients of life 

(n. 4). 

The Divine is not in space (n. 7). 

God is Very Man (n. 11). 

In God-Man Esse and Existere are one distinctly (n. 14). 

In God-Man infinite things are one distinctly (n. 17). 

There is one God-Man, from whom all things are (n. 23). 

The Divine Essence itself is Love and Wisdom (n. 28). 

Divine Love is of Divine Wisdom, and Divine Wisdom is of Di- 
vine Love (n. 34) . 

Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are substance and are form 

(n. 40). 

Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are substance and form in it- 
self, THUS THE Very and the Only (n, 44). 

Divine Love and Divine Wisdom must necessarily have being 
{esse) AND have form {existere) in others created by itself 

(n. 47). 

Divine Love and Divine Wisdom must necessarily be and have 
existence in others created by itself (n. 47). 

All things in the universe are creations from the Divine Love 
AND the Divine Wisdom of God-Man (n. 52). 

All things in the created universe are recipients of the Di- 
vine Love and the Divine Wisdom of God-Man. . . . (n. 55). 

All created things have relation in a kind of image to man 

(n.61). 

The uses of all created things ascend by degrees from last 

THINGS to man, and THROUGH MAN TO GoD THE CREATOR, FROM 
WHOM THEY ARE (n. 65) . 

The Divine, apart from space, fills all spaces of the universe 

(n. 69). 

The Divine is in all time, apart from time (n. 73). 

The Divine in things greatest and least is the same (n. 77). 



V. 



vi CONTENTS 



PART SECOND. 

Divine Love and Divine Wisdom appear in the spiritual world 
AS A SUN (n. 83). 

Out of the sun that takes form {existit) from the Divine Love 
and the Divine Wisdom, heat and light go forth., .(n. 89). 

The sun of the spiritual world is not God, but is a proceeding 
FROM the Divine Love and Divine Wisdom of God-Man; so 

also are the heat and light FROM THAT SUN (n. 93). 

Spiritual heat and light, in proceeding from the Lord as a 

SUN, MAKE ONE, JUST AS HiS DiVINE LoVE AND DiVINE WlS- 
DOM MAKE ONE (n. 99). 

The sun of the spiritual world appears at a middle altitude, 
far off from the angels, like the sun of the natural 

WORLD FROM MEN (n. 103). 

The distance between the sun and the angels in the spiritua'l 

WORLD is an appearance ACCORDING TO RECEPTION BY THEM OF 

Divine Love and Divine Wisdom (n. 108). 

Angels are in the Lord, and the Lord in them; and because an- 
gels are recipients, the Lord alone is heaven . . . . (n. 113). 

In the spiritual world the east is where the Lord appears as 
A sun, and from that the other quarters are determined 

(n. 119). 

The quarters in the spiritual world are not from the Lord as 

A SUN, but from the ANGELS ACCORDING TO RECEPTION 

(n. 124) 
Angels turn their faces constantly to the Lord as a sun, and 

THUS HAVE the SOUTH TO THE RIGHT, THE NORTH TO THE LEFT, 

AND THE WEST BEHIND THEM (n. 129). 

All INTERIOR THINGS OF THE ANGELS, BOTH OF MIND AND BODY, ARE 
TURNED TO THE LoRD AS A SUN (n. 135). 

Every spirit, whatever his quality, turns in like manner to 
HIS ruling love (n. 140). 

Divine Love and Divine Wisdom proceeding from the Lord as 
a sun, and producing heat and light in heaven, are the 

PROCEEDING DiVINE, WHICH IS THE HoLY SpIRIT (n. 146). 

The Lord created the universe and all things of it by means 
of the sun which is the first proceeding of divine love 
AND Divine Wisdom (n. 151). 

The sun of the natural world is pure fire, consequently dead; 
nature also is dead, because it derives its origin from that 
SUN -. (n. 157). 



CONTENTS vii 

Without a double sun, one living and the other dead, no cre- 
ation IS POSSIBLE. (n. 163) . 

The end of creation has form (existat) in outmosts, which end 

IS THAT ALL THINGS MAY RETURN TO THE CREATOR AND THAT 
THERE MAY BE CONJUNCTION (n. 167). 



PART THIRD. 

In THE SPIRITUAL WORLD THERE ARE ATMOSPHERES, WATERS, AND 

earths, just as in the natural world; only the former 

are spiritual, while the latter are natural (n. 173). 

There are degrees of love and wisdom, consequently degrees 

OF heat and light, also degrees of atmospheres. . . . (n. 179). 
Degrees are of a two-fold kind, degrees of height and degrees 

OF breadth (n. 184) . 

Degrees of height are homogeneous, and one is from the other 

in succession, like end, cause, and effect (n. 189). 

The first degree is the all in every thing of the subsequent 

DEGREES (n. 195) . 

All perfections increase and ascend along with degrees and 

according to them . . (n. 199). 

In successive order the first degree makes the highest, and 

THE third the LOWEST ; BUT IN SIMULTANEOUS ORDER THE 
FIRST DEGREE MAKES THE INNERMOST, AND THE THIRD THE 

OUTERMOST (n. 205) . 

The OUTMOST degree is the complex, CONTAINANT and base of THE 

PRIOR degrees (n. 209). 

The degrees of height are in fulness and in power in their 

OUTMOST DEGREE (ll. 217). 

There are degrees of both kinds in the greatest and in the 

least of all created things (n. 222) . 

In THE Lord the three degrees of height are infinite and 

UNCREATE, BUT IN MAN THE THREE DEGREES ARE FINITE AND 

CREATED ' (n. 230) . 

These three degrees of height are in every man from birth 
and can be opened successively ; and as they are opened, 
man is in the lord and the lord in man (n. 236). 

Spiritual light flows in with man through three degrees, but 

NOT spiritual HEAT, EXCEPT SO FAR AS MAN FLEES FROM EVILS 
AS SINS AND LOOKS TO THE LoRD (n. 242). 



Viii CONTENTS 

Unless the higher degree, which is the spiritual, is opened in 
man, he becomes natural and sensual (n. 248). 

(i ) What the natural man is, and what the spiritual man 

(n. 251). 
(ii.) The character of the natural man in whom the spiritual 

degree is opened (n. 252) . 

(iii.) The character of the natural man in whom the spiritual 

degree is not opened and yet not closed (n. 253) . 

(iv.) The character of the natural man in whom the spiritual 

degree is entirely closed (n. 254). 

(v.) Lastly, The nature of the difference between the life of a 

man merely natural and the life of a beast . . . (n. 255) . 

The NATURAL DEGREE OF THE HUMAN MIND REGARDED IN ITSELF IS 
CONTINUOUS, BUT BY CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE TWO HIGHER 
DEGREES IT APPEARS WHEN IT IS ELEVATED AS IF IT WERE DIS- 
CRETE (n. 256). 

The natural mind, since it is the covering and containant of 
the higher degrees of the human mind, is reactive; and if 
the higher degrees are not opened it acts against them, 
but if they are opened it acts with them (u. 260). 

The ORIGIN OF evil is from the ABUSE OF THE CAPACITIES PROPER 
TO MAN, THAT ARE CALLED RATIONALITY AND FREEDOM. . (n. 264). 

(i.) A bad man equally with a good man enjoys these two 
capacities (n. 266). 

(ii.) A bad man abuses these capacities to confirm evils and 
falsities, but a good man uses them to confirm goods 
and truths. (ri. 267). 

(iii.) Evils and falsities confirmed in man are permanent and 
come to be of his love and life (n. 268). 

(iv.) Such things as have come to be of the love, and conse- 
quently of the life, are engendered in offspring. . (n. 269). 

(v.) All evils and their falsities, both engendered and acquired, 
have their seat in the natural mind (n. 270) . 

Evils and falsities are in complete opposition to goods and 
truths, because evils and falsities are diabolical and in- 
FERNAL, WHILE goods AND TRUTHS ARE DIVINE AND HEAVENLY 

(n. 271). 

(i.) The natural mind that is in evils and in falsities therefrom 
is a form and image of hell (n. 273). • 

(ii.) The natural mind that is a form or image of hell descends 
through three degrees (n. 274). 



CONTENTS k 

(lii.) The three degrees of the natural mind that is a form and 
image of hell, are opposite to the three degrees of the 
spiritual mind which is a form and image of heaven 

(n. 275). 

(iv.) The natural mind that is a hell is in complete opposition to 
the spiritual mind which is a heaven (n. 276) . 

All things of the three degrees of the natural mind are 
included in the deeds that are done by the acts of the 
BODY (n. 277). 



PART FOURTH. 

The Lord from Eternity, who is Jehovah, created the uni- 
verse AND ALL THINGS THEREOF FROM HiMSELF, AND NOT FROM 
NOTHING (n. 282). 

The Lord from Eternity, that is, Jehovah, could not have cre- 
ated THE UNIVERSE AND ALL THINGS THEREOF UNLESS He WERE 

A Maj^ (n. 285). 

The Lord from Eternity, that is, Jehovah, brought forth from 
Himself the sun of the spiritual world, and from that 
created the universe and all things thereof (n. 290) . 

There are in the Lord three things that are the Lord, the 
Divine op Love, the Divine of Wisdom, and the Divine 
OF Use ; and these three are presented in appearance 

outside OF THE SUN OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD, THE DiVINE OP 

Love by heat, the Divine of Wisdom by light, and the 
Divine of Use by the atmosphere which is their contain- 
ANT (n. 296). 

The ATMOSPHERES, OF WHICH THERE ARE THREE BOTH IN THE SPIR- 
ITUAL AND IN THE NATURAL WORLD, IN THEIR OUTMOSTS CLOSE 

Into substances and matters such as are in earths . . (n. 302). 

In the substances and matters of which earths are formed 

there is nothing of the divine in itself, but still they 

ARE FROM THE DiVINE IN ITSELF (n. 305). 

All uses, which are ends of creation, are in forms, which 
forms they take from substances and matters such as 

ARE IN EARTHS (u. 307). 

(i.) In earths there is a conatus to produce uses in forms, that 
is, forms of uses (n. 310). 



X CONTENTS 

(ii,) In all forms of uses there is a kind of image of creation 

(n. 313). 

(iii.) In all forms of uses there is a kind of image of man (n. 317). 

(iv.) In all forms of uses there is a kind of image of the Infinite 

and the Eternal (n. 318). 

All things of the created universe, viewed in reference to 
USES, represent man in an image; and this testifies that 
God is Man (n. 319). 

All things created by the Lord are uses; they are uses in the 

ORDER, degree, AND RESPECT IN WHICH THEY HAVE RELATION 
TO MAN, AND THROUGH MAN TO THE LoRD, FROM WHOM [tHEY 

are] (n. 327). 

Uses for sustaining the body (n. 331). 

Uses for perfecting the rational (n. 332). 

Uses for receiving the spiritual from the Lord (n. 333). 

Evil uses were not created by the Lord, but originated to- 
gether WITH hell (n. 336). 

(i.) What is meant by evil uses on the earth (n. 338). 

(ii.) All things that are evil uses are in hell, and all things that 

are good uses are in heaven (n. 339). 

(iii.) There is unceasing influx out of the spiritual world into 

the natural world (n. 340). 

(iv.) Those things that are evil uses are effected by the operation 

of influx from hell, wherever there are such things as 

correspond thereto (n. 341). 

(v.) This is effected by the lowest spiritual separated from 

what is above it (n. 345). 

(vi.) There are two forms into which the operation by influx 

takes place, the vegetable and the animal form (n. 346). 
(vii.) Each of these forms receives with its existence the means 

of propagation. (n. 347). 

The visible things in the created universe bear witness that 
nature has produced and does produce nothing, but that 
the Divine, out of itself and through the spiritual world, 
has produced and does produce all things (n. 349). 



CONTENTS xi 



PART FIFTH. 

Two RECEPTACLES AND ABODES FOR HiMSELF, CALLED WiLL AND UN- 
DERSTANDING, HAVE BEEN CREATED AND FORMED BY THE LoRD 

IN man; the Will for His Divine Love, and the Under- 
standing FOR His Divine Wisdom (n. 358). 

Will and understanding which are the receptacles of love 
and wisdom, are in the brains, in the whole and in every 
part of them, and therefrom in the body, in the whole 

AND IN EVERY PART OF IT (ll. 362). 

(i.) Love and wisdom, and will and understanding therefrom, 

make the very life of man (n. 363). 

(ii.) The life of man in its first principles is in the brains, and in 

its derivatives in the body (n. 365) . 

(iii.) Such as life is in its first principles, such it is in the whole 

and in every part (n. 366). 

(iv.) By means of first principles life is in the whole from every 

part, and in every part from the whole . . (n. 367). 

(v.) Such as the love is, such is the wisdom, consequently such 

is the man (n. 368). 

There is a correspondence of the will with the heart, and of 

THE understanding WITH THE LUNGS (u. 371). 

(i.) All things of the mind have relation to the will and under- 
standing, and all things of the body to the heart and 
lungs (n. 372). 

(ii.) There is a correspondence of the will and understanding 
with the heart and lungs, consequently a correspondence 
of all things of the mind with all things of the body 

(n. 374). 

(iii.) The will corresponds to the heart (n. 378). 

(iv.) The understanding corresponds to the lungs (n. 382). 

(v.) By means of this correspondence many arcana relating to 
the will and understanding, thus also to love and wisdom, 
may be disclosed (n. 385). 

(vi.) Man's mind is his spirit, and the spirit is the man, while 
the body is an external by means of which the mind or 
spirit feels and acts in its world (n. 386). 

(vii.) The conjunction of man's spirit with his body is by means 
of the correspondence of his will and understanding with 
his heart and lungs, and their separation is from non- 
correspondence (n. 390). 



xii CONTENTS 

From the correspondence of the heart with the will and of 
the lungs with the understanding, everything may be 
known that can be known about the will and understand- 
ing, or about love and wisdom, therefore about the soul 

OF MAN (n. 394). 

(i.) Love or the will is man's very life (n. 399). 

(ii.) Love or the will strives unceasingly toward the human 
form and all things of that form (n. 400). 

(iii.) Love or the will is unable to effect anything by its 
human form without a marriage with wisdom or the 
understanding (n. 401). 

(iv.) Love or the will prepares a house or bridal chamber for 
its future wife, which is wisdom or the understand- 
ing (n. 402). 

(v.) Love or the will prepares all things in its own human 
form, that it may act conjointly with wisdom or the 
understanding (n. 403). 

(vi.) After the nuptials, the first conjunction is through affec- 
tion for knowing, from which springs affection for 
truth (n. 404). 

(vii.) The second conjunction is through affection for under- 
standing, from which springs perception of truth 

(n. 404). 

(viii.) The third conjunction is through affection for seeing 

truth, from which springs thought (n. 404). 

(ix.) Through these three conjunctions love or the will is in its 
sensitive life and in its active life (n. 406). 

(x.) Love or the will introduces wisdom or the understanding 
into all things of its house (n. 408). 

(xi.) Love or the will does nothing except in conjunction with 
wisdom or the understanding (n. 409). 

(xii.) Love or the will conjoins itself to wisdom or the under- 
standing, and causes wisdom or the understanding to 

be reciprocally conjoined to it (n. 410). 

(xiii.) Wisdom or the understanding, from the potency given to 
it by love or the will, can be elevated and can receive 
such things as are of light out of heaven, and perceive 

them (n. 413). 

(xiv.) Love or the will can in like manner be elevated and 
can receive such things as are of heat out of heaven, 
provided it loves wisdom, its consort, in that de- 
gree (n, 414). 



CONTENTS xiii 

(xv.) Otherwise love or the will draws down wisdom, or the 
understanding, from its elevation, that it may act as 

one with itself (n. 416). 

(xvi.) Love or the will is purified in the understanding, if they 

are elevated together (n. 419). 

(xvii.) Love or the will is defiled in the understanding and by 

it, if they are not elevated together (n. 421). 

(xviii.) Love, when purified by wisdom in the understanding, 

becomes spiritual and celestial (n. 422). 

(xix.) Love, when defiled in the understanding and by it, be- 
comes natural, sensual, and corporeal (n. 424). 

(xx.) The capacity to understand called rationality, and the 

capacity to act called freedom still remain. . . . (n. 425). 

(xxi.) Spiritual and celestial love is love towards the neighbor 

and love to the Lord; and natural and sensual love is 

love of the world and love of self (n. 426.) 

(xxii.) It is the same with charity and faith and their con- 
junction as with the will and understanding and their 
conjunction (n. 427). 

What man's beginning is from conception (n. 432). 



Aii^GELio Wisdom Coistgeej^ii^g 

DlYIJSTE LOYE 



PAKT FIRST. 

LOVE IS THE LIFE OF MAN. 

1. Man knows that there is such a thing as love, but he 
does not know what love is. He knows that there is such a 
thing as love from common speech, as when it is said, he loves 
me, a king loves his subjects, and subjects love their king, a 
husband loves his wife, a mother her children, and conversely ; 
also, this or that one loves his country, his fellow-citizens, his 
neighbor ; and likewise of things abstracted from person, as 
when it is said, one loves this or that thing. But although the 
word love is so universally used, hardly anybody knows what 
love is. And because one is unable, when he reflects upon it, 
to form to himself any idea of thought about it, he says either 
that it is not anything, or that it is merely something flowing 
in from sight, hearing, touch, or intercourse with others, and 
thus affecting him. He is wholly unaware that love is his 
very life ; not only the general life of his whole body, and the 
general life of all his thoughts, but also the life of all their 
particulars. This a man of discernment can perceive when it 
is said : If you remove the affection which is from love, can 
you think anything, or do anything ? Do not thought, speech, 
and action, grow cold in the measure in which the affection 
which is from love grows cold ? And do they not grow warm 
in the measure in which this affection grows warm ? But this 
a man of discernment perceives simply by observing that such 
is the case, and not from any knowledge that love is the life 
of man. 
1 



2 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

2. Wliat the life of man is, no one knows unless lie knows 
that it is love. If this is not known, one person may believe 
that man's life is nothing but perceiving with the senses and 
acting, and another that it is merely thinking 5 and yet thought 
is the first effect of life, and sensation and action are the 
second effect of life. Thought is here said to be the first effect 
of life, yet there is thought which is interior and more inte- 
rior, also exterior and more exterior. What is actually the 
first effect of life is inmost thought, which is the perception of 
ends. But of all this hereafter, when the degrees of life are 
considered. 

3. Some idea of love, as being the life of man, may be had 
from the sun's heat in the world. This heat is well known to 
be the common life, as it were, of all the vegetations of the 
earth. For by virtue of heat, coming forth in springtime, plants 
of every kind rise from the ground, deck themselves with 
leaves, then with blossoms, and finally with fruits, and thus, 
in a sense, live. But when, in the time of autumn and winter, 
heat withdraws, the plants are stripped of these signs of their 
life, and they wither. So it is with love in man ; for heat and 
love mutually correspond. Therefore love also is warm. 



GOD ALONE, CONSEQUENTLY THE LORD, IS LOVE ITSELF, BE- 
CAUSE HE IS LIFE ITSELF, AND ANGELS AND MEN ARE 
RECIPIENTS OF LIFE. 

4. This will be fully shown in treatises on Divine Provi- 
dence and on Life ; it is su£B.cient here to say that the Lord, 
who is the Grod of the universe, is uncreate and infinite, where- 
as man and angel are created and finite. And because the 
Lord is uncreate and infinite. He is Being (JSsse) itself, which 
is called " Jehovah," and Life itself, or Life in itself. From 
the uncreate, the infinite, Being itself and Life itself, no one 
can be created immediately, because the Divine is one and in- 



N. 4] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 3 

divisible ; but their creation must be out of things created and 
finited, and so formed that the Divine can be in them. Because 
men and angels are such, they are recipients of life. Conse- 
quently, if any man suffers himself to be so far misled as to 
think that he is not a recij^ient of life but is Life, he cannot 
be withheld from the thought that he is God. A man's feel- 
ing as if he were life, and therefore believing himself to 
be so, arises from fallacy; for the principal cause is not per- 
ceived in the instrumental cause otherwise than as one with 
it. That the Lord is Life in Himself, He Himself teaches in 
John : — 

As the Father hath life m Himself, so also hath He given to the Son 
to have life in Himself (v. 26), 

He declares also that He is Life itself {John xi. 25 ; xiv. 6). 

Now since life and love are one (as is apparent from what has 
been said above, n. 1, 2), it follows that the Lord, because He 
is Life itself, is Love itself. 

5. But that this may reach the understanding, it must needs 
be known positively that the Lord, because He is Love in its 
very essence, that is. Divine Love, appears before the angels 
in heaven as a sun, and that from that sun heat and light 
go forth; the heat which goes forth therefrom being in its 
essence love, and the light which goes forth therefrom being 
in its essence wisdom ; and that so far as the angels are recip- 
ients of that spiritual heat and of that spiritual light, they 
are loves and wisdoms ; not loves and wisdoms from them- 
selves, but from the Lord. That spiritual heat and that spirit- 
ual light not only flow into angels and affect them, but they 
also flow into men and affect them just to the extent that they 
become recipients ; and they become recipients in the measure 
of their love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor. That 
sun itself, that is, the Divine Love, by its heat and its light, 
cannot create any one immediately from itself; for one so 
created would be Love in its essence, which Love is the Lord 
Himself; but it can create from substances and matters so 
formed as to be capable of receiving the very heat and the very 



4 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Firs> 

light ; comparatively as the sun of the world cannot by its heat 
and light produce germinations on the earth immediately, but 
only out of earthy matters in which it can be present by its 
heat and light, and cause vegetation. In the spiritual world 
the Divine Love of the Lord appears as a sun, and from it 
proceed the spiritual heat and the spiritual light from which 
the angels derive love and wisdom, as may be seen in the work 
on Heaven and Hell (n. 116-140). 

6. Since, then, man is not life, but is a recipient of life, it 
follows that the conception of a man .from his father is not a 
conception of life, but only a conception of the first and purest 
form capable of receiving life ; and to this, as to a nucleus or 
starting-point in the womb, are successively added substances 
and matters in forms adapted to the reception of life, in their 
order and degree. 



THE DIVINE IS NOT IN SPACE. 

7. That the Divine, that is, God, is not in space, although 
omnipresent and with every man in the world, and with every 
angel in heaven, and with every spirit under heaven, cannot 
be comprehended by a merely natural idea, but it can by a 
spiritual idea. It cannot be comprehended by a natural idea, 
because in the natural idea there is space ; since it is formed 
out of such things as are in the world, and in each and all of 
these, as seen by the eye, there is space. In the world, every- 
thing great and small is of space ; everything long, broad, and 
high is of space ; in short, every measure, figure and form is of 
space. This is why it has been said that it cannot be compre- 
hended by a merely natural idea that the Divine is not in 
space, when it is said that the Divine is everywhere. Still, by 
natural thought, a man may comprehend this, if only he admit 
into it something of spiritual light. For this reason something 
shall first be said about spiritual idea, and thought therefrom. 
Spiritual idea derives nothing from space, but it derives its all 



N. 7] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 5 

from state. State is predicated of love, of life, of wisdom, of 
affections, of joys therefrom; in general, of good and of truth. 
An idea of these things which is truly spiritual has nothing 
in common with space ; it is higher and looks down upon the 
ideas of space which are under it as heaven looks down upon 
the earth. But since angels and spirits see with eyes, just as 
men in the world do, and since objects cannot be seen except 
in sj)ace, therefore in the spiritual world where angels and 
spirits are, there appear to be spaces like the spaces on earth ; 
yet they are not spaces, but appearances ; since they are not 
fixed and constant, as spaces are on earth ; for they can be 
lengthened or shortened; they can be changed or varied. Thus 
because they cannot be determined in that world by measure, 
they cannot be comprehended there by any natural idea, but 
only by a spiritual idea. The spiritual idea of distances of 
space is the same as of distances of good or distances of truth, 
which are affinities and likenesses according to states of good- 
ness and truth. 

8. From this it may be seen that man is unable, by a merely 
natural idea, to comprehend that the Divine is everywhere, 
and yet not in space ; but that angels and spirits comprehend 
this clearly ; consequently that a man also may, provided he 
admits into his thought something of spiritual light ; and this 
for the reason that it is not his body that thinks, but his 
spirit, thus not his natural, but his sjjiritual. 

9. But many fail to comprehend this because of their love 
of the natural, which makes tliem unwilling to raise the 
thoughts of their understanding above the natural into spirit- 
ual light; and those who are unwilling to do this can think 
only from space, even concerning Grod ; and to think according 
to space concerning God is to think concerning the expanse of 
Nature. This has to be premised, because without a knowl- 
edge and some perception that the Divine is not in space, no- 
thing can be understood about the Divine Life, which is Love 
and A¥isdom, of which subjects this volume treats ; and hence 
little, if anything, about Divine Providence, Omnipresence, 



6 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

Omniscience, Omnipotence, Infinity and Eternity, wMch will 
be treated of in succession. 

10. It has been said that in the spiritual world, just as in 
the natural world, there appear to be spaces, consequently also 
distances, but that these are appearances according to spirit- 
ual afB.nities which are of love and wisdom, or of good and 
truth. From this it is that the Lord, although everywhere in 
the heavens with angels, nevertheless appears high above them 
as a sun. Furthermore, since reception of love and wisdom 
causes affinity with the Lord, those heavens in which the 
angels are, from reception, in closer affinity with Him, appear 
nearer to Him than those in which the affinity is more remote. 
From this it is also that the heavens, of which there are three, 
are distinct from each other, likewise the societies of each 
heaven ; and further, that the hells under them are remote 
according to their rejection of love and wisdom. The same is 
true of men, in whom and with whom the Lord is p:i»esent 
throughout the whole earth ; and this solely for the reason that 
the Lord is not in space. 



GOD IS VERY MAN. 



11. In all the heavens there is no other idea of God than 
that He is a Man. This is because heaven as a whole and in 
part is in form like a man, and because it is the Divine which 
is with the angels that constitutes heaven and inasmuch as 
thought proceeds according to the form of heaven, it is impos- 
sible for the angels to think of God in any other way. From 
this it is that all those in the world who are conjoined with 
heaven think of God in the same way when they think inte- 
riorly in themselves, that is, in their spirit. From this fact 
that God is a Man, all angels and all spirits, in their complete 
form, are men. This results from the form of heaven, which is 
like itself in its greatest and in its least parts. That heaven 
as a whole and in part is in form like a man may be seen in 



N. 11] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 7 

the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 59-87) ; and that thoughts 
proceed according to the form of heaven (n. 203, 204). It is 
known from Genesis (i. 26, 27), that men were created after the 
image and likeness of God. God also appeared as a man to 
Abraham and to others. The ancients, from the wise even to 
the simple, thought of God no otherwise than as being a Man ; 
and when at length they began to worship a plurality of gods, 
as at Athens and Eome, they worshiped them all as men. 
What is here said may be illustrated by the following extract 
from a small treatise already published : — 

The Gentiles, especially the Africans, who acknowledge and worship 
one God, the Creator of the universe, have concerning God the idea that 
He is a Man, and declare that no one can have any other idea of God. 
When they learn that there are many who cherish an idea of God as 
something cloudlike in the midst of things, they ask where such persons 
are ; and on being told that they are among Christians, they declare it to 
be impossible. They are informed, however, that this idea arises from 
the fact that God in the Word is called "a Spirit," and of a spirit they 
have no other idea than of a bit of cloud, not knowing that every spirit 
and every angel is a man. An examination, nevertheless, was made, 
whether the spiritual idea of such persons was like their natural idea, 
and it was found not to be so vdth those who acknowledge the Lord in- 
teriorly as God of heaven and earth. I heard a certain elder from the 
Christians say that no one can have an idea of a Human Divine ; and 
I saw him taken about to various Gentile nations, and successively to 
such as were more and more interior, and from them to their heavens, 
and finally to the Christian heaven ; and everywhere their interior per- 
ception concerning God was communicated to him, and he observed that 
they had no other idea of God than that He is a man, which is the same 
as the idea of a Human Divine (i. J. n. 74). 

12. The common people in Christendom have an idea that 
God is a Man, because God in the Athanasian doctrine of the 
Trinity is called a "Person." But those who are more learned 
than the common people pronounce God to be invisible ; and 
this for the reason that they cannot comprehend how God, as 
a Man, could have created heaven and earth, and then fill the 
universe with His presence, and many things besides, which 
cannot enter the understanding so long as the truth that the 



8 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

Divine is not in space is ignored. Those, however, who go to 
the Lord alone think of a Human Divine, thus of God as a Man. 
13. How important it is to have a correct idea of God can 
be known from the truth that the idea of God constitutes the 
inmost of thought with all who have religion, for all things of 
religion and all things of worship look to God. And since 
God, universally and in particular, is in all things of religion 
and of worship, without a proper idea of God no communica- 
tion with the heavens is possible. Erom this it is that in the 
spiritual world every nation has Its place allotted in accord- 
ance with its idea of God as a Man ; for in this idea, and in no 
other, is the idea of the Lord. That man's state of life after 
death is according to the idea of God in which he has become 
confirmed, is manifest from the opposite of this, namely, that 
the denial of God, and, in the Christian world, the denial of 
the Divinity of the Lord, constitutes hell. 



IN GOD-MAN ESSE AND EXISTERE * ARE ONE DISTINCTLY.! 

14. Where there is Esse (being) there is Existere (taking 
form) ; one is not possible apart from the other. For Esse is by 
means of Existere, and not apart from it. This the rational mind 
comprehends when it thinks whether there can possibly be any 
Esse (being) which does not Exist (^^(iA;e/o7'??^),,and whether there 
can possibly be Existere except from Esse. And since one is pos- 
sible with the other, and not apart from the other, it follows 
that they are one, but one distinctly. They are one distinctly, 
like Love and Wisdom ; in fact, love is Esse, and wisdom is Ex- 
istere; for there can be no love except in wisdom, nor can there 
be any wisdom except from love ; consequently when love is in 
wisdom, then it exists. 

* To he and to exist. Swedenborg seems to use this word " exist " nearly in the 
classical sense of springing or standing forth, becoming manifest, taking form. The 
distinction between esse and existere is essentially the same as between substance 
and form. 

t For the meaning of this phrase, " distincte imum," see below in this paragraph, 
also n. 17, 22, 34, 223, and IHv. Prov., n. 4. 



N. 14] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 9 

These two are one in such a way that they may be dis- 
tmguishecl in thought but not in operation, and because they 
may be distinguished in thought though not in operation, it 
is said that they are one distinctly.* Esse and Existere in 
God-Man are also one distinctly like soul and body. There 
can be no soul apart from its body, nor body apart from its 
soul. The Divine soul of God-Man is what is meant by 
Divine Esse, and the Divine Body is what is meant by Divine 
Existere. That a soul can exist apart from a body, and can 
think and be wise, is an error springing from fallacies ; for 
every man's soul is in a spiritual body after it has cast off 
the material coverings which it carried about in the world. 

15. Esse is not Esse unless it Exists, because until then it 
is not in a form, and if not in a form it has no quality ; and 
what has no quality is not anything. That which Exists from 
Esse, for the reason that it is from Esse, makes one with it. 
From this there is a uniting of the two into one; and from 
this each is the other's mutually and interchangeably, and each 
is all in all things of the other as in itself. 

16. Erom this it can be seen that God is a Man, and conse- 
quently He is God-Existing; not existing from Himself but in 
Himself. He who has existence in Himself is God from whom 
all things are. 



IN GOD-MAN INFINITE THINGS ARE ONE DISTINCTLY. 

17. That God is infinite is well known, for He is called the 
Infinite ; and He is called the Infinite because He is infinite. 
He is infinite not from this alone, that He is very Esse and . 
Existere in itself, but because in Him there are infinite things. 
An infinite without infinite things in it, is infinite in name 
only. The infinite things in Him cannot be called infinitely 
many, nor infinitely all, because of the natural idea of many 

* It should be noticed, that in Latin, distinctly is the adverb of the verb distin- 
guish. If translated distinguishably , this would appear. 



10 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

and of all ; for the natural idea of infinitely many is limited, 
and the natural idea of infinitely all, though not limited, is 
derived from limited things in the universe. Therefore man, 
because his ideas are natural, is unable by any refinement or 
approximation, to come into a perception of the infinite things 
in God ; and an angel, while he is able, because he is in spirit- 
ual ideas, to rise by refinement and approximation above the 
degree of man, is still unable to attain to that perception. 

18. That in God there are infinite things, any one may 
convince himself who believes that God is a Man ; for, being a 
Man, He has a body and every thing pertaining to it, that is, 
a face, breast, abdomen, loins and feet; for without these He 
would not be a Man. And having these, He also has eyes, ears, 
nose, mouth, and tongue; also the parts within man, as the 
heart and lungs, and their dependencies, all of which, taken 
together, make man to be a man. In a created man these 
parts are many, and regarded in their details of structure are 
numberless; but in God-Man they are infinite, nothing what- 
ever is lacking, and from this He has infinite perfection. This 
comparison holds between the uncreated Man who is God and 
created man, because God is a Man; and He Himself says that 
the man of this world was created after His image and into 
His likeness {Gen. i. 26, 27). 

19. That in God there are infinite things, is still more evi- 
dent to the angels from the heavens in which they dwell. The 
whole heaven, consisting of myriads of myriads of angels, in 
its universal form is like a man. So is each society of heaven, 
be it larger or smaller. From this, too, an angel is a man, for 
an angel is a heaven in least form. (This is shown in the 
work on Heaven and Hell, n. 51-86.) Heaven as a whole, in 
part, and in the individual, is in that form by virtue of the 
Divine which angels receive; for in the measure in which an 
angel receives from the Divine is he in complete form a man. 
From this it is that angels are said to be in God, and God 
in them ; also, that God is their all. How many things there 
are in heaven cannot be told; and because the Divine is what 



N. 19] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE H 

makes heaven, and consequently these unspeakably many 
things are from the Divine, it is clearly evident that there 
are infinite things in Very Man, who is God. 

20. From the created universe a like conclusion may be 
drawn when it is regarded from uses and their correspond- 
ences. But before this can be understood some preliminary 
illustrations must be given. 

21. Because in God-Man there are infinite things which 
appear in heaven, in angel, and in man, as in a mirror; and 
because God-Man is not in space (as was shown above, n. 
7-10), it can, to some extent, be seen and comprehended how 
God can be Omnipresent, Omniscient, and All-providing; and 
how, as Man, He could create all things, and as Man can hold 
the things created by Himself in their order to eternity. 

22. That in God-Man infinite things are one distinctly, can 
also be seen, as in a mirror, from man. In man there are 
many and numberless things, as said above ; but still man feels 
them all as one. Erom sensation he knows nothing of his 
brains, of his heart and lungs, of his liver, spleen, and pan- 
creas; or of the numberless things in his eyes, ears, tongue, 
stomach, generative organs, and the remaining parts ; and be- 
cause from sensation he has no knowledge of these things, he 
is to himself as a one. The reason is that all these are in such 
a form that not one can be lacking; for it is a form recipient 
of life from God-Man (as was shown above, n. 4-6). From the 
order and connection of all things in such a form there comes 
the feeling, and from that the idea, as if they were not many 
and numberless, but were one. From this it may be concluded 
that the many and numberless things which make in man a 
seeming one, a Very Man who is God, are one distinctly, yea, 
most distinctly. 



12 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Eikst 



THERE IS ONE GOD-MAN, FROM WHOM ALL THINGS COME. 

23. All tilings of human wisdom unite, and as it were cen- 
ter in this, that there is one God, the Creator of the universe : 
consequently a man who has reason, from the general nature 
of his understanding, does not and cannot think otherwise. 
Say to any man of sound reason that there are two Creators 
of the universe, and you will be sensible of his repugnance, 
and this, perhaps, from the mere sound of the phrase in his 
ear; from which it appears that all things of human reason 
unite and center in this, that God is one. There are two rea- 
sons for this. First, the very capacity to think rationally, 
viewed in itself, is not man's, but is God's in man ; upon this 
capacity human reason in its general nature depends, and this 
general nature of reason causes man to see as from himself 
that God is one. Secondly, by means of that capacity man 
either is in the light of heaven, or he derives the generals of 
his thought therefrom; and it is a universal of the light of 
heaven that God is one. It is otherwise when man by that 
capacity has perverted the lower parts of his understanding ; 
such a man indeed is endowed with that capacity, but by the 
twist given to these loAver parts, he turns it contrariwise, and 
thereby his reason becomes unsound. 

24. Every man, even if unconsciously, thinks of a body of 
men as of one man ; therefore he instantly perceives what is 
meant when it is said that a king is the head, and the subjects 
are the body, also that this or that person has such a place in 
the general body, that is, in the kingdom. As it is with the 
body politic, so is it with the body spiritual. The body spir- 
itual is the church ; its head is God-Man ; and from this it 
is plain how the church thus viewed as a man would ap- 
pear if instead of one God, the Creator and Sustainer of the 
universe, several were thought of. The church thus viewed 
would appear as one body with several heads ; thus not as a 
man, but as a monster. If it be said that these heads have one 



N. 24] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 13 

essence, and that thus together they make one head, the only 
conception possible is either that of one head with several faces 
or of several heads with one face ; thus making the church, 
viewed as a whole, appear deformed. But in truth, the one God 
is the head, and the church is the body, which acts under the 
command of the head, and not from itself; as is also the case 
in man ; and from this it is that there can be only one king in 
a kingdom, for several kings would rend it asunder, but one is 
able to preserve its unity. 

25. So would it be with the church scattered throughout 
the whole globe, which is called a communion, because it is as 
one body ruider one head. It is known that the head rules the 
body under it at will ; for understanding and will have their 
seat in the head ; and in conformity to the understanding and 
will the body is directed, even to the extent that the body is 
nothing but obedience. As the body can do nothing except 
from the understanding and will in the head, so the man of 
the church can do nothing except from God. The body seems 
to act of itself, as if the hands and feet in acting are moved 
of themselves; or the mouth and tongue in speaking vibrate of 
themselves, when, in fact, they do not in the slightest degree 
act of themselves, but only from an affection of the will and 
the consequent thought of the understanding in the head. 
Suppose, now, one body to have several heads and each head 
to be free to act from its own understanding and its own will, 
could such a body continue to exist ? For among several heads 
singleness of purpose, such as results from one head would be 
impossible. As in the church, so in the heavens; heaven con- 
sists of myriads of myriads of angels, and unless these all and 
each looked to one God, they would fall away from one another 
and heaven would be broken up. Consequently, if an angel of 
heaven but thinks of a plurality of gods he is at once sepa- 
rated; for he is cast out into the outmost boundary of the 
heavens, and sinks downward. 

26. Because the whole heaven and all things of heaven have 
relation to one God^ angelic speech is such that by a certain 



14 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

unison flowing from the unison of heaven it closes in a single 
cadence — a proof that it is impossible for the angels to think 
otherwise than of one God ; for speech is from thought. 

27. A¥ho that has sound reason can help seeing that the 
Divine is not divisible ? also that a plurality of Infinites, of 
Uncreates, of Omnipotents, and of Gods, is impossible ? Sup- 
pose one destitute of reason were to declare that a plurality of 
Infinites, of Uncreates, of Omnipotents, and of Gods is possi- 
ble, if only they have one identical essence, and this would 
make of them one Infinite, Uncreate, Omnipotent, and God, 
would not the one identical essence be one identity ? And one 
identity is not possible to several. If it should be said that 
one is from the other, the one who is from the other is not God 
in Himself; nevertheless, God in Himself is the God from 
whom all things are (see above, n. 16). 



THE DIVINE ESSENCE ITSELF IS LOVE AND WISDOM. 

28. Sum up all things you know and submit them to care- 
ful inspection, and in some elevation of spirit search for the 
universal of all things, and you cannot conclude otherwise than 
that it is Love and Wisdom. Tor these are the two essentials 
of all things of man's life ; everything of that life, civil, moral, 
and spiritual, hinges upon these two, and apart from these two 
is nothing. It is the same with all things of the life of the 
composite Man, which is, as was said above, a society, larger 
or smaller, a kingdom, an empire, a church, and also the an- 
gelic heaven. Take away love and wisdom from these, and 
consider whether they be anything, and you will find that 
apart from love and wisdom as their origin they are nothing. 

29. Love together with wisdom in its very essence is in God. 
This no one can deny; for God loves every one from love in 
Himself, and leads every one from wisdom in Himself. The 
created universe, too, viewed in relation to its order, is so full 



N. 29] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 15 

of wisdom coming forth from love that all things in the aggre- 
gate may be said to be wisdom itself. For things limitless are 
in such order, successively and simultaneously, that taken to- 
gether they make a one. It is from this, and this alone, that 
they can be held together and continually preserved. 

30. It is because the Divine Essence itself is Love and 
Wisdom that man has two capacities for life ; from one of 
these he has understanding, from the other will. The capacity 
from which he has understanding derives everything it has 
from the influx of wisdom from God, and the capacity from 
which he has will derives everything it has from the influx of 
love from God. Man's not being truly wise and not loving 
rightly does not take away these capacities, but merely closes 
them up ; and so long as they are closed up, although the un- 
derstanding is still called understanding and the will is called 
will, they are not such in essence. If these two capacities, 
therefore, were to be taken away, all that is human would 
perish ; for the human is to think and to speak from thought, 
and to will and to act from will. From this it is clear that the 
Divine has its seat in man in these two capacities, the capacity 
to be wise and the capacity to love (that is, that one may be 
wise and may love). That in man there is a possibility of loving 
[and of being wise], even when he is not wise as he might be 
and does not love as he might, has been made known to me from 
much experience, and will be abundantly shown elsewhere. 

31. It is because the Divine Essence itself is Love and 
Wisdom, that all things in the universe have relation to good 
and truth; for everything that proceeds from love is called 
good, and everything that proceeds from wisdom is called 
truth. But of this more hereafter. 

32. It is because the Divine Essence itself is Love and Wis- 
dom, that the universe and all things in it, alive and not alive, 
have unceasing existence from heat and light ; for heat corre- 
sponds to love, and light corresponds to wisdom ; and therefore 
spiritual heat is love and spiritual light is wisdom. But of 
this, also, more hereafter. 



16 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

33. From Divine Love and from Divine Wisdom, which 
make the very Essence that is God, all affections and thoughts 
with man have their rise — affections from Divine Love, and 
thoughts from Divine Wisdom ; and each and all things of 
man are nothing but affection and thought ; these two are like 
fountams of all things of man's life. All the enjoyments and 
pleasantnesses of his life are from these — enjoyments from 
the affection of his love, and pleasantnesses from the thought 
therefrom. Now since man was created to be a recipient, and 
is a recipient in the degree in which he loves God and from 
love to God is wise, in other words, in the degree in which he 
is affected by those things which are from God and thinks 
from that affection, it follows that the Divine Essence, which 
is the Creator, is Divine Love and Divine Wisdom. 



DIVINE LOVE IS OF DIVINE WISDOM, AND DIVINE WISDOM IS 
OF DIVINE LOVE. 

34. In God-Man Divine Esse (being) and Divine Existere 
(taking form) are one distinctly (as may be seen above, n. 14-16). 
And because Divine Esse is Divine Love, and Divine Existere 
is Divine Wisdom, these are likewise one distinctly. They are 
said to be one distinctly, because love and wisdom are two dis- 
tinct things, yet so united that love is of wisdom, and wisdom is 
of love, for in wisdom love is, and in love wisdom exists ; and 
since wisdom derives its Existere from love (as was said above, 
n. 15), therefore Divine Wisdom also is Esse. From this it 
follows that love and wisdom taken together are the Divine 
Esse, but taken distinctly love is called Divine Esse, and wis- 
dom Divine Existere. Such is the angelic idea of Divine Love 
and of Divine Wisdom. 

35. Since there is such a union of love and wisdom and of 
wisdom and love in God-Man, there is one Divine Essence. 
Eor the Divine Essence is Divine Love because it is of Divine 
Wisdom and is Divine Wisdom, because it is of Divine Love. 



N. 35] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 17 

And since there is such a union of these, the Divine Life also 
is one. Life is the Divine Essence. Divine Love and Divine 
Wisdom are a one because the union is reciprocal, and recipro- 
cal union causes oneness. Of reciprocal union, however, more 
will be said elsewhere. 

36. There is also a union of love and wisdom in every Di- 
vine work ; from which it has perpetuity, yea, its everlasting 
duration. If there were more of Divine Love than of Divine 
Wisdom, or more of Divine Wisdom than of Divine Love, in 
any created work, it could have continued existence only in 
the measure in which the two were equally in it, anything in 
excess passing off. 

37. The Divine Providence in the reforming, regenerating, 
and saving of men, partakes equally of Divine Love and of Di- 
vine Wisdom. From more of Divine Love than of Divine Wis- 
dom, or from more of Divine Wisdom than of Divine Love, man 
cannot be reformed, regenerated and saved. Divine Love wills 
to save all, but it can save only by means of Divine Wisdom ; 
to Divine Wisdom belong all the laws through which salvation 
is effected; and these laws Love cannot transcend, because 
Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are one and act in unison. 

38. In the Word, Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are 
meant by "righteousness" and "judgment," Divine Love by 
" righteousness," and Divine Wisdom by " judgment ;" for this 
reason " righteousness" and " judgment" are predicated in the 
Word of God ; as in David : — 

Righteousness and judgment are the support of Thy Throne {Ps. 
Ixxxix. 14). 

Jehovah shall bring forth righteousness as the light, and judgment as 
the noonday {Ps. xxxvii, 6). 

In Hosea: — 

I will betroth thee unto Me for ever, in righteousness, and in judgment 
(ii. 19). 

In Jeremiah : — 

I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, who shall reign as King 
and shall execute judgment and righteousness in the earth (xxiii. 5). 
2 



18 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fikst 

In Isaiah : — 

He shall sit upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to estab- 
lish it in judgment and in righteousness (ix. 7). 

Jehovah shall be exalted, because He hath filled the earth with judg- 
ment and righteousness (xxxiii. 5). 

In David: — 

When I shall have learned the judgments of Thy righteousness. Seven 
times a day do I praise Thee, because of the judgments of Thy righteous- 
ness {Ps. cxix. 7, 164). 

The same is meant by " life" and " light" in John :- 
In Him w^as life, and the life was the light of men (i. 4). 

By "life" in this passage is meant the Lord's Divine Love, and 
by " light" His Divine Wisdom. The same also is meant by 
" life" and " spirit" in John : — 

Jesus said, The words which I speak unto you, they are spirit, and 
they are life (vi. 63). 

39. In man love and wisdom appear as two separate things, 
yet in themselves they are one distinctly, because with man 
wisdom is such as the love is, and love is such as the wisdom 
is. The wisdom that does not make one with its love appears 
to be wisdom, but it is not ; and the love that does not make 
one with its wisdom appears to be the love of wisdom, but it 
is not ; for the one must derive its essence and its life recip- 
rocally from the other. With man love and wisdom appear 
as two separate things, because with him the capacity for 
understanding may be elevated into the light dl heaven, but 
not the capacity for loving, except so far as he acts according 
to his understanding. Any apparent wisdom, therefore, which 
does not make one with the love of wisdom, sinks back into 
the love which does make one with it ; and this may be a love 
of unwisdom, yea, of insanity. Thus a man may know from 
wisdom that he ought to do this or that, and yet he does not 
do it, because he does not love it. But so far as a man does 
from love what wisdom teaches, he is an image of God. 



N. 40] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 19 



DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM ARE SUBSTANCE AND 
ARE FORM. 

40. The idea of men in general about love and about wis- 
dom is that they are like something hovering and floating in 
thin air or ether or like what exhales from something of this 
kind. Scarcely any one believes that they are really and actu- 
ally substance and form. Even those who recognize that they 
are substance and form still think of the love and the wisdom 
as outside the subject and as issuing from it. For they call 
substance and form that which they think of as outside the 
subject and as issuing from it, even though it be something 
hovering and floating ; not knoAving that love and wisdom are 
the subject itself, and that what is perceived outside of it and 
as hovering and floating is nothing but an appearance of the 
state of the subject in itself. There are several reasons why 
this has not hitherto been seen, one of which is, that appear- 
ances are the first things out of which the human mind forms 
its understanding, and these appearances the mind can shake 
off only by the exploration of the cause ; and if the cause lies 
deeply hidden, the mind can explore it only by keeping the 
understanding for a long time in spiritual light ; and this it 
cannot do by reason of the natural light which continually 
withdraws it. The truth is, however, that love and wisdom 
are the real and actual substance and form that constitute the 
subject itself. 

41. But as this is contrary to appearance, it may seem not 
to merit belief unless it be proved ; and since it can be proved 
only by such things as man can apprehend by his bodily 
senses, by these it shall be proved. Man has five external 
senses, called touch, taste, smell, hearing and sight. The sub- 
ject of touch is the skin by which man is enveloped, the very 
substance and form of the skin causing it to feel whatever is 
applied to it. The sense of touch is not in the things applied, 
but in the substance and form of the skin, which are the sub- 
ject; the sense itself is nothing but an affecting of the subject 



20 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

by the things applied. It is the same with taste; this sense 
is only an aif ecting of the substance and form of the tongue ; 
the tongue is the subject. It is the same with smell; it is well 
known that odor affects the nostrils, and that it is in the nos- 
trils, and that the nostrils are affected by the odoriferous par- 
ticles touching them. It is the same with hearing, which 
seems to be in the place where the sound originates ; but the 
hearing is in the ear, and is an affecting of its substance and 
form; that the hearing is at a distance from the ear is an 
appearance. It is the same with sight. "When a man sees ob- 
jects at a distance, the seeing appears to be there; yet the see- 
ing is in the eye, which is the subject, and is likewise an 
affecting of the subject. Distance is solely from the judgment 
concluding about space from things intermediate, or from the 
diminution and consequent indistinctness of the object, an 
image of which is produced interiorly in the eye according to 
the angle of incidence. From this it is evident that sight does 
not go out from the eye to the object, but that the image of 
the object enters the eye and affects its substance and form. 
Thus it is just the same with sight as with hearing; hearing 
does not go out from the ear to catch the sound, but the sound 
enters the ear and affects it. Trom all this it can be seen that 
the affecting of the substance and form which causes sense is 
not a something separate from the subject, but only causes a 
change in it, the subject remaining the subject then as before 
and afterwards. From this it follows that seeing, hearing, 
smell, taste, and touch, are not a something volatile flowing 
from their organs, but. are the organs themselves, considered 
in their substance and form, and that when the organs are 
affected sense is produced. 

42. It is the same with love and wisdom, with this differ- 
ence only, that the substances and forms which are love and 
wisdom are not obvious to the eyes as the organs of the ex- 
ternal senses are. Nevertheless, no one can deny that those 
things of wisdom and love, which are called thoughts, percep- 
tions and affections, are substances and forms, and not enti- 



N. 42] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 21 

ties flying and flowing out of nothing, or abstracted from real 
and actual substance and form, which are subjects. For in the 
brain are substances and forms innumerable, in which e^ery 
interior sense which pertains to the imderstanding and will 
has its seat. The affections, perceptions and thoughts there are 
not exhalations from these substances, but are all actually and 
really subjects emitting nothing from themselves, but merely 
undergoing changes according to whatever flows against and 
affects them. This may be seen from what has been said 
above about the external senses. Of what thus flows against 
and affects more will be said below^. 

43. From all this it may now first be seen that Divine 
Love and Divine Wisdom in themselves are substance and 
form ; for they are very Esse and Existere ; and unless they 
were such Esse and Existere as they are substance and form, 
they would be a mere thing of reasoning, which in itself is 
nothing. 



DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM ARE SUBSTANCE AND 
FORM IN ITSELF, THUS THE VERY AND THE ONLY. 

44. That Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are substance and 
form has been proved just above; and that Divine Esse (being) 
and Existere (taking form) are Esse and Existere in itself, has 
also been said above. It cannot be said to be Esse and Existere 
from itself, because this involves a beginning, and a beginning 
from something within in which would be Esse and Existere in 
itself. But very Esse and Existere in itself is from eternity. 
Very Esse and Existere in itself is also uncreated, and every- 
thing created must needs be from an Uncreate. What is cre- 
ated is also finite, and the finite can exist only from the Infinite. 

45. He who by exercise of thought is able to grasp the idea 
of and to comprehend. Esse and Existere in itself, can certainly 
perceive and comprehend that it is the Very and the Only. 
That is called the Very which alone is ; and that is called the 
Only from which every thing else proceeds. Now because the 



22 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

Very and the Only is substance and form, it follows that it is 
the very and only substance and form. Because this very sub- 
stance and form is Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, it follows 
that it is the very and only Love, and the very and only Wis- 
dom; consequently, that it is the very and only Essence, as 
well as the very and only Life : for Life is Love and Wisdom. 
46. From all this it can be seen how sensually (that is, how 
much from the bodily senses and their blindness in spiritual 
matters) do those think who maintain that Nature is from 
herself. They think from the eye, and are not able to think 
from the understanding. Thought from the eye closes the 
understanding, but thought from the understanding opens the 
eye. Such persons cannot think at all of Esse and Existere in 
itself, and that it is Eternal, Uncreate, and Infinite ; neither 
can they think at all of life, except as a something fleeting and 
vanishing into nothingness ; nor can they think otherwise of 
Love and Wisdom, nor at all that from these are all things 
of nature. Neither can it be seen that from these are all 
things of nature, unless nature is regarded, not from some of 
its forms, which are merely objects of sight, but from Uses in 
their succession and order. For uses are from life alone, and 
their succession and order are from wisdom and love alone; 
while forms are only containants of uses. Consequently, if 
forms alone are regarded, nothing of life, still less anything of 
love and wisdom, thus nothing of God, can be seen in nature. 



DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM MUST NECESSARILY HAVE 
BEING (esse) AND HAVE FORM (existeve) IN OTHERS CRE- 
ATED BY ITSELF. 

47. It is the essential of love not to love self, but to love 
others, and to be conjoined with others by love. It is the 
essential of love, moreover, to be loved by others, for thus 
conjunction is effected. The essence of all love consists in 
conjunction ; this, in fact, is its life, which is called enjoyment, 
pleasantness, delight, sweetness, bliss, happiness and felicity. 



N. 47] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 23 

Love consists in this, that its own should be another's ; to feel 
the joy of another as joy in oneself, that is loving. But to 
feel one's own joy in another and. not the other's joy in oneself 
is not loving; for this is loving self, while the former is loving 
the neighbor. These two kinds of love are diametrically op- 
posed to each other. Either, it is true, conjoins; and to love 
one's own, that is, oneself, in another does not seem to divide 
but it does so effectually divide that so far as any one has 
loved another in this manner, so far he afterwards hates him 
For such conjunction is by its own action gradually loosened 
and then, in like measure, love is turned to hate. 

48. Who that is capable of discerning the essential char 
acter of love cannot see this ? For what is it to love self 
alone, instead of loving some one outside of self by whom one 
may be loved in return? Is not this separation rather than 
conj unction ? Conjunction of love is by reciprocation ; and there 
can be no reciprocation in self alone. If there is thought to be, 
it is from an imagined reciprocation in others. From this it is 
clear that Divine Love must necessarily have being (esse) and 
have form (existere) in others whom it may love, and by whom 
it may be loved. For as there is such a need in all love, it 
must be to the fullest extent, that is, infinitely in Love Itself. 

49. With respect to God; it is impossible for Him to love 
others and to be loved reciprocally by others in whom there 
is anything of infinity, that is, anything of the essence and 
life of love in itself, or anything of the Divine. For if there 
were beings having in them anything of infinity, that is, of 
the essence and life of love in itself, that is, of the Divine, it 
would not be God loved by others, but God loving Himself; 
since the Infinite, that is, the Divine, is one only, and if this 
were in others, Itself would be in them, and would be the love 
of self Itself; and of that love not the least trace can possibly 
be in God, since it is wholly opposed to the Divine Essence. 
Consequently, for this relation to be possible there must be 
others in whom there is nothing of the Divine in itself. That 
it is possible in beings created from the Divine will be seen 



24 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Firsi 

below. But that it may be possible, there must be Infinite 
Wisdom making one with Infinite Love ; that is, there must be 
the Divine Love of Divine Wisdom, and the Divine Wisdom 
of Divine Love (concerning which see above, n. 34-39). 

50. Upon a perception and knowledge of this mystery de- 
pend a perception and knowledge of all things of existence, 
that is, creation ; also of all things of continued existence, that 
is, preservation by God ; in other words, of all the works of God 
in the created universe ; of which the following pages treat. 

51. But do not, I entreat you, confuse your ideas with time 
and with space, for so far as time and space enter into your 
ideas when you read what follows, you will not understand it ; 
for the Divine is not in time and space. This will be seen 
clearly in the progress of this work, and in particular from 
what is said of eternity, infinity, and omnipresence. 



ALL THINGS IN THE UNIVERSE WERE CREATED FROM THE 
DIVINE LOVE AND THE DIVINE WISDOM OF GOD-MAN. 

52. So full of Divine Love and Divine Wisdom is the uni- 
verse in greatest and least, and in first and last things, that it 
may be said to be Divine Love and Divine Wisdom in an 
image. That this is so is clearly evident from the correspond- 
ence of all things of the universe with all things of man. 
There is such correspondence of each and every thing that 
takes form in the created universe with each and every 
thing of man, that man may be said to be a sort of universe. 
There is a correspondence of his affections, and thence of his 
thoughts, with all things of the animal kingdom ; of his will, 
and thence of his understanding, with all things of the vege- 
table kingdom ; and of his outmost life with all things of the 
mineral kingdom. That there is such a correspondence is not 
apparent to any one in the natural world, but it is apparent to 
every one who gives heed to it in the spiritual world. In that 



N. 52] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 25 

world there are all things that take form in the natural 
world in its three kingdoms, and they are correspondences of 
affections and thoughts, that is, of affections from the will and 
of thoughts from the understanding, also of the outmost things 
of the life, of those who are in that world, around whom all 
these things are visible, presenting an appearance like that of 
the created universe, with the difference that it is in lesser 
form. From this it is very evident to angels, that the created 
universe is an image representative of God-Man, and that it is 
His Love and Wisdom which are presented, in an image, in the 
universe. Not that the created universe is God-Man, but that 
it is from Him ; for nothing whatever in the created universe 
is substance and form in itself, or life in itself, or love and 
wisdom in itself, yea, neither is man a man in himself, but all 
is from God, who is Man, Wisdom and Love, also Form and 
Substance, in itself. That which has Being-in-itself is uncreate 
and infinite; but whatever is from Very Being, since it con- 
tains in it nothing of Being-in-itself, is created and finite, and 
this exhibits an image of Him from whom it has being and 
has form. 

53. Of things created and finite esse (being) and existere 
(taking form) can be predicated, likewise substance and form, 
also life, and even love and wisdom ; but these are all created 
and finite. This can be said of things created and finite, not 
because they possess anything Divine, but because they are in 
the Divine, and the Divine is in them. For everything that 
has been created is, in itself, inanimate and dead, but all things 
are animated and made alive by this, that the Divine is in 
them, and that they are in the Divine. 

54. The Divine is not in one subject differently from what 
it is in another, but one created subject differs from another ; 
for no two things can be precisely alike, consequently each 
thing is a different containant. On this account, the Divine 
as imaged forth presents a variety of appearances. Its pres- 
ence in opposites will be discussed hereafter. 



26 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

ALL THINGS IN THE CREATED UNIVERSE ARE RECIPIENTS OF 
THE DIVINE LOVE AND THE DIVINE WISDOM OF GOD-MAN. 

55. It is well known that each and all things of the uni- 
verse were created by God ; hence the universe, with each and 
every thing pertaining to it, is called in the Word the work 
of the hands of Jehovah. There are those who maintain that 
the world, with everything it includes, was created out of 
nothing, and of that nothing an idea of absolute nothingness 
is entertained. From absolute nothingness, however, nothing 
is or can be made. This is an established truth. The uni- 
verse, therefore, which is God's image, and consequently full 
of God, could be created only in God from God; for God is 
Esse itself, and from Esse must be whatever is. To create 
what is, from nothing which is not, is an utter contradiction. 
But still, that which is created in God from God is not con- 
tinuous from Him; for God is Esse in itself, and in created 
things there is not any Esse in itself. If there were in cre- 
ated things any Esse in itself, this would be continuous from 
God, and that which is continuous from God is God. The 
angelic idea of this is, that what is created in God from God, 
is like that in man which has been derived from his life, but 
from which the life has been withdrawn, which is of such a 
nature as to be in accord with his life, and yet it is not his life. 
The angels confirm this by many things which have existence 
in their heaven, where they say they are in God, and God is in 
them, and still that they have, in their esse, nothing of God 
which is God. Many things whereby they prove this will be 
presented hereafter; let this serve for present information. 

56. Every created thing, by virtue of this origin, is such in 
its nature as to be a recipient of God, not by continuity, but 
by contiguity. By the latter and not the former comes its 
capacity for conjunction. For having been created in God 
from God, it is adapted to conjunction; and because it has 
been so created, it is an analogue, and through such conjunc- 
tion it is like an image of God in a mirror. 



N. 57] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 27 

57. From this it is that angels are angels, not from them- 
selves, but by virtue of this conjunction with God-Man; and 
this conjunction is according to the reception of Divine Good 
and Divine Truth, which are God, and which seem to proceed 
from Him, though really they are in Him. This reception is 
according to their application to themselves of the laws of 
order, which are Divine truths, in the exercise of that freedom 
of thinking and willing according to reason, which they pos- 
sess from the Lord as if it were their own. By this they 
have a reception, as if from themselves, of Divine Good and 
of Divine Truth, and by this there is a reciprocation of love ; 
for, as was said above, love is impossible unless it is recipro- 
cal. The same is true of men on the earth. From what has 
been said it can now first be seen that all things of the cre- 
ated universe are recipients of the Divine Love and the Di- 
vine Wisdom of God-Man. 

58. It cannot yet be intelligibly explained how all other 
things of the universe which are unlike angels and men, that 
is, the things below man in the animal kingdom, and the things 
below these in the vegetable kingdom, and the things still 
below these in the mineral kingdom, are also recipients of the 
Divine Love and of the Divine Wisdom of God-Man ; for many 
things need to be said first about degrees of life, and degrees 
of the recipients of life. Conjunction with these things is 
according to their uses ; for no good use has any other origin 
than through a like conjunction with God, but yet different 
according to degrees. This conjunction in its descent becomes 
successively such that nothing of freedom is left therein, be- 
cause nothing of reason, and therefore nothing of the appear- 
ance of life; but still they are recipients. Because they are 
recipients, they are also re-agents ; and forasmuch as they are 
re-agents, they are containants. Conjunction with uses which 
are not good will be discussed when the origin of evil has 
been made known. 

59. From the above it can be seen that the Divine is in 
each and every thing of the created universe, and consequently 



28 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

that the created -universe is the work of the hands of Jehovah, 



as is said in the Word ; that is, the work of Divine Love and 
Divine Wisdom, for these are meant by the hands of Jehovah. 
Bnt though the Divine is in each and all things of the created 
universe there is in their esse nothing of the Divine in itself ; 
for the created universe is not God, but is from Grod; and 
since it is from God, there is in it an image of Him like the 
image of a man in a mirror, wherein indeed the man appears, 
but still there is nothing of the man in it. 

60. I heard several about me in the spiritual world talking 
together, who said that they were quite willing to acknowledge 
that the Divine is in each and every thing of the universe, be- 
cause they behold therein the wonderful works of God, and these 
are the more wonderful the more interiorly they are examined. 
And yet, when they were told that the Divine is actually in each 
and every thing of the universe, they were displeased ; which 
is a proof that although they assert this they do not believe it. 
They were therefore asked whether this cannot be seen simply 
from the marvelous power which is in every seed, of producing 
its own vegetable form in like order, even to new seeds ; also 
because in every seed an idea of the infinite and eternal is pre- 
sented; since there is in seeds an endeavor to multiply them- 
selves and to fructify infinitely and eternally ? Is not this evi- 
dent also in every living creature, even the smallest ? In that 
there are in it organs of sense, also brains, a heart, lungs, and 
other parts ; with arteries, veins, fibers, muscles, and the activi- 
ties proceeding therefrom; besides the surpassing marvels of 
animal nature, about which whole volumes have been written. 
All these wonderful things are from God ; but the forms with 
which they are clothed are from earthy matters, out of which 
come plants, and in their order, men. Therefore it is said of 
man. 

That he was created out of the ground, and that he is dust of the 
earth, and that the breath of lives was breathed into him {Genesis ii. 7). 

From which it is plain that the Divine is not man's own, but 

is adjoined to him. 



N. 61] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 29 

ALL CREATED THINGS HAVE RELATION IN A KIND OF IMAGE 

TO MAN. 

61. This can be seen from each and all things of the ani- 
mal kingdom, from each and all things of the vegetable king- 
dom, and from each and all things of the minerah kingdom. 

A 7'elation to man in each and all tilings of the animal king- 
dom is evident from the following. Animals of every kind 
have limbs by which they move, organs by which they feel, 
and viscera by which these are exercised ; these they have in 
common with man. They have also appetites and affections 
similar to man's natural appetites, and affections ; and they 
have inborn knowledges corresponding to their affections, in 
some of which there apjoears a resemblance to what is spirit- 
ual, which is more or less evident in beasts of the earth, and 
birds of the air, and in bees, silk-Avorms, ants, etc. From this 
it is that merely natural men consider the living creatures of 
this kingdom to be like themselves, except in the matter of 
speech. 

A relation to man at^ising out of each and all things of 
the vegetable kingdom is evident from this : they spring forth 
from seed, and thereafter proceed step by step through their 
periods of growth; they have something akin to marriage, 
followed by prolification ; their vegetative soul is use, and 
they are forms thereof; besides many other particulars which 
have relation to man. These also have been described by vari- 
ous authors. 

A relation to man deducihle from each and every thing of 
the mineral kingdom is seen only in an endeavor to produce 
forms which exhibit such a relation (which forms, as said 
above, are each and all things of the vegetable kingdom), and 
in an endeavor to perform uses thereby. Eor when first a seed 
falls into the bosom of the earth, she cherishes it, and out of 
herself provides it with nourishment from every source, that it 
may shoot up and present itself in a form representative of man. 
That such an endeavor exists also in its solid parts is evident 



30 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

from corals at the bottom of the seas and from flowers in 
mines, where they originate from minerals, also from metals. 
This endeavor towards vegetating, and performing uses there- 
by, is the outmost derivation from the Divine in created things. 

62. As there is an endeavor of the minerals of the earth 
towards vegetation, so there is an endeavor of the plants to- 
wards vivification : this accounts for insects of various kinds 
corresponding to the odors emanating from plants. This does 
not arise from the heat of this world's sun, but from life oper- 
ating through that heat according to the state of its recipients 
(as will be seen in what follows). 

63. That there is a -relation of all things of the created 
universe to man may be known from the foregoing statements, 
yet it can be seen only obscurely; whereas in the spiritual 
world this is seen clearly. In that world, also, there are all 
things of the three kingdoms, and in the midst of them the 
angel ; he sees them about him, and also knows that they are 
representations of himself; yea, when the inmost of his under- 
standing is opened he recognizes himself in them, and sees his 
image in them, hardly otherwise than as in a mirror. 

64. From these and from many other concurring facts 
which there is not time to adduce now, it may be known with 
certainty that God is a Man ; and that the created universe is 
an image of Him ; for there is a general relation of all things 
to Him, as well as a particular relation of all things to man. 



THE USES or ALL CREATED THINGS ASCEND BY DEGREES FROM 
LAST THINGS TO MAN, AND THROUGH MAN TO GOD THE CREA- 
TOR, FROM WHOM THEY ARE. 

65. Last things, as was said above, are each and all things 
of the mineral kingdom, which are materials of various kinds, 
of a stony, saline, oily, mineral, or metallic nature, covered 
over with soil formed of vegetable and animal matters reduced 
to the finest dust. In these lie concealed both the end and 



N. 65] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 31 

the beginning of all uses which are from life. The end of all 
uses is the endeavor to produce uses, and the beginning is the 
acting force from that endeavor. These pertain to the min- 
eral kingdom. Middle things are each and all things of the 
vegetable kingdom, such as grasses and herbs of every kind, 
plants and shrubs of every kind, and trees of every kind. 
The uses of these are for the service of each and all things of 
the animal kingdom, both imperfect and perfect. These they 
nourish, delight, and vivify ; nourishing the bodies of animals 
with their vegetable substances, delighting the animal senses 
with taste, fragrance, and beauty, and vivifying their affections. 
The endeavor towards this is in these also from life. First 
things are each and all things of the animal kingdom. Those 
are lowest therein which are called worms and insects, the 
middle are birds and beasts, and the highest, men; for in each 
kingdom there are lowest, middle and highest things, the low- 
est for the use of the middle, and the middle for the use of 
the highest. Thus the uses of all created things ascend in 
order from outmost things to man, who is first in order. 

66. In the natural world there are three degrees of ascent, 
and in the spiritual world there are three degrees of ascent. 
All animals are recipients of life. The more perfect are recip- 
ients of the life and the three degrees of the natural world, the 
less perfect of the life of two degrees of that world, and the 
imperfect of one of its degrees. But man alone is a recipient 
of the life both of the three degrees of the natural world and 
of the three degrees of the spiritual world. From this it is 
that man can be elevated above nature, while the animal can- 
not. Man can think analytically and rationally of the civil and 
moral things that are within nature, also of the spiritual and 
celestial things that are above nature, yea, he can be so ele- 
vated into wisdom as even to see God. But the six degrees 
by which the uses of all created things ascend in their order 
even to God the Creator, will be treated of in their proper 
place. From this summary, however, it can be seen that there 
is an ascent of all created things to the First, who alone is 



32 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

Life, and that the uses of all things are the very recipients of 
life ; and from this are the forms of uses. 

67. It shall also be stated briefly how man ascends, that 
is, is elevated, from the lowest degree to the first. He is born 
into the lowest degree of the natural world; then, by means 
of knowledges, he is elevated into the second degree; and as 
he perfects his understanding by knowledges he is elevated 
into the third degree, and then becomes rational. The three 
degrees of ascent in the spiritual world are in man above the 
three natural degrees, and do not appear until he has put off 
the earthly body. When this takes place the first spiritual 
degree is open to him, afterwards the second, and finally the 
third ; but this only with those who become angels of the third 
heaven ; these are they that see God. Those become angels of 
the second heaven and of the last heaven in whom the second 
degree and the last degree can be opened. Each spiritual de- 
gree in man is opened according to his reception of Divine 
Love and Divine Wisdom from the Lord. Those who receive 
something thereof come into the first or lowest spiritual de- 
gree, those who receive more into the second or middle spirit- 
ual degree, those who receive much into the third or highest 
degree. But those who receive nothing thereof remain in the 
natural degrees, and derive from the spiritual degrees nothing 
more than an ability to think and thence to speak, and to will 
and thence to act, but not with intelligence. 

68. Of the elevation of the interiors of man, which belong 
to his mind, this also should be known. In everything created 
by God there is reaction. In Life alone there is action; reac- 
tion is caused by the action of Life. Because reaction takes 
place when any created thing is acted upon, it appears as if it 
belonged to what is createdo Thus in man it appears as if the 
reaction were his, because he has no other feeling than that 
life is his, when yet man is only a recipient of life. From this 
cause it is that man, by. reason of his hereditary evil, reacts 
against God. But so far as man believes that all his life is 
from God, and that all good of life is from the action of God, 



N. 08] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 33 

and all evil of life from the reaction of man, so far his reaction 
comes to be from [God's] action, and man acts with God as if 
from himself. The equilibrium of all things is from action and 
simultaneous reaction, and in equilibrium everything must be. 
These things have been said lest man should believe that he 
himself ascends toward God from himself, and not from the 
Lord. 



THE 1>IVINE, APART FROM SPACE, FILLS ALL SPACES OF THE 

UNIVERSE. 

69. There are two things proper to Nature — space and time. 
From these man in the natural world forms the ideas of his 
thought, and thereby his understanding. If he remains in 
these ideas, and does not raise his mind above them, he is in 
no wise able to perceive things spiritual and Divine, for these 
he involves in ideas drawn from space and time ; and so far as 
that is done the light [lumen] of his understanding becomes 
merely natural. To think from this lumen in reasoning about 
spiritual and Divine things, is like thinking from the thick 
darkness of night about those things that appear only in the 
light of day. From this comes Naturalism. But he .who 
knows how to raise his mind above ideas of thought drawn 
from space and time, passes from thick darkness into light, 
and has discernment in things spiritual and Divine, and finally 
sees the things which are in and from what is spiritual and 
Divine ; and then from that light he dispels the thick darkness 
of the natural lumen, and banishes its fallacies from the mid- 
dle to the sides. Every man who has understanding is able to 
transcend in thought these properties of nature, and actually 
does so; and he then affirms and sees that the Divine, because 
omnipresent, is hot in space. He is also able to affirm and to 
see the things that have been adduced above. But if he denies 
the Divine Omnipresence, and ascribes all things to nature, 
then he has no wish to be elevated, though he can be. 
3 



34 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

70. AH who die and become angels put off the two above- 
mentioned properties of nature, namely, space and time; for 
they then enter into spiritual light, in which objects of thought 
are truths, and objects of sight are like those in the natural 
world, but are correspondent to their thoughts. The objects 
of their thought which, as just said, are truths, derive nothing 
at all from space and time; and though the objects of their 
sight appear as if in space and in time, still the angels do not 
think from space and time. The reason is, that spaces and 
times there are not fixed, as in the natural world, but are 
changeable according to the states of their life. In the ideas 
of their thought, therefore, instead of space and tune there 
are states of life, instead of spaces such things as have refer- 
ence to states of love, and instead of times such things as 
have reference to states of wisdom. From this it is that spir- 
itual thought, and spiritual speech therefrom, differ so much 
from natural thought and natural speech therefrom, as to 
have nothing in common except as regards the interiors of 
things, which are all spiritual. Of this difference more will 
be said elsewhere. Now, because the thoughts of angels derive 
nothing from space and time, but everything from states of 
life, when it is said that the Divine fills spaces angels evi- 
dently cannot comprehend it, for they do not know what 
spaces are ; but when, apart from any idea of space, it is said 
that the Divine fills all things, they clearly comprehend it. 

71. To make it clear that the merely natural man thinks 
of spiritual and Divine things from space, and the spiritual 
man apart from space, let the following serve for illustration. 
The merely natural man thinks by means of ideas which he 
has acquired from objects of sight, in all of which there is 
figure partaking of length, breadth, and height, and of shape 
determined by these, either angular or circulaiv These [con- 
ceptions] are manifestly present in the ideas of his thought 
concerning things visible on earth; they are also in the ideas 
of his thought concerning those not visible, such as civil and 
moral affairs. This he is unconscious of; but they are never- 



N. 71] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 35 

theless there, as continuations. With a spiritual man it is 
different, especially with an angel of heaven, whose thought 
has nothing in common with figure and form that derives 
anything from spiritual length, breadth, and height, but only 
with figure and form derived from the state of a thing result- 
ing from the state of its life. Consequently, instead of length 
of space he thinks of the good of a thing from good of life ; 
instead of breadth of space, of the truth of a thing from truth 
of life ; and instead of height, of the degrees of these. Thus 
he thinks from the correspondence there is between things 
spiritual and things natural. From this correspondence it is 
that in the Word "length" signifies the good of a thing, 
"breadth" the truth of a thing, and "height" the degrees of 
these. From this it is evident that an angel of heaven, when 
he thinks of the Divine Omnipresence, can by no means think 
otherwise than that the Divine, apart from space, fills all 
things. And that which an angel thinks is truth, because the 
light which enlightens his understanding is Divine Wisdom. 

72. This is the basis of thought concerning God ; for with- 
out it, what is to be said of the creation of the universe by 
God-Man, of His Providence, Omnipotence, Omnipresence and 
Omniscience, even if understood, cannot be kept in mind; 
since the merely natural man, even while he has these things 
in his understanding, sinks back into his life's love, which is 
that of his will; and that love dissipates these truths, and 
immerses his thought in space, where his lumen, which he 
calls rational, abides, not knowing that so far as he denies 
these things, he is irrational. That this is so, may be con- 
firmed by the idea entertained of this truth, that God is a 
Man. Read with attention, I pray you, what has been said 
above (n. 11-13) and what follows after, and your understand- 
ing will accept it. But when you let your thought down into 
the natural lumen which derives from space, will not these 
things be seen as paradoxes ? and if you let it down far, will 
you not reject them? This is why it is said that the Divine 
fills all spaces of the universe, and why it is not said that 



36 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

God-Man fills them. For if this were said, the merely natural 
lumen would not assent. Bnt to the proposition that the Di- 
vine fills all space, it does assent, because this agrees with the 
mode of speech of the theologians, that God is omnipresent, 
and hears and knows all things. (On this subject, more may 
be seen above, n. 7-10.) 



THE DIVINE IS IN" ALL TIME, APART FROM TIME. 

73. As the Divine, apart from space, is in all space, so 
also, apart from time, is it in all time. For nothing which is 
proper to nature can be predicated of the Divine, and space 
and time are proper to nature. Space in nature is measurable, 
and so is time. This is measured by days, weeks, months, 
years, and centuries ; days are measured by hours ; weeks and 
months by days ; years by the four seasons ; and centuries by 
years. Nature derives this measurement from the apparent 
revolution and annual motion of the sun of the world. But in 
the spiritual world it is different. The progressions of life in 
that world appear in like manner to be in time, for those there 
live with one another as men in the world live with one 
another; and this is not possible without the appearance of 
time. But time there is not divided into periods as in the 
world, for their sun is constantly in the east and is never 
moved away; for it is the Lord's 'Divine Love that appears to 
them as a sun. Wherefore they have no days, weeks, months, 
years, centuries, but in place of these there are states of life, 
by which a distinction is made which cannot be called, how- 
ever, a distinction into periods, but into states. Consequently, 
the angels do not know what time is, and when it is mentioned 
they perceive in place of it state ; and when state determines 
time, time is only an appearance. For joy fulness of state 
makes time seem short, and joylessness of state makes time 
seem long; from which it is evident that time in the spiritual 



N. 73] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 37 

world is nothing but quality of state. It is from this that in 
the Word, "hours," "days," "weeks," "months," and "years," 
signify states and progressions of state in series and in the 
aggregate; and when times are predicated of the church, by 
its "morning" is meant its first state, by "mid-day" its ful- 
ness, by "evening" its decline, and by "night" its end. The 
four seasons of the year, " spring," " summer," " autumn," and 
" winter," have a like meaning. 

74. From the above it can be seen that time makes one 
with thought from affection; for from that is the quality of 
man's state. And with progressions of time, in the spiritual 
world, distances in progress through space coincide; as may 
be shown from many things. Eor instance, in the spiritual 
world ways are actually shortened or are lengthened in accord- 
ance with the longings that are of thought from affection. 
From this, also, comes the expression, "spaces of time." 
Moreover, in cases where thought does not join itself to its 
proper affection in man, as in sleep, the lapse of time is not 
noticed. 

75. Now as times which are proper to nature in its world 
are in the spiritual world pure states, which appear progres- 
sive because angels and spirits are finite, it may be seen that 
in God they are not progressive because He is Infinite, and in- 
finite things in Him are one (as has been shown above, n. 17- 
22). From this it follows that the Divine in all time is apart 
from time. 

76. He who has no knowledge of God apart from time and 
is unable from any perception to think of Him, is thus utterly 
unable to conceive of eternity in any other way than as an 
eternity of time ; in which case, in thinking of God from eter- 
nity he must needs become bewildered ; for he thinks with 
regard to a beginning, and beginning has exclusive reference 
to time. His bewilderment arises from the idea that God had 
existence from Himself, from which he rushes headlong into 
an origin of nature from herself ; and from this idea he can 
be extricated only by a spiritual or angelic idea of eternity. 



38 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

which is an idea apart from time ; and when time is separated, 
the Eternal and the Divine are the same, and the Divine is the 
Divine in itself, not from itself. The angels declare that while 
they can conceive of God from eternity, they can in no way 
conceive of nature from eternity, still less of nature from her- 
self and not at all of nature as nature in herself. For that 
which is in itself is the very Esse, from which all things are ; 
Esse in itself is very life, which is the Divine Love of Divine 
Wisdom and the Divine Wisdom of Divine Love. For the 
angels this is the Eternal, an Eternal as removed from time 
as the Uncreated is from the created, or the Infinite from the 
finite, between which, in fact, there is no ratio. 



THE DIVINE IN THINGS GREATEST AND LEAST IS THE SAME„ 

77. This follows from the two preceding articles, that the 
Divine apart from space is in all space, and apart from time is 
in all time. Moreover, there are spaces greater and greatest, 
and lesser and least ; and since spaces and times, as said 
above, make one, it is the same with times. In these the Di- 
vine is the same, because the Divine is not varying and 
changeable, as everything is which belongs to nature, but is 
unvarying and unchangeable, consequently the same every- 
where and always. 

78. It seems as if the Divine were not the same in one per- 
son as in another ; as if, for instance, it were different in the 
wise and in the simple, or in an old man and in a child. But 
this is a fallacy arising from appearance ; the man is different, 
but the Divine in him is not different. Man is a recipient, 
and the recipient or receptacle is what varies. A wise man is a 
recipient of Divine Love and Divine Wisdom more adequately, 
and therefore more fully, than a simple man ; and an old man 
who is also wise, more than a little child or boy; yet the Di- 
vine is the same in the one as in the other. It is in like 



N. 78] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 39 

manner a fallacy arising from appearance, that the Divine is 
different with angels of heaven from what it is with men on 
the earth, because the angels of heaven are in wisdom in- 
effable, while men are not ; but the seeming difference is not 
in the Lord but in the subjects, according to the quality of 
their reception of the Divine. 

79. That the Divine is the same in things greatest and 
least, may be shown by means of heaven and by means of an 
angel there. The Divine in the whole heaven and the Divine 
in an angel is the same; therefore even the whole heaven may 
appear as one angel. So is it with the church, and with a man 
of the church. The greatest form receptive of the Divine is 
the whole heaven together with the whole church ; the least is 
an angel of heaven and a man of the church. Sometimes an 
entire society of heaven has appeared to me as one angel-man ; 
and it was told that it may appear like a man as large as a 
giant, or like a man as small as an infant ; and this, because 
the Divine in things greatest and least is the same. 

80. The Divine is also the same in the greatest and in the 
least of all created things that are not alive ; for it is in all 
the good of their use. These, moreover, are not alive for the 
reason that they are not forms of life but forms of uses ; and 
the form varies according to the excellence of the use. But 
how the Divine is in these things will be stated in what fol- 
lows, where creation is treated of. 

81. Put away space, and deny the possibility of a vacuum, 
and then think of Divine Love and of Divine Wisdom as be- 
ing Essence itself, space having been put away and a vacuum 
denied. Then think according to space ; and you will perceive 
that the Divine, in the greatest and in the least things of 
space, is the same; for in essence abstracted from space there 
is neither great nor small, but only the same. 

82. Something shall now be said about vacuum. I once 
heard angels talking with Newton about vacuum, and saying 
that they could not tolerate the idea of a vacuum as being 
nothing, for the reason that in their world which is spiritual. 



40 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part First 

and which is within or above the spaces and times of the nat- 
ural world, they equally feel, think, are affected, love, will, 
breathe, yea, speak and act, which would be utterly impossible 
in a vacuum which is nothing, since nothing is nothing, and 
of nothing not anything can be afiirmed. Newton said that 
he now knew that the Divine, which is Being itself, fills all 
things, and that to him the idea of nothing as applied to 
vacuum is horrible, because that idea is destructive of all 
things ; and he exhorts those who talk with him about vacuum 
to guard against the idea of nothing, comparing it to a swoon, 
because in nothing no real activity of mind is possible. 



N. 83j CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 41 



PAET SECOND. 

DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM APPEAR IN THE SPIR- 
ITUAL WORLD AS A SUN. 

83. There are two worlds, the spiritual and the natural. 
The spiritual world does not draw anything from the natural, 
nor the natural world from the spiritual. The two are totally 
distinct, and communicate only by correspondences, the nature 
of which has been abundantly shown elsewhere. To illustrate 
this by an example : heat in the natural world corresponds to 
the good of charity in the spiritual world, and light in the 
natural world corresponds to the truth of faith in the spiritual 
world; and who does not see that heat and the good of charity, 
and that light and the truth of faith, are wholly distinct ? At 
first sight they appear as ' distinct as two entirely different 
things. They so appear when one inquires what the good of 
charity has in common with heat, or the truth of faith with 
light; when in fact, spiritual heat is that good, and spiritual 
light is that truth. Although these things are in themselves 
so distinct, they make one by correspondence. They make 
one in this way: when man reads, in the Word, of heat and 
light, the spirits and angels who are with the man perceive 
charity instead of heat, and faith instead of light. This 
example is adduced, in order that it may be known that the 
two worlds, the spiritual and the natural, are so distinct as to 
have nothing in common with each other; yet are so created 
as to have communication, yea, conjunction by means of cor- 
respondences. 

84. Since these two worlds are so distinct, it can be seen 
very clearly that the spiritual world is under another sun than 
the natural world. For in the spiritual world, just as in the 
natural, there is heat and light ; but the heat there, as well as 
the light, is spiritual ; and spiritual heat is the good of charity, 
and spiritual light is the truth of faith. Now since heat and 



42 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

light can originate only in a sun, it is evident that the spirit- 
ual world has a different sun from the natural world; and 
further, that the sun of the spiritual world in its essence is 
such that spiritual heat and light can come forth from it; 
whereas the sun of the natural world in its essence is such 
that natural heat can come forth from it. Everything spiritual 
has relation to good and truth, and can spring from no other 
source than Divine Love and Divine Wisdom; for all good is 
of love and all truth is of wisdom; that they have no other 
origin any discerning man can see. 

85. That there is any other sun than that of the natural 
world has hitherto been unknown. The reason is, that the 
spiritual of man has so far passed over into his natural, that 
he does not know what the spiritual is, and thus does not know 
that there is a spiritual world, the abode of spirits and angels, 
other than and different from the natural world. Since the 
spiritual world has lain so deeply hidden from the knowledge 
of those who are in the natural world, it has pleased the Lord 
to open the sight of my spirit, that I might see the things 
which are in that world, just as I see those in the natural 
world, and might afterwards describe that world; which has 
been done in the work on Heaven and Hell, in one chapter of 
which the sun of the spiritual world is treated of. Eor that 
sun has been seen by me ; and it appeared of the same size 
as the sun of the natural world; also fiery like it, but more 
glowing. It has also been made known to me that the whole 
angelic heaven is under that sun; and that angels of the third 
heaven see it constantly, angels of the second heaven very 
often, and angels of the first or outmost heaven sometimes. 
That all their heat and all their light, as well as all things that 
are manifest in that world, are from that sun will be seen in 
what follows. 

86. That sun is not the Lord Himself, but is from the Lord. 
It is the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom proceeding from 
Him that appear as a sun in that world. And because Love 
and Wisdom in the Lord are one (as shown in Part I.), that 



N. 8(5] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 43 

sun is said to be Divine Love; for Divine Wisdom is of Divine 
Love, consequently is Love. 

87. Since love and lire mutually correspond, that sun ap- 
pears before the eyes of the angels as hery; for angels cannot 
see love with their eyes, but they see in the place of love what 
corresponds to it. For angels, equally with men, have an 
internal and an external; it is their internal that thinks and 
is wise, and that wills and loves; it is their external that feels, 
sees, speaks and acts. All their externals are correspondences 
of internals ; bat the correspondences are spiritual, not natural. 
Moreover, Divine love is felt as fire by spiritual beings. For 
this reason " fire," when mentioned in the Word, signifies love. 
In the Israelitish Church, "holy fire" signified love; and this 
is why, in prayers to God, it is customary to ask that "heav- 
enly fire," that is Divine Love, "may kindle the heart." 

88. With such a difference between the spiritual and the 
natural (as shown above, n. 83), nothing from the sun of the 
natural world, that is, nothing of its heat and light, nor any- 
thing pertaining to any earthly object, can pass over into the 
spiritual world. To the spiritual world the light of the nat- 
ural world is thick darkness, and its heat is death. Neverthe- 
less, the heat of the world can be vivified by the influx of 
heavenly heat, and the light of the world can be illumined by 
the influx of heavenly light. Influx is effected by correspond- 
ences; and it cannot be effected by continuity. 



OUT OF THE SUN THAT TAKES FORM (existit) FROM THE DI- 
VIDE LOVE AND THE DIVINE WISDOM, HEAT AND LIGHT 
GO FORTH. 

89. In the spiritual world where angels and spirits are 
there are heat and light, just as in the natural world where 
men are ; moreover in like manner as heat, the heat is felt and 
the light is seen as light. Still the heat and light of the spir- 
itual world and of the natural world are (as said above) so 
entirely different as to have nothing in common. They differ 



44 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

one from the other as what is alive differs from what is dead. 
The heat of the spiritual world in itself is alive; so is the 
light; but the heat of the natural world in itself is dead; so is 
its light. For the heat and light of the spiritual world go 
forth from a sun that is pure love, while the heat and light of 
the natural world go forth from a sun that is pure fire; and 
love is alive, and the Divine Love is Life itself ; while fire is 
dead, and solar fire is death itself, and may be so called be- 
cause it has nothing whatever of life in it. 

90. Since angels are spiritual they can live in no other 
than spiritual heat and light, while men can live in no other 
than natural heat and light ; for what is spiritual accords with 
what is spiritual, and what is natural with what is natural. If 
an angel were to derive the least particle from natural heat and 
light he would perish ; for it is totally discordant with his life. 
As to the interiors of the mind every man is a spirit. When 
he dies he withdraws entirely from the world of nature, leav- 
ing behind him all its belongings, and enters a world where 
there is nothing of nature. In that world he lives so separated 
from nature tha,t there is no communication whatever by con- 
tinuity, that is, as between what is purer and grosser, but only 
like that between what is prior and posterior; and between 
such no communication is possible except by correspondences. 
From this it can be seen that sx-)iritual heat is not a purer nat- 
ural heat, or spiritual light a purer natural light, but that they 
are altogether of a different essence; for spiritual heat and 
light derive their essence from a sun which is pure Love, and 
this is Life itself; while natural heat and light derive their 
essence from a sun which is pure fire, in which (as said above) 
there is absolutely nothing of life. 

91. Such being the difference between the heat and light 
of the two worlds, it is very evident why those who are in the 
one world cannot see those who are in the other world. For 
the eyes of man, who sees from natural light, are of the sub- 
stance of his world, and the eyes of an angel are of the sub- 
stance of his world ; tlius in both cases they are formed for the 



N. 91] CONCEKNING DIVINE LOVE 45 

proper reception of their own light. From all this it can be 
seen from how much ignorance those think who, because they 
cannot see angels and spirits with their eyes, are unwilling to 
believe them to be men. 

92. Hitherto it has not been known that angels and spirits 
are in a totally different light and different heat from men. It 
has not been known even that another light and another heat 
are possible. For man in his thought has not penetrated be- 
yond the interior or purer things of nature. And for this 
reason many have placed the abodes of angels and spirits in 
the ether, and some in the stars — thus within nature, and not 
above or outside of it. But, in truth, angels and spirits are 
entirely above or outside of nature, and are in their own 
world, which is under another sun. And since in that world 
spaces are appearances (as was shown above), angels and 
spirits cannot be said to be in the ether or in the stars; in 
fact, they are present with man, conjoined to the affection and 
thought of his spirit; since man is a spirit, and because of 
that thinks and wills ; consequently the spiritual world is 
wherever man is, and in no wise away from him. In a word, 
every man as regards the interiors of his mind is in that 
world, in the midst of spirits and angels there ; and he thinks 
from its light, and loves from its heat. 



THE SUX OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD IS NOT GOD, BUT IS A 
PROCEEDING FROM THE DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WIS- 
DOM OF god-man; SO ALSO ARE THE HEAT AND LIGHT 
FROM THAT SUN. 

93. By that sun which is before the eyes of the angels, and 
from which they have heat and light, is not meant the Lord 
Himself, but the first proceeding from Him, which is the 
highest [degree] of spiritual heat. The highest [degree] of 
spiritual heat is spiritual fire, which is Divine Love and Di- 
vine Wisdom in their first correfspondence. On this account 



46 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

that sun appears fiery, and to the angels is fiery, but not to 
men. Fire which is fire to men is not spiritual, but natural; 
and between the two fires there is a difference like the differ- 
ence between what is alive and what is dead. Therefore the 
spiritual sun by its heat vivifies spiritual beings and renews 
spiritual objects. The natural sun does the same for natural 
beings and natural objects; yet not from itself, but by means 
of an influx of spiritual heat, to which it renders aid as a kind 
of substitute. 

94. This spiritual fire, in which also there is light in its 
origin, becomes spiritual heat and light, which decrease in 
their going forth. This decrease is effected by degrees, which 
will be treated of in what follows. The ancients represented 
this by circles glowing with fire and resplendent with light 
around the head of God, as is common also at the present day 
in paintings representing God as a Man. 

95. That love begets heat, and wisdom light, is manifest 
from actual experience. When man loves he grows warm, and 
when he thinks from wisdom he sees things as it were in 
light. And from this it is evident that the first proceeding of 
love is heat, and that the first proceeding of wisdom is light. 
That they are also correspondences is obvious; for heat takes 
place [existit) not in love itself, but from love in the will, and 
thence in the body; and light takes place not in wisdom, but 
in the thought of the understanding, and thence in the speech. 
Consequently love and wisdom are the essence and life of heat 
and light. Heat and light are what proceed, and because they 
are what proceed, they are also correspondences. 

96. That spiritual light is altogether distinct from natural 
light, any one may know if he observes the thoughts of his 
mind. For when the mind thinks, it sees its objects in light, 
and they who think spiritually see truths, and this at mid- 
night just as well as in the daytime. For this reason light is 
predicated of the understanding, and the understanding is said 
to see ; thus one sometimes declares of something which an- 
other says, that he sees (that is, understands) that it is so. 



N, 96] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 47 

The understanding, because it is spiritual, cannot thus see by 
natural light, for natural light does not inhere in man, but 
withdraws with the sun. From this it is obvious that the 
understanding enjoys a light different from that of the eye, 
and that this light is from a different origin. 

97. Let every one beware of thinking that the sun of the 
spiritual world is God Himself. God Himself is a Man. The 
first proceeding from His Love and Wisdom is that fiery spir- 
itual [substance] which appears before the angels as a sun. 
When, therefore, the Lord manifests Himself to the angels in 
person, He manifests Himself as a Man; and this sometimes 
in the sun, sometimes outside of it. 

98. It is from this correspondence that in the W^ord the 
Lord is called not only a "sun" but also "fire" and "light." 
And by the " sun" is meant Himself as to Divine Love and Di- 
vine Wisdom together ; by " fire" Himself in respect to Divine 
Love, and by " light" Himself in respect to Divine Wisdom. 



SPIRITUAL HEAT AND LIGHT IN PROCEEDING FROM THE LORD 
AS A SUN, MAKE ONE, JUST AS HIS DIVINE LOVE AND DI- 
VINE WISDOM MAKE ONE. 

99. How Divine Love and Divine Wisdom in the Lord make 
one has been explained in Part I.; in like manner heat and light 
make one, because they proceed from these, and the things which 
proceed make one by virtue of their correspondence, heat, cor- 
responding to love, and light to wisdom. From this it follows 
that as Divine Love is Divine Usse (being) and Divine Wisdom 
is Divine Exlstere (taking form) (as shown above, n. 14-16), so 
spiritual heat is the Divine proceeding from Divine Esse, and 
spiritual light is the Divine proceeding from Divine Existere. 
And as by that union Divine Love is of Divine Wisdom, and 
Divine Wisdom is of Divine Love (as shown above, n. 34-39), 
so spiritual heat is of spiritual light, and spiritual light is of 



48 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

spiritual lieat. And because there is siicli a union it follows 
that heat and light, in proceeding from the Lord as a sun, are 
one. It will be seen, however, in what follows, that they are 
not received as one by angels and men. 

100. The heat and light that proceed from the Lord as a 
sun are what in an eminent sense are called the spiritual, and 
they are called the spiritual in the singular number, because 
they are one ; Avhen, therefore, the spiritual is mentioned in 
the following pages, it is meant both these together. From 
that spiritual it is that the whole of that world is called spir- 
itual. Through that spiritual, all things of that world de- 
rive their origin, and also their name. That heat and that 
light are called the spiritual, because God is called Spirit, and 
God as Spirit is the spiritual going forth. God, by virtue of 
His own very Essence, is called Jehovah; but by means of 
that going forth He vivifies and enlightens angels of heaven 
and men of the church. Consequently, vivification and en- 
lightenment are said to be effected by the Spirit of Jehovah. 

101. That heat and light, that is, the spiritual going forth 
from the Lord as a Sun, make one, may be illustrated by the 
heat and light that go forth from the sun of the natural world. 
These two also make one in their going out from that sun. 
That they do not make one on earth is owing not to the sun, 
but to the earth. For the earth revolves daily round its axis, 
, and has a yearly motion following the ecliptic, which give the 
appearance that heat and light do not make one. For in the 
middle of summer there is more of heat than of light, and in 
the middle of winter more of light than of heat. In the spir- 
itual world it is the same, except that there is in that world no 
daily or yearly motion of the earth ; but the angels turn them- 
selves, some more, some less, to the Lord; those who turn 
themselves more, receive more from heat and less from light, 
and those who turn themselves less to the Lord receive more 
from light and less from heat. From this it is that the heav- 
ens, which consist of angels, are divided into two kingdoms, 
one called celestial, the other spiritual. The celestial angels 



N. 101] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 49 

receive more from heat, and the si)iritual angels more from 
light. Moreover, the lands they inhabit vary in appearance 
according to their reception of heat and light. If this change 
of state of the angels is substituted for the motion of the earth, 
the correspondence is complete. 

102. In what follows it will be seen, also, that all spiritual 
things that originate through the heat and light of their sun, 
make one in like manner when regarded in themselves, but 
when regarded as proceeding from the affections of the angels 
do not make one. When heat and light make one in the 
heavens, it is with the angels as if it were spring; but when 
they do not make one, it is either like summer or like winter 
— not like the winter in the frigid zones, but like the winter 
in the warmer zone. Thus reception of love and wisdom in 
equal measure is the very angelic state, and therefore an angel 
is an angel of heaven according to the union in him of love 
and wisdom. It is the same with the man of the Church, 
when love and wisdom, that is, charity and faith, make one in 
him. 



THE SUN OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD APPEARS AT A MIDDLE 
ALTITUDE, FAR OFF FROM THE ANGELS, LIKE THE SUN 
OF THE NATURAL WORLD FROM MEN. 

103. Most people take with them out of the world an idea 
of Grod, as being above the head, on high, and an idea of the 
Lord, as being in heaven among the angels. They take with 
them this idea of God because, in the Word, God is called the 
"Most High," and is said to "dwell on high;" therefore in 
prayer and worship men raise their eyes and hands upwards, 
not knowing that by "the Most High" is signified the inmost. 
They take with them the idea of the Lord as being in heaven 
among the angels, because men think of Him as they think of 
another man, some thinking of Him as they think of an angel, 
not knowing that the Lord is the Yery and Only God who 
rules the universe, who if He were among the angels in heav- 
4 



50 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

en, could not have the universe under His gaze and under 
His care and government. And unless He shone as a sun be- 
fore those who are in the spiritual world, angels could have 
no light ; for angels are spiritual, and therefore no other than 
spiritual light is in accord with their essence. That there is 
light in the heavens, immensely exceeding the light on earth, 
will be seen below where degrees are discussed. 

104. As regards the sun, therefore, from which angels have 
light and heat, it appears above the lands on which the angels 
dwell, at an elevation of about forty -five degrees, which is the 
middle altitude; it also appears far off from the angels like 
the sun of the world from men. The sun appears constantly 
at that altitude and at that distance, and does not move from 
its place. Hence it is that angels have no times divided into 
days and years, nor any progression of the day from morning, 
through mid-day to evening and into night ; nor any progres- 
sion of the year from spring, through summer to autumn, into 
winter ; but there is perpetual light and perpetual spring ; con- 
sequently, with the angels, as was said above, in place of times 
there are states. 

105. The sun of the spiritual world appears at a middle 
altitude chiefly for the following reasons : — First, the heat and 
light which proceed from that sun are thus at their medium 
intensity, consequently are equally proportioned and thus 
properly attempered. For if the sun were to appear above the 
middle altitude more heat than light would be perceived, if 
below it more light than heat ; as is the case on earth when 
the sun is above or below the middle of the sky; when above, 
the heat increases beyond the light, when below, the light 
increases beyond the heat ; for light remains the same in sum- 
mer and in winter, but heat increases and diminishes accord- 
ing to the degree of the sun's altitude. Secondly, the sun of 
the spiritual world appears in a middle altitude above the 
angelic heaven, because there is thus a perpetual spring in 
all the angelic heavens, whereby the angels are in a state 
of peace ; for this state corresponds to spring-time on earth. 



N. 105] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 51 

Thirdly, angels are thus enabled to turn their faces constantly 
to the Lord, and behold Him with their eyes. For at every 
turn of their bodies, the angels have the East, thus the Lord, 
before their faces. This is peculiar to that world, and would 
not be the case if the sun of that world were to appear above 
or below the middle altitude, and least of all if it were to 
appear overhead in the zenith. 

106. If the sun of the spiritual world did not appear far off 
from the angels, like the sun of the natural world from men, 
the whole angelic heaven, and hell under it, and our terra- 
queous globe under these, would not be under the view, the 
care, the omnipresence, omniscience, omnipotence, and provi- 
dence of the Lord ; compara,tively as the sun of our world, if 
it were not at such a distance from the earth as it appears, 
could not be present and powerful in all lands by its heat and 
light, and therefore could not render its aid, as a kind of sub- 
stitute, to the sun of the spiritual world. 

107. It is very necessary to be known that there are two 
suns, one spiritual, the other natural ; a spiritual sun for those 
who are in the spiritual world, and a naturaLsun for those 
who are in the natural world. Unless this is known, nothing 
can be properly understood about creation and about man, 
which are the subjects here to be treated of. Effects may, it is 
true, be observed, but unless at the same time the causes of 
effects are seen, effects can only appear as it were in the dark- 
ness of night. 



THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE SUN AND THE ANGELS IN THE 
SPIRITUAL WORLD IS AN APPEARANCE ACCORDING TO RE- 
CEPTION BY THEM OF DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM. 

108. All fallacies which prevail with the evil and the sim- 
ple arise from appearances which have been confirmed. So 
long as ai)pearances remain appearances, they are apparent 
truths, according to which every one may think and speak ; but 
when they are accepted as real truths, which is done when 



52 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

they are confirmed, then apparent truths become falsities and 
fallacies. For example : — It is an appearance that the sun is 
borne around the earth daily, and follows yearly the path of 
the ecliptic. So long as this appearance is not confirmed it is 
an apparent truth, according to which any one may think and 
speak ; for he may say that the sun rises and. sets and thereby 
causes morning, mid-day, evening, and night; also that the sun 
is now in such or such a degree of the ecliptic or of its alti- 
tude, and thereby causes spring, summer, autumn, and winter. 
But when this appearance is confirmed as the real truth, then 
the confirmer thinks ^ and utters a falsity springing from a 
fallacy. It is the same with innumerable other appearances, 
not only in natural, civil, and moral, but also in spiritual 
affairs. 

109. It is the same with the distance of the sun of the 
spiritual world, which sun is the first proceeding of the Lord^s 
Divine Love and Divine Wisdom. The truth is that there is 
no distance, but that the distance is an appearance according 
to the reception of Divine Love and Wisdom by the angels in 
their degree. That distances, in the spiritual world, are ap- 
pearances may be seen from what has been shown above (as 
in n. 7-9, That the Divine is not in space ; and in n. 69-72, 
That the Divine, apart from space, fills all spaces). If there 
are no spaces, there are no distances, or, what is the same, if 
spaces are appearances, distances also are appearances, for 
distances are of space. 

110. The sun of the spiritual world appears at a distance 
from the angels, because they receive Divine Love and Divine 
Wisdom in the measure of heat and light that is adequate to 
their states. For an angel, because created and finite, cannot 
receive the Lord in the first degree of heat and light, such as 
is in the sun ; if he did he would be entirely consumed. The 
Lord, therefore, is received by angels in a degree of heat and 
light corresponding to their love and wisdom. The following 
may serve for illustration. An angel of the lowest heaven 
cannot ascend to the angels of the third heaven; for if he 



N. 110] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 53 

ascends and enters their heaven, he falls into a kind of swoon, 
and his life, as it were, strives with death; the reason is that 
he has a less degree of love and wisdom, and the heat of his 
love and the light of his wisdom are in the same degree as his 
love and wisdom. What, then, would he the result if an an- 
gel were even to ascend toward the sun, and come into its 
fire? On account of the differences of reception of the Lord 
by the angels, the lieavens also appear separate from one an- 
other. The highest heaven, which is called the third, appears 
above the second, and the second above the first ; not that the 
heavens are apart, but they appear to be apart, for the Lord is 
present equally with those who are in the lowest lieaven and 
with those who are in the third lieaven. That which causes 
the appearance of distance is not in the Lord but in the sub- 
jects, that is, the angels. 

111. That this is so can hardly be comprehended by a nat- 
ural idea, because in such there is space, but by a spiritual 
idea, such as angels have, it can be comprehended, because in 
such there is no space. Yet even by a natural idea this much 
can be comprehended, that love and wisdom (or what is the 
same, the Lord, who is Divine Love and Divine Wisdom) 
cannot advance through spaces, but is present with each one 
according to reception. That the Lord is x^resent with all. He 
teaches in Matthew (xxviii. 20), and that He makes His abode 
with those who love Him, in Jolm (xiv. 23). 

112. As this has been proved by means of the heavens and 
the angels, it may seem a matter of too exalted wisdom; but 
the same is true of men. Men, as to the interiors of their 
minds, are warmed and illuminated by that same sun. They 
are warmed by its heat and illuminated by its light in the 
measure in which they receive love and wisdom from the 
Lord. The difference between angels and men is that angels 
are under the spiritual sun only, but men are not only under 
that sun, but also under the sun of this world; for men's 
bodies can begin and continue to exist only under both suns ; 
but not so the bodies of angels, which are spiritual. 



54 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 



ANGELS ARE IN THE LORD, AND THE LORD IN THEM; AND 
BECAUSE ANGELS ARE RECIPIENTS, THE LORD ALONE IS 



HEAVEN. 



113. Heaven is called "the dwelling-place of God," also 
"the throne of God," and from this it is believed that God is 
there as is a king in his kingdom. But God (that is, the 
Lord) is in the sun above the heavens, and by His presence in 
heat and light, is in the heavens (as is shown in the last two 
paragraphs). But although the Lord is present in heaven in 
that manner, still He is there as He is in Himself. For (as 
shown just above, n. 108-112) the distance between the sun 
and heaven is not distance, but appearance of distance ; and 
since that distance is only an appearance it follows that the 
Lord Himself is in heaven, for He is in the love and wisdom 
of the angels of heaven; and since He is in the love and wis- 
dom of all angels, and the angels constitute heaven. He is in 
the whole heaven. 

114. The Lord not only is in heaven, but also is heaven 
itself ; for love and wisdom are what make the angel, and these 
two are the Lord's in the angels ; from which it follows that 
the Lord is heaven. For angels are not angels from what is 
their own; what is their own is altogether like what is man's 
own, which is eviL An angel's own is such because all angels 
were once men, and this own clings to the angels from tjieir 
birth. It is only put aside, and so far as it is put aside the 
angels receive love and wisdom, that is, the Lord, in them- 
selves. Any one, if he will only elevate his understanding 
a little, can see that the Lord can dwell in angels, only 
in what is His, that is, in what is His very own, which is 
love and wisdom, and not at all in the selfhood of angels, 
which is evil. From this it is, that so far as evil is put away 
so far the Lord is in them, and so far they are angels. The 
very angelic of heaven is Love Divine and AVisdom Divine. 
This Divine is called the angelic when it is in angels. From 



N. 114] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 55 

this, again, it is evident that angels are angels from the Lord, 
and not from themselves; consequently, the same is true of 
heaven. 

115. But how the Lord is in an angel and an angel in the 
Lord cannot be comprehended, unless the nature of their con- 
junction is known. Conjunction is of the Lord with the angel 
and of the angel with the Lord; conjunction, therefore, is recip- 
rocal. On the part of the angel it is as follows. The angel, 
in like manner as man, has no other perception than that 
he is in love and wisdom from himself, consequently that love 
and wisdom are, as it were, his or his own. Unless he so per- 
ceived there would be no conjunction, thus the Lord would 
not be in him, nor he in the Lord. Nor can it be possible for 
the Lord to be in any angel or man, unless the one in whom 
the Lord is, with love and wisdom, has a perception and sense 
as if they were his. By this means the Lord is not only re- 
ceived, but also, when received, is retained, and likewise loved 
in return. And by this, also, the angel is made wise and 
continues wise. Who can wish to love the Lord and his 
neighbor, and who can wish to be wise, without a sense and 
perception that what he loves, learns, and imbibes is, as it 
were, his own? Who otherwise can retain it in himself? If 
this were not so, the inflowing love and wisdom would have 
no abiding-place, for it would flow through and not affect; 
thus an angel would not be an angel, nor would man be a 
man ; he would be merely like something inanimate. From all 
this it can be seen that there must be an ability to reciprocate 
that there may be conjunction. 

116. It shall now be explained how it comes that an angel 
perceives and feels as his, and thus receives and retains that 
which yet is not his; for, as was said above, an angel is not 
an angel from what is his, but from those things which he 
has from the Lord. The essence of the matter is this : — 
Every angel has freedom and rationality; these two he has 
to the end that he may be capable of receiving love and wis- 
dom from the Lord. Yet neither of these, freedom nor ration- 



56 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

ality, is his, they are the Lord's in him. But since the two 
are intimately conjoined to his life, so intimately that they 
may be said to be joined into it, they appear to be his own. 
It is from them that he is able to think and will, and to 
speak and act; and what he thinks, wills, speaks, and does 
from them, appears as if it were from himself. This gives 
him the ability to reciprocate, and by means of this conjunc- 
tion is possible. Yet so far as an angel believes that love and 
wisdom are really iti him, and thus lays claim to them for 
himself as if they were his, so far the angelic is not in him, 
and therefore he has no conjunction with the Lord; for he is 
not in truth, and as truth makes one with the light of heaven, 
so far he cannot be in heaven; for he thereby denies that he 
lives from the Lord, and believes that he lives from himself, 
and that he therefore possesses Divine essence. In these two, 
freedom and rationality, the life which is called angelic and 
human consists. From all this it can be seen that for the 
sake of conjunction with the Lord, the angel has the ability 
to reciprocate, but that this ability, in itself considered, is not 
his but the Lord's. Prom this it is, that if he abuses his 
ability to reciprocate, by which he perceives and feels as his 
what is the Lord's, which is done by appropriating it to him- 
self he falls from the angelic state. That conjunction is re- 
ciprocal, the Lord Himself teaches (John xiv. 20-24 ; xv. 4-6) ; 
also that the conjunction of the Lord with man and of man 
with the Lord, is in those things of the Lord that are called 
His words (John xv. 7). 

117. Some are of the opinion that Adam was in such liberty 
or freedom of choice as to be able to love God and be wise 
from himself, and that this freedom of choice was lost in his 
posterity. But this is an error; for man is not life, but is a 
recipient of life (see above, n. 4-6, 54-60); and he who is a 
recipient of life cannot love and be wise from anything of his 
own ; consequently, when Adam willed to be wise and to love 
from what was his own he fell from wisdom and love, and was 
cast out of Paradise. 



N. 118] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 57 

118. What has just been said of an angel is likewise true of 
heaven, which consists of angels, since the Divine in greatest 
and least things is the same (as was shown above, n. 77-82). 
What is said of an angel and of heaven is likewise true of 
man and the Church, for the angel of heaven and the man of 
the Church act as one through conjunction ; in fact, a man of 
the Church is an angel, in respect to the interiors which are of 
his mind. By a man of the Church is meant a man in whom 
the Church is. 



IN THE SPIRITUAL WORLD THE EAST IS WHERE THE LORD AP- 
PEARS AS A SUN, AND FROM THAT THE OTHER QUARTERS 
ARE DETERMINED. 

119. The sun of the spiritual world and its essence, also its 
heat and light, and the presence of the Lord thereby, have 
been treated of; a description is now to be given of the quar- 
ters in the spiritual world. That sun and that world are 
treated of, because God and love and wisdom are treated of; 
and to treat of those subjects except from their very origin 
would be to proceed from effects, not from causes. Yet from 
effects nothing but effects can be learned; when effects alone 
are considered no cause is brought to light ; but causes reveal 
effects. To know effects from causes is to be wise; but to 
search for causes from effects is not to be wise, because falla- 
cies then present themselves, which the investigator calls 
causes, and this is to turn wisd.om into foolishness. Causes 
are things prior, and effects are things j)osterior; and things 
prior cannot be seen from things posterior, but things posterior 
can be seen from things prior. This is order. For this reason 
the spiritual world is here first treated of, for all causes are 
there ; and afterwards the natural world, where all things that 
appear are effects. 

120. The quarters in the spiritual world shall now be 
spoken of. There are quarters there in like manner as in the 



58 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Secokd 

natural world, but like that world itself, they are spiritual; 
while the quarters in the natural world, like that world itself, 
are natural ; the difference between them therefore is so great 
that they have nothing in common. In each world there are 
four quarters, which are called east, west, south, and north. 
In the natural world, these four quarters are constant, deter- 
mined by the sun on the meridian ; opposite this is north, on 
one side is east, on the other, west. These quarters are deter- 
mined by the meridian of each place; for the sun's station on 
the meridian at each point is always the same, and is therefore 
fixed. In the spiritual world it is different. The quarters 
there are determined by the sun of that world, which appears 
constantly in its own place, and where it appears is the east; 
consequently the determination of the quarters in that world 
is not from the south, as in the natural world, but from the 
east, opposite to this is west, on one side is south, and on the 
other, north. But that these quarters are not determined by 
the sun, but by the inhabitants of that world, who are angels 
and spirits, will be seen in what follows. 

121. As these quarters, by virtue of their origin, which is 
the Lord as a sun, are spiritual, so the dwelling-places of angels 
and spirits, all of which are according to these quarters, are 
also spiritual. They are spiritual, because angels and spirits 
have their places of abode according to their reception of love 
and wisdom from the Lord. Those in a higher degree of love 
dwell in the east ; those in a lower degree of love in the west ; 
those in a higher degree of wisdom, in the south; and those in 
a lower degree of v/isdom, in the north. From this it is that, 
in the Word, by "the east," in the highest sense, is meant the 
Lord, and in a relative sense love to Him; by the "west," a 
diminishing love to Him; by the "south" wisdom in light; 
and by the "north" wisdom in shade; or similar things rela- 
tively to the state of those who are treated of. 

122. Since the east is the point from which all quarters in 
the spiritual world are determined, and by the east, in the 
highest sense, is meant the Lord, and also Divine Love, it is 



N. 122] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 59 

evident that the source from which all things are, is the Lord 
and love to Kim, and that one is remote from the Lord in the 
measure in which he is not in that love, and dwells either in 
the west, or in the south, or in the north, at distances corre- 
sponding to the reception of love. 

123. Since the Lord as a sun is constantly in the east, the 
ancients, with whom all things of worship were representative 
of spiritual things, turned their faces to the east in their devo- 
tions; and that they might do the like in all worship, they 
turned their temples also in that direction. From this it is 
that, at the present day, churches are built in like manner. 



THE QUARTERS IN THE SPIRITUAL WORLD ARE NOT FROM 
THE LORD AS A SUN, BUT FROM THE ANGELS ACCORDING 
TO RECEPTION. 

124. It has been stated that the angels dwell separate from 
each other; some in the eastern quarter, some in the western, 
some in the southern, and some in the northern; and that 
those who dwell in the eastern quarter are in a higher degree 
of love ; those in the western, in a lower degree of love ; those 
in the southern, in the light of wisdom; and those in the 
northern, in the shade of wisdom. This diversity of dwelling- 
places appears as though it were from the Lord as a sun, 
when, in fact it is from the angels. The Lord is not in a 
greater and lesser degree of love and wisdom, that is, as a sun 
He is not in a greater or lesser degree of heat and light with 
one than with another, for. He is everywhere the same. But 
He is not received by one in the same degree as by another ; 
and this makes them appear to themselves to be more or less 
distant from one another, and also variously as regards the 
quarters. From this it follows that quarters in the spiritual 
world are nothing else than various receptions of love and 
wisdom, and thence of heat and light from the Lord as a 



60 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Seconb 

Sim. That this is so is plain from what was shown above 
(n. 108-112), that in the spiritual world distances are appear- 
ances. 

125. As the quarters are various receptions of love and 
wisdom by angels, the variety from which that appearance 
springs shall now be explained. The Lord is in the angel, 
and the angel in the Lord (as was shown in a preceding 
article). But on account of the appearance that the Lord as a 
sun is outside of the angel, there is also the appearance that 
the Lord sees him from the sun, and that he sees the Lord in 
the sun. This is ahnost like the appearance of an image in a 
mirror. Speaking, therefore, according to that appearance, it 
may be said that the Lord sees and looks at each one face to 
face, but that angels, on their part, do not thus behold the 
Lord. Those who are in love to the Lord from the Lord see 
Him directly in front; these, therefore, are in the east and 
the west; but those who are more in wisdom see the Lord 
obliquely to the right, and those who are less in wisdom ob- 
liquely to the left ; therefore the former are in the south, and 
the latter in the north. The view of these is oblique because 
love and wisdom (as has been said before), although they pro- 
ceed from the Lord as one, are not received as one by angels ; 
and the wisdom which is in excess of the love, while it ap- 
pears as wisdom, is not wisdom, because in the overplus of 
wisdom there is no life from love. From all this it is evident 
whence comes the diversity of reception according to which 
angels api3ear to dwell according to quarters in the spiritual 
world. 

126. That this variety of reception of love and wisdom is 
what gives rise to the quarters in the spiritual world can be 
seen from the fact that an angel changes his quarter accord- 
ing to the increase or decrease of love with him ; from whicli 
it is evident that the quarter is not from the Lord as a sun, 
but from the angel according to reception. It is the same 
with man as regards his spirit. In respect to his spirit, he is 
in some quarter of the spiritual world, whatever quarter of 



N. 126] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE. 61 

the natural world he may be in, for quarters in the spiritual 
world, as has been said above, have nothing in common with 
quarters in the natural world. Man is in the latter as regards 
his body, but in the former as regards his spirit. 

127. In order that- love and wisdom may make one in an 
angel or in a man, there are pairs in all the things of his 
body. The eyes, ears, and nostrils are pairs ; the hands, loins, 
and feet are pairs ; the brain is divided into two hemisjjheres, 
the heart into two chambers, the lungs into two lobes, and in 
like manner the other parts. Thus in angel and man there is 
right and left; and all their right parts have relation to the 
love from which wisdom comes ; and all the left parts, to the 
wisdom which is from love ; or, what is the same, all the right 
parts have relation to the good from which truth comes ; and 
all the left parts, to the truth that is from good. Angel and 
man have these pairs in order that love and wisdom, or good 
and truth, may act as one, and as one, may have regard to the 
Lord. But of this more in what follows. 

128. From all this it can be seen in what fallacy and con- 
sequent falsity those are, who suppose that the Lord bestows 
heaven arbitrarily, or arbitrarily grants one to become wise 
and loving more than another, when, in truth, the Lord is just 
as desirous that one may become wise and be saved as another. 
For He provides means for all; and every one becomes wise 
and is saved in the measure in which he accepts these means, 
and lives in accordance with them. For the Lord is the same 
with one as with another; but the recipients, who are angels 
and men, are unlike by reason of unlike reception and life. 
That this is so can be seen from what has just been said of 
spiritual quarters, and of the dwelling-places of the angels in 
accordance with them; namely, that this diversity is not from 
the Lord but from the recipients. 



62 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

ANGELS TURN" THEIR FACES CONSTANTLY TO THE LORD AS A 
SUN, AND THUS HAVE THE SOUTH TO THE RIGHT, THE 
NORTH TO THE LEFT, AND THE WEST BEHIND THEM. 

129. AH that is here said of angels, and of their turning to 
the Lord as a sun, is to be understood also of man, as regards 
his spirit. For man in respect to his mind is a spirit, and if 
he be in love and wisdom, is an angel; consequently, after 
death, when he has put off his externals, which he had de- 
rived from the natural world, he becomes a spirit or an angel. 
And because angels turn their faces constantly toward the 
sun in the east, thus toward the Lord, it is said also of any 
man who is in love and wisdom from the Lord, that "he sees 
God," that "he looks to God," that "he has God before his 
eyes," by which is meant that he lives as an angel does. 
Such things are spoken of in the world, because they actually 
take place (existunt) both in heaven and in the spirit of man. 
Who does not look before himself to God when he prays, to 
whatever quarter his face may be turned? 

130. Angels turn their faces constantly to the Lord as a 
sun, because they are in the Lord, and the Lord in them ; and 
the Lord interiorly leads their affections and thoughts, and 
turns them constantly to Himself ; consequently they cannot 
do otherwise than look towards the east where the Lord ap- 
pears as a sun ; from which it is evident that angels do not 
turn themselves to the Lord, but the Lord turns them to Him- 
self. For when angels think interiorly of the Lord, they do 
not think of Him otherwise than as being in themselves. 
Keal interior thought does not cause distance, but exterior 
thought, which acts as one with the sight of the eyes ; and for 
the reason that exterior thought, but not interior, is in space ; 
and when not in space, as in the spiritual world, it is still in 
an appearance of space. But these things can be little under- 
stood by the man who thinks about God from space. For God 
is everywhere, yet not in space. Thus He is both within and 
without an angel ; consequently an angel can see God, that is, 



N. 130] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 63 

the Lord, both within himself and without himself; within 
himself when he thinks from love and wisdom, without him- 
self when he thinks about love and wisdom. But these things 
will be treated of in detail in treatises on The Lord^s Omni- 
'presence, Omniscience, and Omnipotence. Let every man guard 
himself against falling into the detestable false doctrine that 
God has infused Himself into men, and that He is in them, 
and no longer in Himself ; for God is everywhere, as well with- 
in man as without, for apart from space He is in all space (as 
was shown above, n. 7-10, 69-72) ; whereas if He were in man. 
He would be not only divisible, but also shut up in space ; yea, 
man then might even think himself to be God. This heresy 
is so abominable, that in the spiritual world it stinks like 
carrion. 

131. The turning of angels to the Lord is such that at 
every turn of their bodies they look toward the Lord as a sun 
in front of them. An angel may turn himself round and 
round, and thereby see the various things that are about him, 
still the Lord as a sun appears constantly before his face. 
This may seem wonderful, yet it is the truth. It has also 
been granted me to see the Lord thus as a sun. I see Him 
now before my face ; and for several years I have so seen Him, 
to whatever quarter of the world I have turned. 

132. Since the Lord as a sun, consequently the east, is be- 
fore the faces of all angels of heaven, it follows that to their 
right is the south; to their left the north; and behind them 
the west ; and this, too, at every turn of the body. Eor, as was 
said before, all quarters in the spiritual world are determined 
from the east ; therefore those who have the east before their 
eyes are in these very quarters, yea, are themselves what de- 
termine the quarters ; for (as was shown above, n. 124—128) 
the quarters are not from the Lord as a sun, but from the 
angels according to reception. 

133. Now since heaven is made up of angels, and angels 
are of such a nature, it follows that all heaven turns itself to 
the Lord, and that, by means of this turning, heaven is ruled 



64 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

by the Lord as one man, as in His sight it is one man. That 
heaven is as one man in the sight of tlie Lord may be seen in 
the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 59-87). Also from this are 
the quarters of heaven. 

134. Since the quarters are thus inscribed as it were on the 
angel, as well as on the whole heaven, an angel, unlike man 
in the world, knows his own home and his own dwelling-place 
wherever he goes. Man does not know his home and dwelling- 
place from the spiritual quarter in hunself, because he thinks 
from space, thus from the quarters of the natural world, which 
have nothing in common with the quarters of the spiritual 
world. But birds and beasts have such knowledge, for it is 
implanted in them to know of themselves their homes and 
dwelling-places, as is evident from abundant observation; a 
proof that such is the case in the spiritual world; for all 
things that have form (existunt) in the natural world are ef- 
fects, and all things that have form in the spiritual world are 
the causes of these effects. There does not take place (existit) 
a natural that does not derive its cause from a spiritual. 



ALL INTERIOR THINGS OF THE ANGELS, BOTH OF MIND AND 
BODY, ARE TURNED TO THE LORD AS A SUN. 

135. Angels have miderstanding and will, and they have a 
face and body. They have also the interior things of the un- 
derstanding and will, and of the face and body. The interiors 
of the understanding and will are such as pertain to their 
interior affection and thought ; the interiors of the face are 
the brains ; and the interiors of the body are the viscera, chief 
among which are the heart and lungs. In a word, angels have 
each and all things that men on earth have ; it is from these 
things that angels are men. External form, apart from these 
internal things, does not make them men, but external form 
together with, yea, from, internals; for otherwise they would 



N. 135] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 65 

be only images of man, in wlii(;li tliere would be no life, be- 
cause inwardly there would be no form of life. 

136. It is well known that the will and understanding rule 
the body at pleasure, for what the understanding thinks, the 
mouth speaks, and what the will wills, the body does. From 
this it is plain that the body is a form corresponding to the 
understanding and will. And because form also is predicated 
of understanding and will, it is plain that the form of the 
body corresponds to the form of the understanding and will. 
But this is not the place to describe the nature of these 
respective forms. In each form there are things innumerable ; 
and these, in each of them, act as one, because they mutually 
correspond. It is from this that the mind (that is, the will 
and understanding) rules the body at its pleasure, thus as exi- 
tirely as it rules its own self. From all this it follows that 
the interiors of the mind act as a one with the interiors of the 
body, and the exteriors of the mind with the exteriors of the 
body. The interiors of the mind, likewise the interiors of the 
body, will be considered further on, when degrees of life have 
been treated of. 

137. Since the interiors of the mind make one with the 
interiors of the body, it follows that when the interiors of the 
mind turn themselves to the Lord as a sun, those of the body 
turn themselves in like manner ; and because the exteriors of 
both, of mind as well as body, depend upon their interiors, 
they also do the same. For what the external does, it does 
from internals, the general deriving all it has from the par- 
ticulars from which it is. From this it is evident that as an 
angel turns his face and body to the Lord as a sun, all the in- 
teriors of his mind and body are turned in the same direction. 
It is the same with man, if he has the Lord constantly before 
his eyes, which is the case if he is in love and wisdom. He 
then looks to the Lord not only with eyes and face, but also 
with all the mind and all the heart, that is, with all things of 
the will and understanding, together with all things of the 
body. 

5 



66 ANGELIC WISDOM [Paet Second 

138. This turning to the Lord is an actual turning, a kind 
of elevation; for there is an uplifting into the heat and light 
of heaven, which takes place by the opening of the interiors ; 
when these are opened, love and wisdom ilow into the interiors 
of the mind, and the heat and light of heaven into the interiors 
of the body. Erom this comes the uplifting, like a rising out 
of a cloud into clear air, or out of air into ether. Moreover, 
love and wisdom, with their heat and light, are the Lord with 
man ; and He, as was said before, turns man to Himself. It is 
the reverse with those who are not in love and wisdom, and 
still more with those who are opposed to love and wisdom. 
Their interiors, both of mind and body, are closed ; and when 
closed, the exteriors re-act against the Lord, for such is their 
inherent nature. Consequently, such persons turn themselves 
backward from the Lord; and turning oneself backward is 
turning to hell. 

139. This actual turning to the Lord is from love together 
with wisdom ; not from love alone, nor from wisdom alone ; for 
love alone is like esse (being) without its existere (taking form) 
since love has its form in wisdom ; and wisdom without love is 
like existere without its esse, since wisdom has its form from 
love. Love is indeed possible without wisdom ; but such love is 
man's, and not the Lord's. Wisdom alone is possible without 
love ; but such wisdom, although from the Lord, has not the 
Lord in it ; for it is like the light of winter, which is from the 
sun ; still the sun's essence, which is heat, is not in it. 



EVERY SPIRIT, WHATEVER HIS QUALITY, TURNS IN LIKE 
MANNER TO HIS RULING LOVE. 

140. It shall first be explained what a spirit is, and what 
an angel is. Every man after death comes, in the first place, 
into the world of spirits, which is midway between heaven and 
hell, and there passes through his own times, that is, his own 
states, and becomes prepared, according to his life, either for 



N. 140] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 67 

heaven or for hell. So long as one stays in that world he is 
called a spirit. He who has been raised out of that world into 
heaven is called an angel ; but he who has been cast down into 
hell is called either a satan or a devil. So long as these con- 
tinue in the world of spirits, he who is preparing for heaven 
is called an angelic spirit ; and he who is preparing for hell, an 
infernal spirit; meanwhile the angelic spirit is conjoined with 
heaven, and the infernal spirit with hell. All spirits in the 
world of spirits are adjoined to men; because men, in respect 
to the interiors of their minds, are in like manner between 
heaven and hell, and through these spirits they communicate 
with heaven or with hell according to their life. It is to be 
observed that the world of spirits is one thing, and the spirit- 
ual world another ; the world of spirits is that which has just 
been spoken of ; but the spiritual world includes that world, 
and heaven and hell. 

141. Since the subject now under consideration is the turn- 
ing of angels and spirits to their own loves by reason of these 
loves, something shall be said also about loves. The whole 
heaven is divided into societies according to all the differences 
of loves;. in like manner hell, and in like manner the world of 
spirits. But heaven is divided into societies according to the 
differences of heavenly loves; hell into societies according to 
the differences of infernal loves; and the world of spirits, 
according to the differences of loves both heavenly and infer- 
nal. There are two loves which are the heads of all the rest, 
that is, to which all other loves are referable ; the love which is 
the head of all heavenly loves, or to which they all relate, is 
love to the Lord ; and the love which is the head of all infer- 
nal loves, or to which they all relate, is the love of rule spring- 
ing from the love of self. These two loves are diametrically 
opposed to each other. 

142. Since these two loves, love to the Lord and love of 
rule springing from love of self, are wholly opposed to each 
other, and since all who are in love to the Lord turn to the 
Lord as a sun (as was shown in the preceding article), it can 



68 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

be seen that all who are in the love of rule springmg from love 
of self, turn their backs to the Lord. They thus face in oppo- 
site directions, because those who are in love to the Lord love 
nothing more than to be led by the Lord, and will that the 
Lord alone shall rule ; while those who are in the love of rule 
springing from love of self, love nothing more than to be led 
by themselves, and will that themselves alone may rule. This 
is called a love of rule springing from love of self, because 
there is a love of rule springing from a love of performing 
uses, which is a spiritual love, because it makes one with love 
towards the neighbor. Still this cannot be called a love of 
rule, but a love of performing duties. 

143. Every spirit, of whatever quality, turns to his own 
ruling love, because love is the life of every one (as was shown 
in Part I., n. 1-3) ; and life turns its receptacles, called mem- 
bers, organs, and viscera, thus the whole man, to that society 
which is in a love similar to itself, thus where its own love is. 

144. Since the love of rule springing from love of self is 
wholly opposed to love to the Lord, the spirits who are in that 
love of rule turn the face backwards from the Lord, and there- 
fore look with their eyes to the western quarters of the spirit- 
ual world ; and being thus bodily in a reversed position, they 
have the east behind them, the north at their right^ and the 
south at their left. They have the east behind them because 
they hate the Lord ; they have the north at their right, because 
they love fallacies and falsities therefrom ; and they have the 
south at their left, because they despise the light of wisdom. 
They may turn themselves round and round, and yet all things 
which they see about them appear similar to their love. All 
such are sensual-natural ; and some are of such a nature as to 
imagine that they alone live, looking upon others as images. 
They believe themselves to be wise above all others, though in 
truth they are insane. 

145. In the spiritual world ways are seen, laid out like- 
ways in the natural world ; some leading to heaven, and some 
to hell ; but the ways leading to hell are not visible to those 



N. 145] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 69 

going to heaven, nor are the v/ays leading to heaven visible to 
those going to hell. There are countless ways of this kind ; for 
there are ways which lead to every society of heaven and to 
every society of hell. Each spirit enters the way which leads 
to the society of his own love, nor does he see the ways lead- 
ing in other directions. Thus it is that each spirit, as he turns 
himself to his ruling love, goes forward in it. 



DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM PROCEEDING FROM THE 
LORD AS A SUN AND PRODUCING HEAT AND LIGHT IN 
HEAVEN, ARE THE PROCEEDING DIVINE, WHICH IS THE 
HOLY SPIRIT. 

146. In The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the 
Lord it has been shown, that God is one in person and essence 
in whom there is a trinity, and that that Grod is the Lord; 
also, that the trinity in Him is called Father, Son, and Holy 
Spirit; and that the Divine from which, [Creative Divine] 
is called the Father ; the Human Divine, the Son ; and the pro- 
ceeding Divine, the Holy Spirit. This is called the "proceed- 
ing Divine," but no one knows why it is called proceeding. 
This is not known, because until now it has been unknown 
that the Lord appears before the angels as a sun, from which 
sun proceeds heat which in its essence is Divine Love, and 
also light which in its essence is Divine Wisdom. So long as 
these things were unknown, it could not be known that the 
proceeding Divine is not a Divine by itself; consequently the 
Athanasian doctrine of the trinity declares that there is one 
person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the 
Holy Spirit. ISTow, however, when it is known that the Lord 
appears as a sun, a correct idea may be had of the proceeding 
Divine, which is called the Holy Spirit, that it is one with the 
Lord, but proceeds from Him, as heat and light from a sun. 
For the same reason angels are in Divine heat and Divine 
light just so far as they are in love and wisdom. Without 



70 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

knowing that the Lord appears as a sun in the spiritual world, 
and that His Divine thus proceeds, it can in no way be known 
what is meant by "proceeding," whether it means simply com- 
municating those things which are the Father's and the Son's, 
or simply enlightening and teaching. But inasmuch as it has 
been known that God is one, and that He is omnipresent, it is 
not in accord with enlightened reason to recognize the pro- 
ceeding Divine as a Divine per se, and to call it God, and thus 
divide God. 

147. It has been shown above that God is not in space, and 
that He is thereby omnipresent; also that the Divine is the 
same everywhere, but that there is an apparent variety of it 
in angels and men from variety of reception. ]N"ow since the 
proceeding Divine from the Lord as a sun is in light and heat, 
and light and heat flow first into universal recipients, which in 
the world are called atmospheres, and these are the recipients 
of clouds, it can be seen that according as the interiors pertain- 
ing to the understanding of man or angel are veiled by such 
clouds, is he a receptacle of the proceeding Divine. By clouds 
are meant spiritual clouds, which are thoughts. These, if from 
truths, are in accordance, but if from falsities, are at variance 
with Divine Wisdom ; consequently, in the spiritual world 
thoughts from truths, when presented to the sight, appear as 
shining white clouds, but thoughts from falsities as black 
clouds. From all this it can be seen that the proceeding Di- 
vine is indeed in every man, but is variously veiled by each. 

148. As the Divine Itself is present in angel and man by 
spiritual heat and light, those who are in the truths of Divine 
Wisdom and in the goods nOf Divine Love, when affected by 
these, and when from affection they think from them and about 
them, are said to grow warm wHli God ; and this sometimes 
becomes so evident as to be perceived and felt, as when a 
preacher speaks from zeal. These same are also said to be 
enlightened hij God, because the Lord, by His proceeding Di- 
vine, not only kindles the will with spiritual heat, but also 
enlightens the understanding with spiritual light. 



N. 149] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 71 

149. From the following passages in the Word it is plain 
that the Holy Spirit is the same as the Lord, and is truth itself, 
from which man has enlightenment : — 

Jesus said, When the spirit of truth is come, He will guide you into 
all truth; He shall not speak of Himself; but whatsoever He shall have 
heard, that shall He speak {John xvi. 13). 

He shall glorify Me; for He shall receive of Mine, and shall show it 
unto you {John xvi. 14, 15). 

That He will be with the disciples and in them {John xiv. 17; xv. 26). 

Jesus said, The words that I speak unto you, they are spirit and they 
are life {John vi. 63). 

From these passages it is evident that the Truth itself which 
proceeds from the Lord, is called the Holy Spirit ; and because 
it is in light, it enlightens. 

150. Enlightenment, which is attributed to the Holy Spirit, 
is indeed in man from the Lord, yet it is effected by spirits 
and angfels as media. But the nature of that mediation can- 
not yet be described; only it may be said that angels and 
spirits can in no way enlighten man from themselves, because 
they, in like manner as man, are enlightened by the Lord ; and 
as they are enlightened in like manner, it follows that all en- 
lightenment is from the Lord alone. It is effected by angels 
or spirits as media, because the man when he is enlightened is 
placed in the midst of such angels and spirits as, more than 
others, receive enlightenment from the Lord alone. 



THE LORD CREATED THE UNIVERSE AND ALL THINGS OF IT BY 
MEANS OF THE SUN WHICH IS THE FIRST PROCEEDING OF 
DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WISDOM. 

151. By "the Lord" is meant G-od from eternity, that is, 
Jehovah : who is called Father and Creator, because He is one 
with Him, as has been shown in The Doctrine of the New 
Jerusalem concerning the Lord ; consequently in the following 
pages, where also creation is treated of. He is called the Lord. 



72 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

152. That all things in the universe were created by Divine 
Love and Divine Wisdom was fully shown in Part I., (particu- 
larly in n. 52, 53) ; here now it is to be shown that this was 
done by means of the sun, which is the first proceeding of Di- 
vine Love and Divine Wisdom. No one who is capable of 
seeing effects from causes, and afterwards by causes effects in 
their order and sequence, can deny that the sun is the first of 
creation, for all the things that are in its world have perpetual 
existence from it; and because they have perpetual existence 
from it, their existence was derived from it. The one involves 
and is proof of the other; for all things are under the sun's 
view, since it determined that they should be, and to hold 
under its view is to determine perpetually ; therefore it is said 
that subsistence is perpetual existence. If, moreover, any 
thing were to be withdrawn entirely from the sun's influx 
through the atmospheres, it would instantly be dissipated ; for 
the atmospheres, which are purer and purer, and are rendered 
active in power by the sun, hold all things in connection. 
Since, then, the perpetual existence of the universe, and of 
every thing pertaining to it, is from the sun, it is plain that 
the sun is the first of creation, from which [is all else]. The 
sun is spoken of as creating, but this means the Lord, by 
means of the sun; for the sun also was created by the Lord. 

153. There are two suns through which all things were 
created by the Lord, the sun of the spiritual world and the sun 
of the natural world. All things were created by the Lord 
through the sun of the spiritual world, but not through the sun 
of the natural world, since the latter is far below the former; 
it is in middle distance; above it is the spiritual world and 
below it is the natural world. This sun of the natural world 
was created to render aid, as a kind of substitute ; this aid will 
be spoken of in what follows. 

154. The universe and all things thereof were created by 
the Lord, the sun of the spiritual world serving as a medium, 
because that sun is the first proceeding of Divine Love and 
Divine Wisdom, and from Divine Love and Divine Wisdom 



N. 164] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 73 

all things are (as was pointed out above, n. 52-82). In every 
thing created, greatest as well as least, there are these three, 
end, cause and effect. A created thing in which these three 
are not, is impossible. In what is greatest, that is, in the uni- 
verse, these three exist in the following order; in the sun, 
which is the first proceeding of Divine Love and Divine Wis- 
dom, is the end of all things ; in the spiritual world are the 
causes of all things ; in the natural world are the effects of all 
things. How these three are in things first and in things last 
shall be shown in what follows. Since, then, no created thing 
is possible in which these three are not, it follows that the 
universe and all things of it were created by the Lord through 
the sun, wherein is the end of all things. 

155. Creation itself cannot be brought within man's com- 
prehension unless space and time are reinoved from thought ; 
but if these are removed, it can be comprehended. Removing 
these if you can, or as much as you can, and keeping the mind 
in ideas abstracted from space and time, you will perceive 
that there is no difference between the maximum of space and 
the minimum of space ; and then you cannot but have a similar 
idea of the creation of the universe as of the creation of the 
particulars therein; you will also perceive that diversity in 
created things springs from this, that there are infinite things 
in God-Man, consequently things without limit in the sun 
which is the first proceeding from Him ; these countless things 
take form, as in an image, in the created universe. From this 
it is that no one thing can anywhere be precisely the same 
as another. From this comes that variety of all things which 
is presented to sight, in the natural world, together with space, 
but in the spiritual world with appearance of space; and it 
is a variety both of generals and of particulars. These are 
the things that have been pointed out in Part I., where it is 
shown that in God-Man infinite things are one distinctly (n. 
17-22) ; that all things in the universe were created by Divine 
Love and Divine Wisdom, (n. 52, 53); that all things in the 
created universe are recipients of the Divine Love and of the 



74 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

Divine Wisdom of God-Man (n. 54-60) ; that the Divine is not 
in space (n. 7-10) ; that the Divine apart from space fills all 
spaces (n. 66-72) ; that the Divine is the same in things great- 
est and least (n. 77-82). 

156. The creation of the universe, and of all things of it, 
cannot be said to have been wrought from space to space, or 
from time to time, thus progressively and successively, but 
from eternity and from infinity ; not from eternity of time, be- 
cause there is no such thing, but from eternity not of time, for 
this is the same with the Divine; nor from infinity of space, 
because again there is no such thing, but from infinity not of 
space, which also is the same with the Divine. These things, 
I know, transcend the ideas of thoughts that are in natural 
light, but they do not transcend the ideas of thoughts that are 
in spiritual light, for in these there is nothing of space and 
time. I^either do they wholly transcend ideas that are in 
natural light ; for when it is said that infinity of space is not 
possible, this is affirmed by every one from reason. It is the 
same with eternity, for this is infinity of time. If you say " to 
eternity," it is comprehensible from time ; but " from eternity" 
is not comprehensible, unless time is removed. 



THE SUN OF THE NATURAL WORLD IS PURE FIRE, CONSE- 
QUENTLY dead; nature also IS DEAD, BECAUSE IT 
DERIVES ITS ORIGIN FROM THAT SUN. 

157. Creation itself cannot be ascribed in the least to the 
sun of the natural world, but must be wholly ascribed to the 
sun of the spiritual world ; because the sun of the natural 
world is altogether dead ; but the sun of the spiritual world is 
living; for it is the first proceeding of Divine Love and Di- 
vine AVisdom; and what is dead does not act at all from it- 
self, but is acted upon; consequently to ascribe to it anything 
of creation would be like ascribing the work of an artificer to 



N. 157] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 75 

the tool which is moved by his hands. The sun of the natural 
world is pure fire from which everything of life has been 
withdrawn ; but the sun of the spiritual world is lire in which 
is Divine Life. The angelic idea of the tire of the sun of the 
natural world, and of the lire of the sun of the spiritual world, 
is this; that in the lire of the sun of the spiritual world the 
Divine Life is within, but in the fire of the sun of the natural 
world it is without. From this it can be seen that the actuat- 
ing power of the natural sun is not from itself, but from a 
living force proceeding from the sun of the spiritual world ; 
consequently if the living force of that sun were withdrawn 
or taken away, the natural sun would have no vital power. For 
this reason the worship of the sun is the lowest of all the forms 
of God-worship, for it is wholly dead, as the sun itself is, and 
therefore in the Word it is called "abomination." 

158. As the sun of the natural world is pure fire, and 
therefore dead, the heat proceeding from it is also dead, like 
wise the light proceeding from it is dead ; so also are the atmos 
pheres, which are called ether and air, and which receive in 
their bosom and carry down the heat and light of that sun; 
and as these are dead so are each and all things of the earth 
which are beneath the atmospheres, and are called soils, yet 
these, one and all, are encompassed by what is spiritual, pro- 
ceeding and flowing forth from the sun of the spiritual world. 
Unless they had been so encompassed, the soils could not 
have been stirred into activity, and have produced forms of 
uses, which are plants, nor forms of life, which are animals; 
nor could have supplied the materials by which man begins 
and continues to exist. 

159. Now since nature begins from that sun, and all that 
springs forth and continues to exist from it is called natural, 
it follows that nature, with each and every thing pertaining 
thereto, is dead. It appears in man and animal as if alive, be- 
cause of the life which accompanies and actuates it. 

160. Since these lowest things of nature which form the 
lands are dead, and are not changeable and varying according 



76 ANGELIC WISDOM . [Part Second 

to states of affections and thoughts, as in the spiritual world, 
but unchangeable and iixed, therefore in nature there are 
spaces and spacial distances. There are such things, because 
creation has there terminated, and abides at rest. From this 
it is evident that spaces are a property of nature ; and because 
in nature spaces are not appearances of spaces according to 
states of life, as they are in the spiritual world, these also 
may be called dead. 

161. Since times in like manner are settled and constant, 
they also are a property of nature ; for the length of a day is 
constantly twenty-four hours, and the length of a year is con- 
stantly three hundred and sixty-five days and a quarter. The 
very states of light and shade, and of heat and cold, which 
cause these periods to vary, are also regular in their return. 
Tlie states which recur daily are morning, noon, evening, and 
night ; those recurring yearly are spring, summer, autumn, and 
winter. Moreover, the annual states modify regularly the 
daily states. All these states are likewise dead because they 
are not states of life, as in the spiritual world ; for in the spir- 
itual world there is continuous light and there is continuous 
heat, the light corresponding to the state of wisdom, and the 
heat to the state of love with the angels ; consequently the 
states of these are living. 

162. From all this the folly of those who ascribe all things 
to nature can be seen. Those Avho have confirmed themselves 
in favor of nature have brought such a state on themselves 
that they are no longer willing to raise the mind above na- 
ture; consequently their minds are shut above and opened 
below. Man thus becomes sensual-natural, that is, sj^iritually 
dead; and because he then thinks only from such things as he 
has imbibed from his bodily senses, or through the senses 
from the world, he at heart even denies God. Then because 
conjunction Avith heaven is broken, conjunction with hell 
takes place, the capacity to think and will alone remaining; 
the capacity to think, from rationality, and the capacity to 
will, from fi-eedom; these two cai)acities every man has from 



N. 102] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 77 

the Lord, nor are they taken away. These two capacities 
devils have equally with angels; but devils devote them to 
insane thinking and evil doing, and angels to becoming wise 
and doing good. 



NO CREATION IS POSSIBLE. 

163. The universe in general is divided into two worlds, 
the spiritual and the natural. In the spiritual world are angels 
and spirits, in the natural world men. In external appearance 
these two worlds are entirely alike, so alike that they cannot 
be distinguished; but as to internal appearance they are en- 
tirely unlike. The men themselves in the spiritual world, who 
(as was said above) are called angels and spirits, are spiritual, 
and, being spiritual, they think spiritually and speak spirit- 
ually. But the men of the natural world are natural, and 
therefore think naturally and speak naturally ; and spiritual 
thought and speech have nothing in common with natural 
thought and speech. From this it is plain that these two 
worlds, the spiritual and the natural, are entirely distinct from 
each other, so that they can in no respect be together. 

164. jS'ow as these two worlds are so distinct, it is neces- 
sary that there should be two suns, one from which all spirit- 
ual things are, and another from which all natural things are. 
And as all spiritual things in their origin are living, and all 
natural things from their origin are dead, and these origins are 
suns, it follows that the one sun is living and the other dead ; 
also, that the dead sun itself was created by the Lord through 
the living sun. 

165. A dead sun was created to this end, that in outmosts 
ail things may be fixed, settled, and constant, and thus there 
may be forms of existence which shall be permanent and dur- 
able. In this and in no other way is creation founded. The 
terraqueous globe, in which, upon which, and about which. 



78 Al^GELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

tilings exist, is a kind of base and support; for it is the out- 
most work [tiltimum opzts], in which all things terminate, and 
upon which they rest. It is also a kind of matrix, out of 
which effects, which are ends of creation, are produced, as will 
be shown in what follows. 

166. That all things were created by the Lord through the 
living sun, and nothing through the dead sun, can be seen from 
this, that what is living disposes what is dead in obedience to 
itself, and forms it for uses, which are its ends ; but not the 
reverse. Only a person bereft of reason and who is ignorant of 
what life is, can think that all things are irom nature, and that 
life even comes from nature. Nature cannot dispense life to 
anything, since nature in itself is wholly inert. For what is 
dead to act upon what is living, or for dead force to act upon 
living force, or, what is the same, for the natural to act upon 
the spiritual, is entirely contrary to order, therefore so to think 
is contrary to the light of sound reason. AVhat is dead, that 
is, the natural, may indeed in many ways be perverted or 
changed by external accidents, but it cannot act upon life ; on 
the contrary life acts into it, according to the induced change 
of form. It is the same with physical influx into the spiritual 
operations of the soul ; this, it is known, does not occur, for it 
is not possible. 



THE END OF CREATION HAS FORM (existat) IN OUTMOSTS, 
WHICH END IS THAT ALL THINGS MAY RETURN TO THE 
CREATOR AND THAT THERE MAY BE CONJUNCTION. 

167. In the first place, something shall be said about ends. 
There are three things that follow in order, called first end, 
middle end, and last end ; they are also called end, cause, and 
effect. These three must be together in every thing, that it 
may be anything. For a first end without a middle end, and 
at the same time a last end, is impossible; or, what is the same, 
an end alone, without a cause and an effect is impossible. 
Equally impossible is a cause alone without an end from which 



N. 167] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 79 

and an effect in which it is, or an effect alone, that is, an effect 
without its cause and end. That this is so may be compre- 
hended if it be observed that an end without an effect, that is, 
separated from an effect, is a thing without existence, and 
therefore a mere term. For in order that an end may actually 
be an end it must be terminated, and it is terminated in its 
effect, wherein it is iirst called an end because it is an end. It 
appears as if the agent or the efficient exists by itself; but 
this so appears from its being in the effect; but if separated 
from the effect it would instantly vanish. From all this it is 
evident that these three, end, cause, and effect, must be in 
every thing to make it anything. 

168. It must be known further, that the end is everything 
in the cause, and also everything in the effect ; from this it is 
that end, cause, and effect, are called first end, middle end, and 
last end. But that the end may be everything in the cause, 
there must be something from the end [in the cause] wherein 
the end shall be ; and that the end may be everything in the 
effect, there must be something from the end through the 
cause [in the effect] wherein the end shall be. For the end 
cannot be in itself alone, but it must be in something having 
existence from it, in which it can dwell as to all that is its 
own, and by acting, come into effect, until it has permanent 
existence. That in which it has permanent existence is the 
last end, which is called effect. 

169. These three, namely, end, cause, and effect, are in the 
created universe, both in its greatest and least parts. They 
are in the greatest and least parts of the created universe, be- 
cause they are in God the Creator, who is the Lord from 
eternity. But since He is Infinite, and in the Infinite in- 
finite things are one distinctly (as was shown above, n. 
17-22), therefore also these three in Him, and in His infi- 
nites, are one distinctly. From this it is that the universe 
which was created from His Esse, and which, regarded as 
to uses, is His image, possesses these three in each and all 
of its parts. 



80 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Second 

170. The universal end, that is, the end of all things of 
creation, is that there may be an eternal conjunction of the 
Creator with the created universe ; and this is not possible un- 
less there are subjects wherein His Divine can be as in Itself, 
thus in which it can dwell and abide. In order that these 
subjects may be dwelling-places and mansions of Him, they 
must be recixjients of His love and wisdom as of themselves ; 
such, therefore, as will elevate themselves to the Creator as of 
themselves, and conjoin themselves with Him. Without this 
ability to reciprocate no conjunction is possible. These sub-, 
jects are men, who are able as of themselves to elevate and 
conjoin themselves. That men are such subjects, and that 
they are recipients of the Divine as of themselves, has been 
pointed out above many times. By means of this conjunction, 
the Lord is present in every work created by Him ; for every- 
thing has been created for man as its end ; consequently the 
uses of all created things ascend by degrees from outmosts to 
man, and through man to God the Creator from whom [are all 
things] (as was shown above, n. 65-68). 

171. To this last end creation progresses continually, 
through these three, namely, end, cause, and effect, because 
these three are in the Lord the Creator (as was said just 
above) ; and the Divine apart from space is in all space (n. 
69-72) ; and is the same in things greatest and least (77-82) ; 
from which it is evident that the created universe, in its gen- 
eral progression to its last end, is relatively the middle end. 
For out of the earth forms of uses are continually raised by 
the Lord the Creator, in their order up to man, who as to his 
body is also from the earth. Thereafter, man is elevated by 
the reception of love and wisdom from the Lord ; and for this 
reception of love and wisdom, all means are provided ; and he 
has been so made as to be able to receive, if he will. From 
what has now been said it can be seen, though as yet only in 
a general manner, that the end of creation takes form (existat) 
in outmost things ; which end is, that all things may return to 
the Creator, and that there may be conjunction. 



N. 172] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 81 

172. That these three, end, cause, and effect, are in each 
and everything created, can also be seen from this, that all 
effects, which are called last ends, become anew first ends in 
uninterrupted succession from the First, who is the Lord the 
Creator, even to the last end, which is the conjunction of man 
with Him. That all last ends become anew first ends is plain 
from this, that there can be nothing so inert and dead as to 
have no efficient power in it. Even out of sand there is such 
an exhalation as gives aid in producing, and therefore in ef- 
fecting something. 



82 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 



PART THIRD. 

IN THE SPIRITUAL WORLD THERE ARE ATMOSPHERES, 
WATERS AND LANDS, JUST AS IN THE NATURAL 
WORLD ; ONLY THE FORMER ARE SPIRITUAL, WHILE 
THE LATTER ARE NATURAL. 

173. It has been said in the preceding pages, and shown in 
the work on Heaven and Hell, that the spiritual world is like 
the natural world, with the difference only that each and every 
thing of the spiritual world is spiritual, and each and every 
thing of the natural world is natural. As these two worlds are 
alike, there are in both, atmospheres, waters, and lands, which 
are the generals through and from which each and all things 
take their form (existunt) with infinite variety. 

174. As regards the atmospheres, which are called ethers 
and airs, they are alike in both worlds, the spiritual and the 
natural, with the difference only that they are spiritual in the 
spiritual world, and natural in the natural world. The for- 
mer are spiritual, because they have their form from the sun 
which is the first proceeding of the Divine Love and Divine 
Wisdom of the Lord, and from Him receive within them the 
Divine fire which is love, and the Divine light which is wis- 
dom, and carry these down to the heavens where the angels 
dwell, and cause the presence of that sun there in things 
greatest and least. The spiritual atmospheres are divided 
substances, that is, least forms, originating from the sun. As 
these each singly receive the sun, its fire, distributed among so 
many substances, that is, so many forms, and as it were envel- 
oped by them, and tempered by these envelopments, becomes 
heat, adapted finally to the love of angels in heaven and of 
spirits under heaven. The same is true of the light of that 
sun. In this the natural atmosjjheres are like spiritual atmos- 
pheres, that they also are divided substances or least forms 
originating from the sun of the natural world; these also each 



N. 174] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 83 

singly receive the sun and store up its fire in themselves, and 
temper it, and carry it down as heat to the earth, where men 
dwell. The same is true of natural light. 

175. The difference between spiritual and natural atmos- 
pheres is that spiritual atmospheres are receptacles of Divine 
lire and Divine light, thus of love and wisdom, for they con- 
tain these interiorly within them; while natural atmospheres 
are receptacles, not of Divine lire and Divine light, but of the 
lire and light of their own sun, which in itself is dead, as was 
shown above ; consec^uently there is nothing interiorly in them 
from the sun of the spiritual world, although they are envi- 
roned by spiritual atmospheres from that sun. That this is 
the difference between spiritual and natural atmospheres has 
been learned from the wisdom of angels. 

176. That there are atmospheres in the spiritual, just as in 
the natural world, can be seen from this, that angels and 
spirits breathe, and also speak and hear just as men do in the 
natural world; and respiration, speech, and hearing are all ef- 
fected by means of a lowest atmosphere, which is called air ; it 
can be seen also from this, that angels and spirits, like men 
in the natural world, have sight, and sight is possible only by 
means of an atmosphere purer than air; also from this, that 
angels and spirits, like men in the natural world, think and 
are moved by affection, and thought and affection are not pos- 
sible except by means of still purer atmospheres ; and finally 
from this, that all parts of the bodies of angels and spirits, 
external as well as internal, are held together in connection 
by atmospheres, the external by air and the internal by ethers. 
Without the surrounding pressure and action of these atmos- 
pheres the interior and exterior forms of the body would evi- 
dently dissolve away. Since angels are spiritual, and each and 
all things of their bodies are held together in connection, form, 
and order by means of atmospheres, it follows that these atmos- 
pheres are spiritual ; they are spiritual, because they arise from 
the spiritual sun which is the first proceeding of the Lord's 
Divine Love and Divine Wisdom. 



84 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

177. That there are also waters and lands in the spiritual 
as well as in the natural world, with the difference that these 
waters and lands are spiritual, has been said above and has 
been shown in the work on Heaven and Hell ; and because 
these are spiritual, they are moved and modified by the heat 
and light of the spiritual sun, the atmospheres therefrom serv- 
ing as mediums, just as the waters and lands in the natural 

"world are moved and modified by the heat and light of the sun 
of their world, its atmospheres serving as mediums. 

178. Atmospheres, waters, and lands are here specified, be- 
cause these three are generals, through and from which each 
and all things have their form (existunt) in infinite variety. 
The atmospheres are the active forces, the waters are the med- 
iate forces, and the lands are the passive forces, from which all 
effects have existence. These three forces are such in their 
series solely by virtue of life that proceeds from the Lord as 
a sun, and that makes them active. 



THEKE AKE DEGREES OF LOVE AND WISDOM, CONSEQUENTLY 
DEGREES OF HEAT AND LIGHT, ALSO DEGREES OF ATMOS- 
PHERES. 

179. The things which follow cannot be comprehended un- 
less it be known that there are degrees, also what they are, and 
what their nature is, because in every created thing, thus in 
every form, there are degrees. This Part of Angelic JVisdom 
will therefore treat of degrees. That there are degrees of love 
and wisdom can be clearly seen from the fact that there are 
angels of the three heavens. The angels of the third heaven 
so far excel the angels of the second heaven in love and wis- 
dom^ and these, the angels of the lowest heaven, that they 
cannot be together. The degrees of love and wisdom distin- 
guish and separate them. It is from this that angels of the 
lower heavens cannot ascend to angels of higher heavens, or if 



N. 179] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 85 

allowed to ascend, they do not see the higher angels or any- 
thing that is about them. They do not see them because the 
love and wisdom of the higher angels is of a higher degree, 
transcending the perception of the lower angels. For each 
angel is his own love and his own wisdom ; and love together 
with wisdom in its form is a man, because God, who is Love 
itself and Wisdom itself, is a Man. It has sometimes been 
permitted me to see angels of the lowest heaven who have 
ascended to the angels of the third heaven; and when they 
had made their way thither, I have heard them complain- 
ing that they did not see any one, and all the while they were 
in the midst of the higher angels. Afterwards they were 
instructed that those angels were invisible to them because 
their love and wisdom were imperceptible to them, and that 
love and wisdom are what make an angel appear as a man. 

180. That there must be degrees of love and wisdom is 
still more evident when the love and wisdom of angels are 
compared with the love and wisdom of men. It is well known 
that the wisdom of angels, when thus compared, is ineffable ; 
also it will be seen in what follows that to men who are in 
natural love, this wisdom is incomprehensible. It appears inef- 
fable and incomprehensible because it is of a higher degree. 

181. Since there are degrees of love and wisdom, there are 
also degrees of heat and light. By heat and light are meant 
spiritual heat and light, such as angels in the heavens have, 
and such as men have as to the interiors of their minds ; for 
men have a heat of love similar to that of the angels, and a 
similar light of wisdom. In the heavens, such and so much 
love as the angels have, such and so much is their heat ; and 
the same is true of their light as compared with their wisdom ; 
the reason is, that with them love is in the heat, and wisdom 
in the light (as was shown above). It is the same with men 
on earth, with the difference, however, that angels feel that 
heat and see that light, but men do not, because they are in 
natural heat and light; and while they are in the natural heat 
and light spiritual heat is not felt except by a certain enjoy- 



86 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

ment of love, and spiritual light is not seen except by a per- 
ception of truth. Now since man, so long as he is in natural 
heat and light, knows nothing of the spiritual heat and light 
within him, and since knowledge of these can be obtained 
only through experience from the spiritual world, the heat 
and light in which the angels and their heavens are, shall here 
be especially spoken of. From this and from no other source 
can enlightenment on this subject be had. 

182. But degrees of spiritual heat cannot be described 
from experience, because love, to which spiritual heat corre- 
sponds, does not come thus under ideas of thought; but de- 
grees of spiritual light can be described, because light pertains 
to thought, and therefore comes under ideas of thought. Yet 
degrees of spiritual heat can be comprehended by their rela^ 
tion to the degrees of light, for the two are in like degree. 
With respect then to spiritual light in which angels are, it has 
been granted me to see it with my eyes. With angels of the 
higher heavens, the light is so glistening white as to be inde- 
scribable, even by comparison with the shining whiteness of 
snow, and so glowing as to be indescribable even by compari- 
son with the beams of this world's sun. In a word, that light 
exceeds a thousand times the noonday light upon earth. But 
the light with angels of the lower heavens can be described in 
a measure by comparisons, although it still exceeds the most 
intense light of our world. The light of angels of the higher 
heavens is indescribable, because their light makes one with 
their wisdom; and because their wisdom, compared to the 
wisdom of men, is ineffable, thus also is their light. From 
these few things it can be seen that there must be degrees of 
light; and because wisdom and love are of like degrees, it fol- 
lows that there must be like degrees of heat. 

183. Since atmospheres are the receptacles and containants 
of heat and light, it follows that there are as many degrees of 
atmospheres as there are degrees of heat and light; also that 
there are as many as there are degrees of love and wisdom. 
That there are several atmospheres, and that these are dis- 



N. 183] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 87 

tinct from each other by means of degrees, has been mani- 
fested to me by much experience in the spiritual world ; espe- 
cially from this, that angels of the lower heavens are not able 
to breathe in the region of higher angels, and appear to them- 
selves to gasp for breath, as living creatures do when they are 
raised out of air into ether, or out of water into air. More- 
over, spirits below the heavens appear in a kind of cloud. 
That there are several atmospheres, and that they are dis- 
tinct from each other by means of degrees, may be seen above 
(n. 176). 



DEGREES ARE OF A TWOFOLD KIND, DEGREES OF HEIGHT AND 
DEGREES OF BREADTH. 

184. A knowledge of degrees is like a key to lay open the 
causes of things, and to give entrance into them. Without this 
knowledge, scarcely anything of cause can be known ; for with- 
out it, the objects and subjects of both worlds seem to have 
but a single meaning, as if there were nothing in them beyond 
that which meets the eye ; when yet compared to the things 
which lie hidden within, what is thus seen is as one to thou- 
sands, yea, to tens of thousands. The interiors which are not 
open to view can in no way be discovered except through a 
knowledge of degrees. For things exterior advance to things 
interior and through these to things inmost, by means of 
degrees; not by continuous degrees but by discrete degrees. 
" Continuous degrees " is a term applied to the gradual lessen- 
ings or decreasings from grosser to finer, or from denser to 
rarer ; or rather, to growths and increasings from finer to 
grosser, or from rarer to denser ; precisely like the gradations 
of light to shade, or of heat to cold. But discrete degrees are 
entirely different : they are like things prior, subsequent and 
final; or like end, cause, and effect. These degrees are called 
discrete, because the prior is by itself ; the subsequent by itself ; 
and the final by itself ; and yet taken together they make one. 



88 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

There are atmospheres, from highest to lowest, that is, from 
the sun to the earth, called ethers and airs that are separated 
into such degrees ; they are like simples, collections of simples, 
and again collections of these, which taken together are called 
a composite. Such degrees are discrete [or separate], because 
each has a distinct existence, and these degrees are what are 
meant by " degrees of height ;" but the former degrees are con- 
tinuous, because they increase continuously and these degrees 
are what are meant by " degrees of breadth." 

185. Each and all things that have existence in the spiritual 
world and in the natural world, have conjoint existence from 
discrete degrees and from continuous degrees together, that is, 
from degrees of height and from degrees of breadth. The 
dimension which consists of discrete degrees is called height, 
and the dimension that consists of continuous degrees is called 
breadth ; their position relatively to the sight of the eye does 
not alter the designation. Without a knowledge of these de- 
grees nothing can be known of how the three heavens differ 
from each other ; nor can anything be known of the differences 
of love and wisdom of the angels there ; nor of the differences 
of heat and light in which they are ; nor of the differences of 
atmospheres which environ and contain these. Nor without a 
knowledge of these degrees can anything be known of the 
differences among the interior powers of the minds of men, 
thus nothing of their state as regards reformation and regen- 
eration; nor anything of the differences among the exterior 
powers of the bodies both of angels and men ; and nothing 
whatever can be known of the distinction between spiritual 
and natural, thus nothing of correspondence. Nor, indeed, can 
anything be known of any difference between the life of men 
and that of beasts, or between the more perfect and the less 
perfect animals ; neither of the differences among the forms 
of the vegetable kingdom, nor among the matters of the min- 
eral kingdom. From which it can be seen that they who are 
ignorant of these degrees are unable to see causes from any- 
thing of judgment; they see only effects, and from these judge 



N. 185] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 89 

of causes, which is done for the most part by an induction 
that is continuous with effects. But causes produce effects 
not continuously but discretely; for cause is one thing, and 
effect is another. The difference between the two" is like the 
difference between prior and subsequent, or between that 
which forms and that which is formed. 

186. That it may be still better comprehended what dis- 
crete degrees are, what their nature is, and how they differ 
from continuous degrees, the angelic heavens may serve as an 
example. There are three heavens, and these are separated 
by degrees of height; therefore the heavens are one below 
8.nother, nor do they communicate with each other except by 
iniiux, which proceeds from the Lord through the heavens in 
their order to the lowest; and not contrariwise. Each heaven 
by itself, however, is divided not by degrees of height but by 
degrees of breadth. Those who are in the middle, that is, at 
the center, are in the light of wisdom; but those who are 
around about, even to the boundaries, are in the shade of v^^is- 
dom. Thus wisdom grows less and less even to ignorance, as 
light decreases to shade, which takes place continuously. It 
is the same with men. The interiors belonging to their minds 
are separated into as many degrees as the angelic heavens ; 
and these degrees are one above another; therefore the inte- 
riors of men which belong to their minds are separated by dis- 
crete degrees, that is, degrees of height. Consequently a man 
may be in the lowest degree, then in a higher, and also in the 
highest degree, according to the degree of his wisdom ; more- 
over, when he is in the lowest degree only, the higher degree 
is shut, but is opened as he receives wisdom from the Lord. 
There are also in a man, as in heaven, continuous degrees, that 
is^ degrees of breadth. A man is like the heavens because as 
regards the interiors of his mind, he is a heaven in least form, 
in the measure in which he is in love and wisdom from the 
Lord. That man as regards the interiors of his mind is a 
heaven in least form may be seen in the work on Heaven and 
Hell (n. 51-58.) 



90 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

187. From all this it can be seen, that one who knows 
nothing about discrete degrees, that is, degrees of height, can 
know nothing about the state of man as regards his reforma- 
tion and regeneration, which are effected through the recep- 
tion of love and wisdom of the Lord, and then through the 
opening of the interior degrees of his mind in their order. 
Nor can he know anything about influx from the Lord 
through the heavens nor anything about the order into which 
he was created. For if anyone thinks about these, not from 
discrete degrees or degrees of height but from continuous 
degrees or degrees of breadth, he is not able to perceive any- 
thing about them from causes, but only from effects ; and to 
see from effects only is to see from fallacies, from which come 
errors, one after another; and these may be so multiplied by 
inductions that at length enormous falsities are called truths. 

188. I am not aware that anything has been known hitherto 
about discrete degrees or degrees of height, only continuous 
degrees or degrees of breadth have been known ; yet nothing 
of the real truth about cause can become known without a 
knowledge of degrees of both kinds. These degrees therefore 
shall be treated of throughout this Part; for it is the object 
of this little work to uncover causes, that effects may be seen 
from them, and thus the darkness may be dispelled in which 
the man of the church is in respect to God and the Lord, and 
in respect to Divine things in general which are called spir- 
itual things. This I may mention, that the angels are in grief 
for the darkness on the earth ; saying that they see light hardly 
anywhere, and that men eagerly lay hold of fallacies and con- 
firm them, thereby multiplying falsities upon falsities ; and to 
confirm fallacies men search out, by means of reasonings from 
falsities and from truths falsified, such things as cannot be 
controverted, owing to the darkness in respect to causes and 
the ignorance respecting truths. The angels lament especially 
over confirmations respecting faith separate from charity and 
justification thereby ; also over men's ideas about God, angels 
and spirits, and their ignorance of what love and wisdom are. 



N. 189] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 91 

DEGREES OF HEIGHT ARE HOMOGENEOUS, AND ONE IS FROM THE 
OTHER IN SUCCESSION LIKE END, CAUSE, AND EFFECT. 

189. As degrees of breadth, that is continuous degi-ees, are 
like gradations from light to shade, from heat to cold, from 
hard to soft, from dense to rare, from thick to thin, and so 
forth ; and as these degrees are known from sensuous and ocular 
experience, while degrees of height, or discrete degrees, are 
not, the latter kind shall be treated of especially in this Part; 
for without a knowledge of these degrees, causes cannot be 
seen. It is known indeed that end, cause, and effect follow in 
order, like prior, subsequent, and final; also that the end be- 
gets the cause, and, through the cause, the effect, that the end 
may have form; also about these many other things are 
known ; and yet to know these things, and not to see them in 
their applications to existing things is simply to know abstrac- 
tions, which remain in the memory only so long as the mind is 
in analytical ideas from metaph3'sical thought. From this it 
is that although end, cause, and effect advance according to 
discrete degrees, little if anything is known in the world about 
these degrees. Eor a mere knowledge of abstractions is like an 
airy something which flies away; but when abstractions are 
applied to such things as are in the world, they become like 
what is seen with the eyes on earth, and remains in the memory. 

190. All things which have existence in the world, of which 
threefold dimension is predicated, that is, which are called 
compounds, consist of degrees of height, that is, discrete de- 
grees ; as examples will make clear. It is known from ocular 
experience, that every muscle in the human body consists of 
minute fibers, and these put together into little bundles form 
larger fibers, called motor fibers, and groups of these form the 
compound called a muscle. It is the same with nerves; in 
these from minute fibers larger fibers are compacted, which 
appear as filaments, and these grouped together compose the 
nerve. The same is true of the rest of the combinations, bund- 
lings and groupings out of which the organs and viscera are 



92 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

made up ; for these are compositions of fibers and vessels vari- 
ously put together according to like degrees. It is the same 
also with each and every thing of the vegetable and mineral 
kingdoms. In woods there are combmations of filaments in 
threefold order. In metals and stones there are groupings of 
parts, also in threefold order. From all this the nature of dis- 
crete degrees can be seen, namely, that one is from the other, 
and through the second there is a third which is called the com- 
posite ; and that each degree is discreted from the others. 

191. From these examples a conclusion may be formed re- 
specting those things that are not visible to the eye, for with 
those it is the same; for example, with the organic substances 
which are the receptacles and abodes of thoughts and affections 
in the brains ; with atmospheres ; with heat and light ; and with 
love and wisdom. For atmospheres are receptacles of heat and 
light; and heat and light are receptacles of love and wisdom; 
consequently, as there are degrees of atmospheres, there are 
also like degrees of heat and light, amd of love and wisdom; 
for the same principle applies to the latter as to the former. 

192. That these degrees are homogeneous, that is, of the 
same character and nature, appears from what has just been 
said. The motor fibers of muscles, least, larger, and largest, 
are homogeneous. Woody filaments, from the least to the com- 
posite formed of these, are homogeneous. So likewise are parts 
of stones and metals of every kind. The organic substances 
which are receptacles and abodes of thoughts and affections, 
from the most simple to their general aggregate which is the 
brain, are homogeneous. The atmospheres, from pure ether to 
air, are homogeneous. The degrees of heat and light in series, 
following the degrees of atmospheres, are homogeneous, there- 
fore the degrees of love and wisdom are also homogeneous. 
Things which are not of the same character and nature are 
heterogeneous, and do not harmonize with things homogene- 
ous; thus they cannot form discrete degrees with them, but 
only with their own, which are of the same character and nat- 
ure and with which they are homogeneous. 



N. 193] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 93 

193. That these things in their order are like ends, causes, 
and effects, is evident ; for the lirst, which is the least, effectu- 
ates its cause by means of the middle, and its effect by means 
of the last. 

194. It should be known that each degree is made distinct 
from the others by coverings of its own, and that all the de- 
grees together are made distinct by means of a general cover- 
ing; also, that this general covering communicates with interi- 
ors and inmosts in their order. From this there is conjunction 
of all and unanimous action. 



THE FIRST DEGREE IS THE ALL IN EVERYTHING OF THE 

SUBSEQUENT DEGREES. 

195. This is because the degrees of each subject and of each 
thing are homogeneous; and they are homogeneous because 
produced from the first degree. For their formation is such 
that the first, by bundlings or groupings, in a word, by aggrega- 
tions of parts, produces the second, and through this the third ; 
and discretes each from the other by a covering drawn around 
it ; from which it is clear that the first degree is chief and sin- 
gly supreme in the subsequent degrees ; consequently that in 
all things of the subsequent degrees, the first is the all. 

196. When it is said that degrees are such in respect to 
each other, the meaning is that substances are such in their 
degrees. This manner of speaking by degrees is abstract, that 
is, universal, which makes the statement applicable to every 
subject or thing which is in degrees of this kind. 

197. This can be applied to all those things which have 
been enumerated in the preceding chapter, to the muscles, the 
nerves, the matters and parts of both the vegetable and min- 
eral kingdoms, to the organic substances that are the subjects 
of thoughts and affections in man, to atmospheres, to heat and 
light, and to love and wisdom. In all these, the first is singly 



94 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

supreme in the subsequent things ; yea, it is the sole thing in 
them, and because it is the sole thing in them, it is the all in 
them. That this is so is clear also from these well-known 
truths ; that the end is the all of the cause, and through the 
cause is the all of the effect; and thus end, cause, and effect 
are called first, middle, and last end. Further, that the cause 
of the cause is also the cause of the thing caused; and that 
there is nothing essential in causes except the end, and noth- 
ing essential in movement excepting effort (conatus) ; also, 
that the substance that is substance in itself is the sole sub- 
stance. 

198. From all this it can clearly be seen that the Divine, 
which is substance in itself, that is, the one only and sole sub- 
stance, is the substance from which is each and every thing 
that has been created ; thus that God is the All in all things 
of the miiverse, according to what has been shown in Part 
First, as follows. Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are sub- 
stance and form (n. 40-43) ; Divine Love and Divine Wisdom 
are substance and form in itself, therefore the Very and the 
Only (n. 44-46) ; all things in the universe were created by 
Divine Love and Divine Wisdom (n. 52-60) ; consequently the 
created universe is His image (n. 61-65) ; the Lord alone is 
heaven where angels are (n. 113-118). 



ALL PERFECTIONS INCREASE AND ASCEND ALONG WITH DE. 
GREES AND ACCORDING TO THEM. 

199. That degrees are of two kinds, degrees of breadth and 
degrees of height has been shown above (n. 184-188); also 
that degrees of breadth are like those of light verging to 
shade, or of wisdom verging to ignorance ; but that degrees of 
height are like end, cause and effect, or like prior, subsequent 
and final. Of these latter degrees it is said that they ascend 
or descend, for they are of height ; but of the former that they 



N. 199] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 95 

increase or decrease for they are of breadth. These two kinds 
of degrees differ so much that they have nothing in common ; 
they should therefore be perceived as distinct, and by no means 
be confounded. 

200. All perfections increase and ascend along with degrees 
and according to them, because all predicates follow their sub- 
jects, and perfection and imperfection are general predicates; 
for they are predicated of life, of forces and of forms. 

Ferfection of life is perfection of love and wisdom ; and be- 
cause the will and understanding are receptacles of love and 
wisdom, perfection of life is also perfection of will and under- 
standing, consequently of affections and thoughts ; and because 
spiritual heat is the containant of love, and spiritual light is 
the containant of wisdom, perfection of these may also be 
referred to perfection of life. 

Perfection of forces is perfection of all things that are act- 
uated and moved by life, in which, however, there is no life. 
Atmospheres as to their active powers are such forces ; the 
interior and exterior organic substances with man, and with 
animals of every kind, are such forces ; all things in the natural 
world that are endowed with active powers both immediately 
and mediately from its sun are sach forces. 

Ferfection of forms and perfection of forces make one, for 
as the forces are, such are the forms ; with the difference only, 
that forms are substances but forces are their activities ; there- 
fore like degrees of perfection belong to both. Porms that 
are not at the same time forces are also perfect according to 
degrees. 

201. The perfection of life, forces, and forms that increase 
or decrease according to degrees of breadth, that is, continu- 
ous degrees, will not be discussed here, because there is a 
knowledge of these degrees in the world ; but only the perfec- 
tions of life, forces, and forms that ascend or descend accord- 
ing to degrees of height, that is, discrete degrees ; because 
these degrees are not known in the world. Of the mode in 
which perfections ascend and descend according to these de- 



96 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

grees little can be learned from things visible in the natural 
world, but this can be seen clearly from things visible in the 
spiritual world. From things visible in the natural world it 
is merely found that the more interiorly they are looked into 
the more do wonders present themselves; as, for instance, in 
the eyes, ears, tongue ; in muscles, heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, 
kidneys, and other viscera; also, in seeds, fruits and flowers; 
and in metals, minerals and stones. That wonders increase 
in all these the more interiorly they are looked into is well 
known ; yet it has become little known thereby that the objects 
are interiorly more perfect according to degrees of height or 
discrete degrees. This has been concealed by ignorance of 
these degrees. But since these degrees stand out conspicuously 
in the spiritual world (for the whole of that world from high- 
est to lowest is distinctly discreted into these degrees), from 
that world knowledge of these degrees can be drawn; and 
afterwards conclusions may be drawn therefrom respecting the 
perfection of forces and forms that are in similar degrees in 
the natural world. 

202. In the spiritual world there are three heavens, arranged 
according to degrees of height. In the highest heavens are 
angels superior in every perfection to the angels in the middle 
heaven; and in the middle heaven are angels superior in every 
perfection to the angels in the lowest heaven. The degrees of 
perfections are such, that angels of the lowest heaven cannot 
attain to the first threshold of the perfections of the angels 
of the middle heaven, nor these to the first threshold of the 
perfections of the angels of the highest heaven. This seems 
incredible, yet it is a truth. The reason is that they are con- 
sociated according to discrete, not according to continuous 
degrees. I have learned from observation that the difference 
between the affections and thoughts, and consequently the 
speech, of the angels of the higher and the lower heavens, is 
such that they have nothing in common ; and that communica- 
tion takes place only through correspondences, which have 
existence by immediate influx of the Lord into all the heavens, 



N. 202] CONCERNING DIVINE LOYE 97 

and by mediate influx tlirougli the highest heaven into the 
lowest. Such being the nature of these differences, they can- 
not be expressed in natural language, therefore not described; 
for the thoughts of angels, being spiritual, do not fall into 
natural ideas. They can be expressed and described only by 
angels themselves, in their own languages, words, and writings, 
and not in those that are human. This is why it is said that 
in the heavens unspeakable things are heard and seen. These 
differences may be in some measure comprehended when it is 
known that the thoughts of angels of the highest or third 
heaven are thoughts of ends ; the thoughts of angels of the 
middle or second heaven thoughts of causes, and the thoughts 
of angels of the lowest or first heaven thoughts of effects. It 
must be noted, that it is one thing to think from ends, and 
another to think about ends ; that it is one thing to think from 
causes, and another to think about causes; and that it is one 
thing to think from effects, and another to think about effects. 
Angels of the lower heavens think about causes and about 
ends, but angels of the higher heavens from causes and from 
ends ; and to think from these is a mark of higher wisdom, 
but to think about these is the mark of lower wisdom. To 
think from ends is of wisdom, to think from causes is of intel- 
ligence, and to think from effects is of knowledge. From all 
this it is clear that all perfection ascends and descends along 
with degrees and according to them. 

203. Since the interior things of man, which are of his will 
and understanding, are like the heavens in respect to degrees 
(for man, as to the interiors of his mind, is a heaven in least 
form), their perfections also are like those of the heavens. 
But these perfections are not apparent to any one so long a& 
he lives in the world, because he is then in the lowest degree ; 
and from the lowest degree the higher degrees cannot be 
known; but they are known after death, because man then 
enters into that degree which corresponds to his love and wis- 
dom, for he then becomes an angel, and thinks and speaks 
things ineffable to his natural man; for there is then an eleva- 
7 



98 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

tion of all things of his mind, not in a single, but in a threefold 
ratio. Degrees of height are in threefold ratio, but degrees of 
breadth are in single ratio. But into degrees of height none 
ascend and are elevated except those who in the world have 
been in truths, and have applied them to life. 

204. It seems as if things prior must be less perfect than 
things subsequent, that is, things simple than things com- 
posite; but things prior out of which things subsequent are 
formed, that is, things simple out of which things composite 
are formed, are the more perfect. The reason is that the prior 
or the simpler are more naked and less covered over with sub- 
stances and matters devoid of life, and are, as it were, more Di- 
vine, consequently nearer to the spiritual sun where the Lord 
is ; for perfection itself is in the Lord, and from Him in that 
sun which is the first proceeding of His Divine Love and 
Divine Wisdom, and from that in those things which come 
immediately after; and thus in order down to things lowest, 
which are less perfect as they are farther removed. Without 
such preeminent perfection in things prior and simple, neither 
man nor any kind of animal could have come into existence 
from seed, and afterwards continue to exist; nor could the 
seeds of trees and shrubs vegetate and bear fruit. For the 
more prior anything prior is, or the more simple anything 
simple is, the more exempt is it from injury, because it is more 
perfect. 



IN SUCCESSIVE ORDER THE FIRST DEGREE MAKES THE HIGH- 
EST, AND THE THIRD THE LOWEST ; BUT IN SIMULTANEOUS 
ORDER THE FIRST DEGREE MAKES THE INNERMOST, AND 
THE THIRD THE OUTERMOST. 

205. There is successive order and simultaneous order. 
The successive order of these degrees is from highest to lowest, 
or from top to bottom. The angelic heavens are in this order ; 
the third heaven there is the highest, the second is the middle, 
and the first is the lowest; such is their relative situation. In 



N. 205] CONCERNING DIVINP: LOVE 99 

like successive order are the states of love and wisdom with 
the angels there, also states of heat and light, and of the spir- 
itual atmospheres. In like order are all the perfections of the 
forms and forces there. When degrees of height, that is, dis- 
crete degrees, are in successive order, they may be compared to 
a column divided into three stories, through which ascent and 
descent are made. In the upper rooms are things most perfect 
and most beautiful; in the middle rooms, things less perfect 
and beautiful ; in the lowest, things still less perfect and beau- 
tiful. But simidtaneous order, which consists of like degrees, 
has another appearance. In it, the highest things of succes- 
sive order, which are (as was said above) the most perfect and 
most beautiful, are in the inmost, the lower things are in the 
middle, and the lowest in the circumference. They are as if 
in a solid body composed of these three degrees : in the mid- 
dle or center are the finest parts, round about this are parts 
less fine, and in the extremes Avhich constitute the circumfer- 
ence are the parts composed of these and which are therefore 
grosser. It is like the column mentioned just above subsiding 
into a plane, the highest part of which forms the innermost of 
the plane, the middle forms the middle, and the lowest the 
outermost. 

206. As the highest of successive order becomes the inner- 
most of simultaneous order, and the lowest becomes the outer- 
most, so in the Word, "higher" signifies inner, and "lower" 
signifies outer. " Upwards" and " downwards," and " high" and 
" deep" have a like meaning. 

207. In every outmost there are discrete degrees in simul- 
taneous order. The motor fibers in every muscle, the fibers 
in every nerve, also the fibers and the little vessels in all 
viscera and organs, are in such an order. Innermost in these 
are the most simple things, which are the most perfect; the 
outermost is a composite of these. There is a like order of 
these degrees in every seed and in every fruit, also in every 
metal and stone; their parts, of which the whole is com- 
posed, are of such a nature. The innermost, the middle, and 



100 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

the outermost elements of the parts exist in these degrees, for 
they are successive compositions, that is, bundlings and mass- 
ings together from simples that are their first substances or 
matters, 

208. In a word, there are such degrees in every outmost, 
thus in every effect. For every outmost consists of things 
prior, and these of their firsts. And every effect consists of a 
cause, and this of an end; and end is the all of cause, and 
cause is the all of effect (as was shown above) ; and end makes 
the inmost, cause the middle, and effect the outmost. The 
same is true of degrees of love and wisdom, and of heat and 
light, also of the organic forms of affections and thoughts in 
man (as will be seen in what follows). The series of these 
degrees in successive order and in simultaneous order has been 
treated of also in The Doctrine of the N&w Jeriisaleifn Concern- 
ing the Sacred Scripture (n. 38, and elsewhere), where it is 
shown that there are like degrees in each and all things of 
the Word. 



THE OUTMOST DEGREE IS THE COMPLEX, CONTAINANT AND 
BASE OF THE PRIOR DEGREES. 

209. The doctrine of degrees which is taught in this Part, 
has hitherto been illustrated by various things which exist in 
both worlds; as by the degrees of the heavens where angels 
dwell, by the degrees of heat and light with them, and by the 
degrees of atmospheres, and by various things in the human 
body, and also in the animal and mineral kingdoms. But this 
doctrine has a wider range ; it extends not only to natural, but 
also to civil, moral, and spiritual things, and to each and all 
their details. There are two reasons why the doctrine of 
degrees extends also to such things. First, in every thing of 
which anything can be predicated there is the trine which is 
called end, cause, and effect, and these three are related to one 
another according to degrees of height. And secondly, things 



N. 209] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 101 

civil, moral, and spiritual are not something abstract from sub- 
stance, but are substances. For as love and wisdom are not 
abstract things, but substance (as was shown above, n. 40-43), 
so in like manner are all things that are called civil, moral, and 
spiritual. These may be thought of abstractly from substances, 
yet in themselves they are not abstract; as for example, affec- 
tion and thought, charity and faith, will and understanding; 
for it is the same with these as with love and wisdom, in that 
they are not possible outside of subjects which are substan- 
ces, but are states of subjects, that is, substances. That they 
are .changes of these, presenting variations, will be seen in 
what follows. By substance is also meant form, for substance 
is not possible apart from form. 

210. From its being possible to think of will and under- 
standing, of affection and thought, and of charity and faith, 
abstractly from the substances which are their subjects, and 
from their having been so thought of, it has come to pass, that 
a correct idea of these things, as being states of substances or 
forms, has perished. It is altogether as with sensations and 
actions, which are not things abstract from the organs of sen- 
sation a:p.d motion. Abstracted, that is, separate, from these 
they are mere figments of reason ; for they are like sight apart 
from an eye, hearing apart from an ear, taste apart from a 
tongue, and so forth. 

211. Since all things civil, moral, and spiritual advance 
through degrees, just as natural things do, not only through 
continuous but also through discrete degrees; and since the 
progressions of discrete degrees are like progressions of ends 
to causes, and of causes to effects, I have chosen to illustrate 
and confirm the present point, that the outmost degree is the 
complex, containant, and base of prior degrees, by the things 
above mentioned, that is, by what pertains to love and wis- 
dom, to will and understanding, to affection and thought, and 
to charity and faith. 

212. That the outmost degree is the complex, containant, 
and base of prior degrees, is clearly seen from progression of 



102 ANGELIC WISDOM [Pakt Third 

ends and causes to effects. That the effect is the complex, 
containant, and base of causes and ends can be comprehended 
by enlightened reason ; but it is not so clear that the end with 
all things thereof, and the cause with all things thereof, are 
actually in the effect, and that the effect is their full complex. 
That such is the case can be seen from what has been said 
above in this Part, particularly from this, that one thing is f rom. 
another in a threefold series, and that the effect is nothing else 
than the end in its outmost. And since the outmost is the com- 
plex, it follows that it is the containant and also the base. 

213. As regards love and wisdom: — Love is the end, wis- 
dom the instrumental cause, and use is the effect; and use is 
the complex, containant, and base of wisdom and love ; and use 
is such a complex and such a containant, that all things of 
love and all things of wisdom are actually in it; it is where 
they are all simultaneously present. But it should be borne 
in mind that all things of love and wisdom, which are homo- 
geneous and concordant, are present in use, according to what 
is said and shown above (in chapter, n. 189-194). 

214. Affection, thought, and action are also in a series of 
like degrees, because all affection has relation to love, thought 
to wisdom, and action to use. Charity, faith, and good works 
are in a series of like degrees, for charity is of affection, faith 
of thought, and good works of action. Will, understanding, 
and doing are also in a series of like degrees; for will is of 
love and so of affection, understanding is of wisdom and so of 
faith, and doing is of use and so of work. As, then, all things 
of wisdom and love are present in use, so all things of thought 
and affection are present in action, all things of faith and 
charity in good works, and so forth; but all are homogeneous, 
that is, concordant. 

215. That the outmost in each series, that is to say, use, 
action, work, and doing, is the complex and containant of all 
things prior, has not yet been known. There seems to be 
nothing more in use, in action, in work, and in doing than 
such as there is in movement ; yet all things prior are actually 



N. 215] CONCERNING ])IVINE LOVE 103 

present in tliese, and so fully that nothing is lacking. They 
are contained therein like wine in its cask, or like furniture in 
a house. They are not apparent, because they are regarded 
only externally ; and regarded externally they are simply activ- 
ities and motions. It is as when the arms and hands are 
moved, and man is not conscious that a thousand motor fibers 
concur in every motion of them, and that to the thousand 
motor fibers correspond thousands of things of thought and 
affection, by which the motor fibers are excited. As these act 
deep within, they are not apparent to any bodily sense. This 
much is known, that nothing is done in or through the body 
except from the will through the thought; and because both 
of these act, it must needs be that each and all things of the 
will and thought are present in the action. They cannot be 
separated ; consequently from a man's deeds or works others 
judge of the thought of his will, which is called his intention. 
It has been made known to me that angels, from a man's deed 
or work alone, perceive and see every thing of the will and 
thought of the doer ; angels of the third heaven perceiving and 
seeing from his will the end for which he acts, and angels of the 
second heaven the cause through which the end operates. It is 
from this that works and deeds are so often commanded in the 
Word, and that it is said that a man is known by his works. 
216. It is according to angelic wisdom that unless the will 
and understanding, that is, affection and thought, as well as 
charity and faith, clothe and wrap themselves in works or 
deeds, whenever possible, they are only like something airy 
which passes away, or like phantoms in air which perish; and 
that they first become permanent in man and a part of his 
life, when he practises and does them. The reason is that the 
outmost is the complex, containant, and base of things prior. 
Such an airy nothing and such a phantom is faith separated 
from good works; such also are faith and charity without 
their exercise, with this difference only, that those who hold to 
faith and charity know what is good and can will to do it, but 
not so those who are in faith separated from charity. 



i04 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

THE DEGREES OF HEIGHT ARE IN FULNESS AND IN POWER 
IN THEIR OUTMOST DEGREE. 

217. In the preceding chapter it is shown that the outmost 
degree is the complex and containant of prior degrees. From 
this it follows that prior degrees are in their f nines s in their 
ontmost degree, for they are in their effect, and every effect is 
the fnlness of causes. 

218. That these ascending and descending degrees, also 
called prior and subsequent, likewise degrees of height or dis- 
crete degrees, are in their power in their outmost degree, may 
be confirmed by all those things that have been adduced in the 
preceding chapters as confirmations from objects of sense and 
perception. Here, however, I choose to confirm them only by 
the conatus, forces and motions in dead and in living subjects. 
It is known that conatus does nothing of itself, but acts through 
forces corresponding to it, thereby producing motion; conse- 
quently that conatus is the all in forces, and through forces is 
the all in motion; and since motion is the outmost degree of 
conatus, through motion conatus exerts its power, Conatus, 
force, and motion are no otherwise conjoined than according to 
degrees of height, conjunction of which is not by continuity, 
for they are discrete, but by correspondences. For conatus is 
not force, nor is force motion, but force is produced by con- 
atus, because force is conatus made active, and through force 
motion is produced ; consequently there is no power in conatus 
alone, nor in force alone, but in motion, which is their product. 
That this is so may still seem doubtful, because not illustrated 
by applications to sensible and perceptible things in nature : 
nevertheless, such is the progression of conatus, force, and mo- 
tion into power. 

219. But let; application of this be made to living conatus, 
and to living force, and to living motion. Living conatus in 
man, who is a living subject, is his will united to his under- 
standing; living forces in man are the interior constituents of 
his body ; in all of which there are motor fibers interlacing in 



N. 219] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 105 

various ways; and living motion in man is action, which is 
produced through these forces by the will united to the under- 
standing. For the interior things pertaining to the will and 
understanding make the first degree; the interior things per- 
taining to the body make the second degree; and the whole 
body, which is the complex of these, makes the third degree. 
That the interior things pertaining to the mind have no power 
except through forces in the body, also that forces have no 
power except through the action of the body itself, is well 
known. These three do not act by what is continuous, but by 
what is discrete; and to act by what is discrete is to act by 
correspondences. The interiors of the mind correspond to the 
interiors of the body, and the interiors of the body correspond 
to the exteriors, through which actions come forth; conse- 
quently the two prior degrees have power through the exte- 
riors of the body. It may seem as if conatus and forces in 
man have some power even when there is no action, as in sleep 
and in states of rest, but still at such times the determinations 
of conatus and forces are directed into the general motor 
organs of the body, which are the heart and the lungs ; but 
when their action ceases the forces also cease, and, with the 
forces, the conatus. 

220. Since the powers of the whole, that is, of the body, are 
determined chiefly into the arms and hands, which are outmosts, 
"arms" and "hands," in the Word, signify power, and the 
"right hand" signifies superior power. And such being the 
evolution and putting forth of degrees into power, the angels 
that are with man and in correspondence with all things 
belonging to him, know merely from such action as is effected 
through the hands, what a man is in respect to his understand- 
ing and will, also his charity and faith, thus in respect to the 
internal life pertaining to his mind and the external life de- 
rived therefrom in the body. I have often wondered that the 
angels have such knowledge from the mere action of the body 
through the hands.; but that it is so has been shown to me 
repeatedly by living experience, and it has been said that it is 



106 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

from tins that inductions into the ministry are performed by 
the laying on of the hands, and that " touching with the hand" 
signifies communicating, with other like things. From all this 
the conclusion is formed, that the all of charity and faith is in 
works, and that charity and faith without works are like rain- 
bows about the sun, which vanish away and are dispersed by 
a cloud. On this account " works" and " doing works" are so 
often mentioned in the Word, and it is said that a man's sal- 
vation depends upon these ; moreover, he that doeth is called 
a wise man, and he that doeth not is called a foolish man. 
But it should be remembered that by "works" here are meant 
uses actually done ; for the all of charity and faith is in uses 
and according to uses. There is this correspondence of works 
with uses, because the correspondence is si^iritual, but it is car- 
ried out through substances and matters, which are subjects. 

221. Two arcana, which are brought within reach of the 
understanding by what precedes, may here be revealed. The 
First Arca7ium is that the Word is in its fulness and in its 
power in the sense of the letter. For there are three senses in 
the Word, according to the three degrees ; the celestial sense, 
the spiritual sense, and the natural sense. Since these senses 
are in the Word according to the three degrees of height, and 
their conjunction is effected by correspondences, the outmost 
sense, which is the natural and is called the sense of the letter, 
is not only the complex, containant and base of the corre- 
sponding interior senses, but moreover in the outmost sense 
the Word is in its fulness and in its power. This is abun- 
dantly shown and proved in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem 
Concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 27-35, 36-49, 50-61, 62-69). 
The Second Arcanum is that the Lord came into the world, 
and took upon Him the Human, in order to put Himself into 
the power of subjugating the hells, and of reducing all things 
to order both in the heavens and on the earth. This Human 
He put on over His former Human. This Human which He 
put on in the world was like the human of a man in the world. 
Yet both Humans are Divine, and therefore infinitely trans- 



N. 221] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 107 

cenci the finite liiiiiians of angels and men. And because He 
fully glorified the natural Human even to its outmosts, He rose 
again with the whole body, differently from any num. Through 
the assumption of this Human the Lord put on Divine Omni- 
potence not only for subjugating the hells, and reducing the 
heavens to order, but also holding the hells in sul)jection to 
eternity, and saving mankind. This power is meant by His 
"sitting at the right hand of the power and might of God.'' 
Because the Lord, by the assumption of a natural Human, 
made Himself Divine Truth in outmosts. He is called "the 
Word," and it is said that "the Word was made flesh;" more- 
over. Divine Truth in outmosts is the Word in the sense of the 
letter. This the Lord made Himself by fulfilling all things of 
the Word concerning Himself m Moses and the Prophets. For 
while every man is his own good and his own truth, and man 
is man on no other ground, the Lord, by the assumption of a 
natural Human, is Divine Good itself and Divine Truth itself, 
or what is the same. He is Divine Love itself and Divine Wis- 
dom itself, both in Firsts and in Lasts. Consequently the Lord, 
since His advent into the world, appears as a sun in the 
angelic heavens, in stronger radiance and in greater splendor 
than before His advent. This is an arcanum which is brought 
within the range of the understanding by the doctrine of de- 
grees. The Lord's omnipotence before His advent into the 
world will be treated of in what follows. 



THERE ARE DEGREES OF BOTH KINDS IN THE GREATEST AND 
IN THE LEAST OF ALL CREATED THINGS. 

222. That the greatest and the least of all things consist of 
discrete and continuous degrees, that is, of degrees of height 
a.nd of breadth, cannot be illustrated by examples from visible 
objects, because the least things are not visible to the eyes, and 
the greatest things which are visible seem undistinguished into 
degrees; consequently this matter does not allow of demon- 



108 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

stration otlierwise than by universals. And since angels are 
in wisdom from universals, and from that in knowledge of par- 
ticulars, it is allowed to bring forward tlieir statements con- 
cerning these things. 

223. The statements of angels on this subject are as follows : 
There can be nothing so minute as not to have in it degrees of 
both kinds ; for instance, there can be nothing so minute in any 
animal, or in any plant, or in any mineral, or in the ether or 
air, as not to have in it degrees of both kinds, and since ether 
and air are receptacles of heat and light, and spiritual heat and 
spiritual light are the receptacles of love and wisdom, there can 
be nothing of heat and light or of love and wisdom so minute 
as not to have in it degrees of both kinds. Angels also declare 
that the minutest thing of an affection and the minutest thing 
of a thought, nay, the minutest thing of an idea of thought, 
consists of degrees of both kinds, and that a minute thing not 
consisting of these degrees would be nothing; for it would 
have no form, thus no quality, nor any state which could be 
changed and varied, and by this means have existence. Angels 
confirm this by the truth, that infinite things in God the Crea- 
tor, who is the Lord from eternity, are one distinctly ; and that 
there are infinite things in His infinites; and that in things 
infinitely infinite there are degrees of both kinds, which also in 
Him are one distinctly ; and because these things are in Him, 
and all things were created by Him, and things created repeat 
in an image the things which are in Him, it follows that there 
cannot be the least finite in which there are not such degrees. 
These degrees are equally in things least and greatest, because 
the Divine is the same in things greatest and in things least. 
That in God-Man infinite things are one distinctly, see above 
(n. 17-22) ; and that the Divine is the same in things greatest 
and in things least (n. 77-82); which positions are further 
illustrated (n. 155, 169, 171). 

224. There cannot be the least thing of love and wisdom, 
or the least thing of affection and thought, or even the least 
thing of an idea of thought, in which there are not degrees of 



K 224] CONCERXIXG DIVINE LOVE 109 

both kinds, for the reason that love and wisdom are substance 
and form (as shown above, n, 40-43), and the same is true of 
affection and thought; and because' there can be no form m 
which these degrees are not (as was said above), it follows that 
in these there are like degrees ; for to separate love and wis- 
dom, or affection and thought, from substance in form, is to 
annihilate them, since they are not possible outside of their 
subjects ; for they are states of their subjects perceived by 
man varyingly, which states present them to view. 

225. The greatest things in which there are degrees of 
both kinds, are the universe in its whole complex, the natural 
world in its complex, and the spiritual world in its complex ; 
every empire and every kingdom in its complex; also, all civil, 
moral and spiritual concerns of these in their complex; the 
whole animal kingdom, the whole vegetable kingdom, and the 
whole mineral kingdom, each in its complex ; all atmospheres 
of both worlds taken together, also their heats and lights. 
Likewise things less general, as man in his complex ; every 
animal in its complex, every tree and every shrub in its com- 
plex ; as also every stone and every metal in its complex. 
The forms of these are alike in this, that they consist of 
degrees of both kinds ; the reason is that the Divine, by which 
they were created, is the same in things greatest and least (as 
was shown above, n. 77-82). The particulars and the veriest 
particulars of all these are like generals and the largest gen- 
erals in this, that they are forms of both kinds of degrees. 

226. On account of things greatest and least being forms 
of both kinds of degrees, there is connection between them 
from first to last; for likeness conjoins them. Still, there can 
be no least thing which is the same as any other; consequently 
all particulars are distinct from each other, likewise all ver- 
iest particulars. In any form or in different forms there can 
be no least thing the same as any other, for the reason that 
in greatest forms there are like degrees, and the greatest are 
made up of leasts. From there being such degrees in things 
greatest, and perpetual differences in accordance with these 



110 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

degrees, from top to bottom and from center to circumference, 
it follows that their lesser or least constituents, in which there 
are like degrees, can no one of them be the same as any other. 

227. It is likewise a matter of angelic wisdom that from 
this similitude between generals and particulars, that is, be- 
tween things greatest and least in respect to these degrees, 
comes the perfection of the created universe ; for thereby one 
thing regards another as its like, with which it can be con- 
joined for every use, and can present every end in effect. 

228. But these things may seem paradoxical, because they 
are not explained by application to visible things ; yet things 
abstract, being universals, are often better comprehended than 
things applied, for these are of perpetual variety, and variety 
obscures. 

229. Some contend that there can be a substance so simple 
as not to be a form from lesser forms, and out of that sub- 
stance, through a process of massing, substantiated or compos- 
ite things arise, and finally substances called material. But 
there can be no such absolutely simple substances. For what 
is substance without form ? It is that of which nothing can 
be predicated ; and out of mere being of which nothing can be 
predicated, no process of massing can make anything. That 
there are things innumerable in the first created substance of 
all things, which are things most minute and simple, will be 
seen in what follows, where forms are treated of. 



IN THE LORD THE THREE DEGREES OF HEIGHT ARE INFINITE 
AND UNCREATE, BUT IN MAN THE THREE DEGREES ARE 
FINITE AND CREATED. 

230. In the Lord the three degrees of height are infinite 
and uncreate, because the Lord is Love itself and Wisdom 
itself (as has been already shown); and because the Lord is 
Love itself and Wisdom itself. He is also Use itself. For love 
has use for its end, and brings forth use by means of wisdom; 



N. 230] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 111 

for without use love and wisdom have no boundary or end, 
that is, no home of their own, consequently they cannot be 
said to have being and have form unless there be use in which 
they may be. These three constitute the three degrees of 
height in subjects of life. These three are like first end, 
middle end which is called cause, and last end which is called 
effect. That end, cause and effect constitute the three degrees 
of height has been shown above and abundantly proved. 

231. That in man there are these three degrees can be seen 
from the elevation of his mind even to the degrees of love 
and wisdom in which angels of the second and third heavens 
are ; for all angels were born men ; and man, as regards the inte- 
riors pertaining to his mind, is a heaven in least form; there- 
fore there are in man, by creation, as many degrees of height 
as there are heavens. Moreover, man is an image and likeness 
of Grod ; consequently these three degrees have been inscribed 
on man, because they are in God-Man, that is, in the Lord. 
That in the Lord these degrees are infinite and uncreate, and 
in man finite and created, can be seen from what was shown 
in Part Eirst; namely, from this, that the Lord is Love and 
Wisdom in Himself; and that man is a recipient of love and 
wisdom from the Lord; also, that of the Lord nothing but 
what is infinite can be predicated, and of man nothing but 
what is finite. 

232. These three degrees with the angels are called Celes- 
tial, Spiritual^ and Natural ; and for them the celestial degree 
is the degree of love, the spiritual the degree of wisdom, and 
the natural the degree of uses. These degrees are so called 
because the heavens are divided into two kingdoms, one called 
the celestial, the other the spiritual, to which is added a third 
kingdom wherein are men in the world, and this is the natural 
kingdom. Moreover, the angels of whom the celestial kingdom 
consists are in love ; the angels, of whom the spiritual kingdom 
consists are in wisdom; while men in the world are in uses; 
therefore these kingdoms are conjoined. How it is to be un- 
derstood that men are in uses will be shown in the next Part 



112 ANGELIC WISDOM ' [Part Third 

233 It has been told me from heaven, that m the Lord 
from eternity, who is Jehovah, before His assumption of a 
Human in the world, the two prior degrees existed actually, 
and the third degree potentially, as they do also with angels ; 
but that after the assumption of a Human in the world. He 
put on over these the third degree, called the natural, thereby 
becoming Man, like a man in the world; but with the differ- 
ence, that in the Lord this degree, like the prior degrees, is 
infinite and un create, while in angel and in man they are all 
finite and created. For the Divine which, apart from space, 
had filled all spaces (n. 69-72), penetrated even to the out 
mosts of nature ; yet before the assumption of the Human, the 
Divine influx into the natural degree was mediate through the 
ajngelic heavens, but after the assumption it was immediate 
from Himself. This is the reason why all churches in the 
world before His Advent were representative of spiritual and 
celestial things, but after His Advent became spiritual-natural 
and celestial-natural, and representative worship was abol- 
ished. This also was the reason why the sun of the angelic 
heaven, which, as was said above, is the first proceeding of 
His Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, after the assumption of 
the Human shone out with greater effulgence and splendor 
than before the assumption. And this is what is meant by 
these words in Isaiah : — 

In that day tlie light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and 
the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days (xxx. 
26). 

This is said of the state of heaven and of the church after the 
Lord's coming into the world. Again, in the Apocalyjise : — 

The countenance of the Son of man was as the sun shineth in his 
strength (i. 16); 

and elsewhere (as in Isaiah Ix. 20; 2 Sam. xxiii. 3, 4; Matt. 
xvii. 1, 2). The mediate enlightenment of men through the 
angelic heaven, which existed before the coming of the Lord, 
may be compared to the light of the moon, which is the medi- 



N. 233] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 113 

ate light of the sun ; and because after His coming this was 
made immediate, it is said in IsaiaJi, 

That the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun; 
and in David: — 

In His days shall the righteous flourish, and abundance of peace un . 
til there is no longer any moon (Ixxii. 7). 

This also is said of the Lord. 

234. The reason why the Lord from eternity, that is, Jeho- 
vah, put on this third degree by the assumption of a Human 
in the world, was that He could enter into this degree only by 
means of a nature like human nature, thus only by means of 
conception from His Divine and by birth from a virgin ; for 
in this way He could put off a nature which, although a recep- 
tacle of the Divine, is in itself dead, and could put on the 
Divine. This is meant by the Lord's two states in the world, 
which are called the state of exinanition and the state of 
glorification, which are treated of in The Doctrine of the New 
Jerusalem Concerning the Lord. 

235. Of the threefold ascent of the degrees of height this 
much has been said in general ; but these degrees cannot here 
be discussed in detail, because (as was said in the preceding 
chapter) there must be these three degrees in things greatest 
and things least ; this only need be said, that there are such 
degrees in each and all things of love, and therefrom in each 
and all things of wisdom, and from both of these in each and 
all things of use. In the Lord all these degrees are infinite ; 
in angel and man they are finite. But how there are these 
three degrees in love, in wisdom, and in uses cannot be de- 
scribed and unfolded except in series. 



114 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

THESE THREE DEGREES OF HEIGHT ARE IN EVERY MAN FROM 
BIRTH, AND CAN BE OPENED SUCCESSIVELY ; AND, AS THEY 
ARE OPENED, MAN IS IN THE LORD AND THE LORD IN MAN. 

236. That there are three degrees of height in every man, 
has not nntil now become known for the reason that these 
degrees have not been recognized, and so long as they 
remained unnoticed, none but continuous degrees could be 
known ; and when none but continuous degrees are known, it 
may be supposed that love and wisdom increase in man only 
by continuity. But it should be known, that in every man 
from his birth there are three degrees of height, or discrete 
degrees, one above or within another ; and that each degree of 
height, or discrete degree, has also degrees of breadth, or con- 
tinuous degrees, according to which it increases by continuity. 
For there are degrees of both kinds in things greatest and 
least of all things (as was shown above, n, 222-229) ; for no 
degree of one kind is possible without degrees of the other 
kind. 

237. These three degrees of height are called natural, spir- 
itual, and celestial (as was said above, n. 232). When man is 
born he comes first into the natural degree, and this grows in 
him, by continuity, according to his knowledges and the under- 
standing acquired by means of knowledges even to the highest 
point of understanding, which is called the rational. Yet not 
by this means is the second degree opened, which is called the 
spiritual. That degree is opened by means of a love of uses 
in accordance with the things of the understanding, although 
by a spiritual love of uses, which is love towards the neighbor. 
This degree may grow in like manner by continuous degrees 
to its height, and it grows by means of knowledges of truth 
and good, that is, by spiritual truths. Yet even by such truths 
the third degree which is called the celestial is not opened: 
for this degree is opened by means of the celestial love of use, 
which is love to the Lord ; and love to the Lord is nothing 
else than committing to life the precepts of the Word, the sum 



N. 237] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 115 

of which is to flee from evils because they are liellish and devil- 
ish, and to do good because it is heavenly and Divine. In this 
manner these three degrees are successively opened in man. 

238. So long as man lives in the world he knows nothing 
of the opening of these degrees within him, because he is then 
in the natural degi'ee, which is the outmost, and from this he 
then thinks, wills, si:)eaks, and acts ; and the spiritual degree, 
which is interior, communicates with the natural degree, not 
by continuity but by correspondences, and communication by 
correspondences is not sensibly felt. But when man puts off 
the natural degree, which he does at death, he comes into that 
degree which has been opened within him in the world ; he in 
whom the spiritual degree has been opened coming into that 
degree, and he within whom the celestial degree has been 
opened coming into that degree. He who comes into the spir- 
itual degree after death no longer thinks, wills, speaks, and 
acts naturally, but spiritually ; and he who comes into the 
celestial degree thinks, wills, speaks, and acts according to that 
degree. And as there can be communication between the three 
degrees only by correspondences, the differences of love, wis- 
dom, and use, as regards these degrees are such as to have no 
common gromid by means of anything continuous. Prom all 
this it is plain that man has three degrees of height that may 
be successively opened in him. 

239. Since there are in man three degrees of love and wis- 
dom, and therefore of use, it follows that there must be in him 
three degrees, of will, of understanding, and of result there- 
from, thus of determination to use ; for will is the receptacle of 
love, understanding the receptacle of wisdom, and result is use 
from these. From this it is evident that there are in every 
man a natural, a spiritual, and a celestial will and understand- 
ing, potentially by birth and actually when they are opened. 
In a word the mind of man, which consists of will and under- 
standing, is from creation and therefore from birth, of three 
degrees, so that man has a natural mind, a spiritual mind, and 
a celestial mind, and can thereby be elevated into and possess 



116 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

angelic wisdom while lie lives in the world ; bnt it is only after 
death, and then only if he becomes an angel, that he enters 
into that wisdom, and his speech then becomes ineffable and 
incomprehensible to the natural man. I knew a man of mod- 
erate learning in the world, whom I saw after death and spoke 
with in heaven, and I clearly perceived that he spoke like an 
angel, and that the things he said would be inconceivable to 
the natural man; and for the reason that in the world he had 
applied the precepts of the Word to life and had worshiped 
the Lord, and was therefore raised up by the Lord into the 
third degree of love and wisdom. It is important that this 
elevation of the human mind should be known about, for upon 
it depends the understanding of what follows. 

240. There are in man from the Lord two capacities where- 
by he is distinguished from beasts. One of these is the ability 
to understand what is true and what is good ; this is called 
rationality, and is a capacity of his understanding. The other 
is an ability to do what is true and good ; this is called free- 
dom, and is a capacity of his will. For man by virtue of his 
rationality is able to think whatever he pleases, either with or 
against God, either with or against the neighbor; he is also 
able to will and to do what he thinks ; but when he sees evil 
and fears punishment, he is able, by virtue of his freedom, to 
abstain from doing it. By virtue of these two capacities man 
is man, and is distinguished from beasts. Man has these two 
capacities from the Lord, and they are from Him every mo- 
ment ; nor are they taken away, for if they were, man's human 
would perish. In these two capacities the Lord is with every 
man, good and evil alike; they are the Lord's abode in the 
human race : from this it is that all men live for ever, both the 
good and evil. But the Lord's abode in man is nearer as by 
the agency of these capacities man opens the higher degrees, 
for by the opening of these man comes into higher degrees of 
love and wisdom, thus nearer to the Lord. From tins it can be 
seen that as these degrees are opened, man is in the Lord and 
the Lord in him. 



N. 241] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 117 

241. It is said above, that the tliree degrees of height are 
like end, cause, and effect, and tliat love, wisdom, and use 
follow in succession according to these degrees ; therefore a few 
things shall be said here about love as being end, wisdom as 
being cause, and use as being effect. Whoever consults his 
reason, if it is enlightened, can see that the end of all things ot 
man is his love; for what he loves that he thinks, decides upon, 
and does, consequently that he has for his end. Man can also 
see front his reason that wisdom is cause ; since he, that is, his 
love, which is his end, searches in his understanding for its 
means through which to attain its end, thus consulting its wis- 
dom, and these means constitute the instrumental cause. That 
use is effect is evident without explanation. But one man's 
love is not the same as another's, neither is one man's wisdom 
the same as another's ; so it is with use. And since these three 
are homogeneous (as was shovni above, n. 189-194), it follows 
that such as is the love in man, such is the wisdom and such 
is the use. Wisdom is here spoken of, but by it what pertains 
to man's understanding is meant. 



SPIRITUAL LIGHT FLOWS IN WITH MAN THROUGH THREE DE- 
GREES, BUT NOT SPIRITUAL HEAT, EXCEPT SO FAR AS MAN 
FLEES FROM EVILS AS SINS AND LOOKS TO THE LORD. 

242. It is evident from what has been shown above that 
from the sun of heaven, which is the first proceeding of Divine 
Love and Divine Wisdom (treated of in Part Second), light 
and heat proceed — light from its wisdom, and heat from its 
love ; also that light is the receptacle of wisdom, and heat of 
love ; also that so far as man comes into wisdom he comes into 
that Divine light, and so far as he comes into love he comes 
into that Divine heat. From what has been shown above it 
is also evident that there are three degrees of light and three 
degrees of heat, that is, three degrees of wisdom and three de- 



118 AKGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

grees of love, and that these degrees have been formed in man 
in order that he may be a receptacle of the Divine Love and 
the Divine Wisdom, thus of the Lord. It is now to be shown 
that spiritual light flows in through these three degrees in 
man, but not spiritual heat, except so far as man shmis evils 
as sins and looks to the Lord — or, what is the same, that man 
is able to receive wisdom even to the third degree, but not 
love, unless he flees from evils as sins and looks to the Lord; 
or what is still the same, that man's understanding can be 
raised into wisdom, but not his will, except so far as he flees 
from evils as sins. 

243. That the understanding can be raised into the light of 
heaven, that is, into angelic wisdom, while the will cannot be 
raised into the heat of heaven, that is, into angelic love, unless 
man flees from evils as sins and looks to the Lord, has been made 
plainly evident to me from experience in the spiritual world. 
I have frequently seen and perceived that simple spirits, who 
knew merely that God is and that the Lord was born a man, 
and who knew scarcely anything else, clearly apprehended the 
arcana of angelic wisdom almost as the angels do; and not 
these simple ones alone, but many also of the infernal crew. 
These, while they listened, understood, but not when they 
thought within themselves; for while they listened, light en- 
tered from above, and when they thought within themselves, 
no light could enter except that which corresponded to their 
heat or love ; consequently when they had listened to and per- 
ceived these arcana, as soon as they turned their ears away 
they remembered nothing, those belonging to the infernal crew 
even rejecting these things with disgust and utterly denying 
them, because the fire of their love and its light, being delu- 
sive, induced darkness, by which the heavenly light entering 
from above was extinguished. 

244. The same thing happens in the world. A man not 
altogether stupid, and who has not confirmed himself in fal- 
sities from the pride of self-intelligence, hearing others speak 
on some exalted matter, or reading something of the kind, if 



N. 244] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 119 

he is in any affection of knowing, understands these things 
and also retains them, and may afterwards confirm them. A 
bad man as well as a good man may do this. Even a bad man, 
though in heart he denies tlie Divine things pertaining to the 
church, can still understand them, and also speak of and 
preach them, and in vi^riting learnedly prove them ; but vi^hen 
left to his own thought, from his own infernal love he thinks 
against them and denies them. Erom which it is obvious that 
the understanding can be in spiritual light even when the will 
is not in spiritual heat ; and from this it also follows that the 
understanding does not lead the will, or that wisdom does not 
beget love, but only teaches and shows the way, — teaching how 
a man ought to live, and showing the way in which he ought 
to go. It further follows that the will leads the understand- 
ing, and causes it to act as one with itself; also that whatever 
in the understanding agrees with the love which is in the will, 
the love calls wisdom. In what follows it will be seen that 
the will does nothing by itself apart from the understanding, 
but does all that it does in conjunction with the understand- 
ing; moreover, that it is the will that by influx takes the 
understanding into partnership with itself, and not the reverse. 
245. The nature of the influx of light into the three de- 
grees of life in man which belong to his mind, shall now be 
shown. The forms which are receptacles of heat and light, 
that is, of love and wisdom in man, and which (as was said) 
are in threefold order or of three degrees, are transparent from 
birth, transmitting spiritual light as crystal glass transmits 
natural light; consequently in respect to wisdom man can be 
raised even into the third degree. Nevertheless these forms 
are not opened except when spiritual hea,t conjoins itself to 
spiritual light, that is, love to wisdom; by such conjunction 
these transparent forms are opened according to degrees. It 
is the same with light and heat from the sun of the world 
in their action on plants on the earth. The light of winter, 
which is as bright as that of summer, opens nothing in seed or 
in tree, but when vernal heat conjoins itself to that light then 



120 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

the heat opens them= There is this similarity because spir- 
itual light corresponds to natural light, and spiritual heat to 
natural heat. 

246. This spiritual heat is obtained only by fleeing from 
evils as sins, and at the same time looking to the Lord ; for so 
long as man is in evils he is also in the love of them, for he 
lusts after them ; and the love of evil and the lust, abide in a love 
contrary to spiritual love and affection; and such love or lust 
can be removed only by fleeing from evils as sins ; and because 
man cannot flee from evils from himself, but only from the Lord, 
he must look to the Lord. So when he flees from evils from the 
Lord, the love of evil and its heat are removed, and the love 
of good and its heat are introduced in their stead, whereby a 
higher degree is opened; for the Lord flowing in from above 
opens that degree, and then conjoins love, that is, spiritual 
heat, to wisdom or spiritual light, from which conjunction man 
begins to flourish spiritually, like a tree in spring-time. 

247. By the influx of spiritual light into all three degrees 
of the mind man is distinguished from beasts ; and, as con- 
trasted with beasts, he can think analytically, and see both 
natural and spiritual truth; and when he sees them he can 
acknowledge them, and thus be reformed and regenerated. 
This capacity to receive spiritual light is what is meant by 
rationality (referred to above), which every man has from the 
Lord, and which is not taken away from him, for if it were 
taken away he could not be reformed. From this capacity, 
called rationality, man, unlike the beasts, is able not only to 
think but also to speak from thought; and afterwards from 
his other capacity, called freedom (also referred to above), he 
is able to do those things that he thinks from his understand- 
ing. As these two capacities, rationality and freedom, which 
are x^i'oper to man, have been treated of above (n. 240), no 
more will be said about them here. 



N. 248] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 121 



UNLESS THE HIGHER DEGREE, WHICH IS THE SPIRITUAL, IS 
OPENED IN MAN, HE BECOMES NATURAL AND SENSUAL. 

248. It was shown above that there are three degrees of 
the human mind, called natural, spiritual, and celestial, and 
that these degrees may be opened successively in man; also, 
that the natural degree is first opened ; afterwards, if man flees 
from evil as sins and looks to the Lord, the spiritual degree 
is opened; and lastly, the celestial. Since these degrees are 
opened successively according to man's life, it follows that the 
two higher degrees may remain unopened, and man then con- 
tinues in the natural degree, which is the outmost. Moreover, 
it is known in the world that there is a natural and a spiritual 
man, or an external and an internal man ; but it is not known 
that a natural man becomes spiritual by the opening of some 
higher degree in him, and that such opening is effected by a 
spiritual life, which is a life conformed to the Divine pre- 
cepts ; and that without a life conformed to these man remains 
natural. 

249. There are three kinds of natural men; the first con- 
sists of those who know nothing of the Divine precepts; the 
second, of those who know that there are such precepts, but 
give no thought to a life according to them; and the third, of 
those who despise and deny these precepts. In respect to the 
first class, which consist of those who know nothing of the 
Divine precepts, since they cannot be taught by themselves 
they must needs remain natural. Every man is taught re- 
specting the Divine precepts, not by immediate revelations, 
but by others who know them from religion, on which subject 
see The Doctrine of the Neiv Jerusalem Concerning the Sacred 
Scriptures (n. 114-118). Those of the second class, who know 
that there are Divine precepts but give.no thought to a life 
according to them, also remain natural, and care about no 
other concerns than those of the world and the body. These 
after death become mere menials and servants, according to 
the uses which they are able to perform for those who are 



122 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

spiritual ; for the natural man is a menial and servant, and the 
spiritual man is a master and lord. Those of the third class, 
who despise and deny the Divine precepts, not only remain 
natural, but also become sensual in the measure of their con- 
tempt and denial. Sensual men are the lowest natural men, 
who are incapable of thinking above the appearances and fal- 
lacies of the bodily senses. After death they are in hell. 

250. As it is unknown in the world what the spiritual man 
is, and what the natural, and as by many he who is merely 
natural is called spiritual, and conversely, these subjects shall 
be separately discussed, as follows : — 

(1) What the natural man is, and what the spiritual man. 

(2) The character of the natural man in whom the spiritual 
degree is opened. 

(3) The character of the natural man in whom the spiritual 
degree is not opened and yet not closed. 

(4) The character of the natural man in whom the spiritual 
degree is entirely closed. 

(5) Lastly, The nature of the difference between the life of 
a man merely natural and the life of a beast. 

251. (1) What the natural man is, and what the spiritual 
man. Man is not man from face and body, but from under- 
standing and will; therefore by the natural man and the spir- 
itual man is meant that man's understanding and will are 
either natural or spiritual. The natural man in respect to 
his understanding and will is like the natural world, and may 
be called a world or microcosm; and the spiritual man in re- 
spect to his understanding and will is like the spiritual world, 
and may be called a spiritual world or heaven. From which 
it is evident that as the natural man is in a kind of image a 
natural world, so he loves those things which are of the nat- 
ural world; and that as the spiritual man is in a kind of image 
a spiritual world, so he loves those things which are of that 
world, or of heaven. The spiritual man indeed loves the nat- 
ural world also but not otherwise than as a master loves his 
servant through whom he performs uses. Moreover, according 



N. 251] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 123 

to uses the natural man becomes like the spiritual, which is 
the case when the natural man feels from the spiritual the 
delight of use; such a natural man may be called spiritual- 
natural. The spiritual man loves spiritual truths ; he not only 
loves to know and understand them, but also wills them ; while 
the natural man loves to speak of those truths and also do 
them. Doing truths is performing uses. This subordination 
is from the conjunction of the spiritual world and the natural 
world ; for whatever appears and is done in the natural world 
derives its cause from the spiritual world. From all this it can 
be seen that the spiritual man is altogether distinct from the 
natural, and that there is no other communication between 
them than such as there is between cause and effect. 

252. (2) The character of the natural man in luhorn the 
spiritual degree is opened. This is obvious from what has been 
said above ; to which it may be added, that a natural man is a 
complete man when the spiritual degree is opened in him, for 
he is then consociated with angels in heaven and at the same 
time with men in the world, and in regard to both, lives under 
the Lord's guidance. For the spiritual man imbibes commands 
from the Lord through the Word, and executes them through 
the natural man. The natural man who has the spiritual de- 
gree opened does not know that he thinks and acts from his 
spiritual man, for it seems as if he did this from himself, when 
yet he does not do it from himself but from the Lord. Nor 
does the natural man whose spiritual degree has been opened 
know that by means of his spiritual man he is in heaven, when 
yet his spiritual man is in the midst of angels of heaven, and 
sometimes is even visible to them; but because he draws him- 
self back to his natural man, after a brief stay there he disap- 
pears. Nor does the natural man in whom the spiritual degree 
has been opened know that his spiritual mind is being filled 
by the Lord with thousands of arcana of wisdom, and with 
thousands of delights of love, and that he is to come into these 
after death, when he becomes an angel. The natural man 
does not know these things because communication between 



124 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Thied 

the natural man and the spiritual man is effected by corre- 
spondences ; and communication by correspondences is per- 
ceived in the understanding only by the fact that truths are 
seen in light, and is perceived in the will only by the fact 
that uses are performed from affection. 

253. (3) The character of the naiural mian in whom the 
spiritual degree is not opened, and yet not closed. The spirit- 
ual degree is not opened, and yet not closed, in the case of 
those who have led somewhat of a life of charity and yet have 
known little of genuine truth. The reason is, that this degree 
is opened by conjunction of love and wisdom, or of heat with 
light; love alone or spiritual heat alone not opening it, nor 
wisdom alone or spiritual light alone, but both in conjunc- 
tion. Consequently, when genuine truths, out of which wisdom 
or light arises, are unknown, love is inadequate to open that 
degree ; it only keeps it in the possibility of being opened : this 
is what is meant by its not being closed. Something like this 
is seen in the vegetable kingdom, in that heat alone does not 
cause seeds and trees to vegetate, but heat in conjunction with 
]ight effects this. It is to be known that all truths are of spir- 
itual light and all goods are of spiritual heat, and that good 
opens the spiritual degree by means of truths ; for good, by 
means of truths, effects use, and uses are goods of love, which 
derive their essence from a conjunction of good and truth. 
The lot, after death, of those in whom the spiritual degree is 
not opened and yet not closed, is that since they are still nat- 
ural and not spiritual, they are in the lowest parts of heaven, 
where they sometimes suffer hard times; or they are in the 
outskirts in some higher heaven, where they are as it were in 
the light of evening ; for (as was said above) in heaven and in 
every society there the light decreases from the middle to the 
outskirts, and those who above others are in Divine truths are 
in the middle, while those who are in few truths are in the 
outskirts. Those are in few truths who from religion know 
only that there is a God, and that the Lord suffered for them, 
and that charity and faith are essentials of the church, not 



N. 2531 CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 125 

troubling themselves to know what faith is or what charity is ; 
when yet faith in its essence is truth, and truth is manifold, 
and charity is all the work of his calling which man does from 
the Lord; he does this from the Lord when he flees from evils 
as sins. It is just aS was said above, that the end is the all of 
the cause, and the effect the all of the end by means of the 
cause ; the end is charity or good, the cause is faith or truth, 
and effects are good works or uses ; from which it is plain that 
from charity no more can be carried into works than the meas- 
ure in which charity is conjoined with the truths which are 
called truths of faith. By means of these truths charity en- 
ters into works and qualifies them. 

254. (4) The character of the natural man in iuho7n the 
spiritual degree is entirely closed. The spiritual degree is 
closed in those who are in evils as to life, and still more in 
those who from evils are in falsities. It is the same as with 
the fibril of a nerve, which contracts at the slightest touch of 
any thing heterogeneous ; so every motive fiber of a muscle, 
yea, the muscle itself, and even the whole body shrinks from 
the touch of whatever is hard or cold. So also the substances 
or forms of the spiritual degree in man shrink from evils and 
their falsities, because these are heterogeneous. For the spir- 
itual degree, being in the form of heaven, admits nothing but 
goods, and truths that are from good ; these are homogeneous 
to it : but evils, and falsities that are from evil, are hetero- 
geneous to it. This degree is contracted, and by contraction 
closed, especially in those who in the world are in love of rul- 
ing from love of self, because- this love is opposed to love to 
the Lord. It is also closed, but not so much, in those who 
from love of the world are in the insane greed of possessing 
the goods of others. These loves sJiut the spiritual degree, 
because they are the origins of evils. The contraction or clos- 
ing of this degree is like the twisting back of a spiral in the op- 
posite direction ; for which reason, that degree after it is closed, 
turns back the light of heaven; consequently there is thick 
darkness there instead of heavenly light, and truth which is in 



126 ANGELIC WISDOM [Pakt Third 

the light of heaven, becomes nauseous. In such persons, not 
only does the spiritual degree itself become closed, but also 
the higher region of the natural degree which is called the 
rational, until at last the lowest region of the natural degree, 
which is called the sensual, alone stands open ; this being 
nearest to the world and to the outward senses of the body, 
from which such a man afterwards thinks, speaks, and reasons. 
The natural man who has become sensual through evils and 
their falsities, in the spiritual world in the light of heaven 
does not appear as a man but as a monster, even with nose 
drawn back (the nose is drawn in because the nose corre- 
sponds to the perception of truth) ; moreover, he cannot bear 
a ray of heavenly light. Such have in their caverns no other 
light than what resembles the light from live coals or from 
burning charcoal. From all this it is evident who and of what 
character are those in whom the spiritual degree is closed. 

255. (5) The nature of the difference hetiveen the life of a 
natural man and the life of a beast. This difference will be 
particularly discussed in what follows, where Life will be 
treated of. Here it may be said only that the difference is 
that man has three degrees of mind, that is, three degrees of 
understanding and will, which degrees can be opened succes- 
sively; and as these are transparent, man can be raised as to 
his understanding into the light of heaven and see truths, 
not only civil and moral, but also spiritual, and from many 
truths seen can form conclusions about truths in their order, 
and thus perfect the understanding to eternity. But beasts do 
not have the two higher degrees, but only the natural degrees, 
and these apart from the higher degrees have no capacity to 
think on any subject, civil, moral, or spiritual. And since the 
natural degrees of beasts are incapable of being opened, and 
thereby raised into higher light, they are unable to think in 
successive order, but only in simultaneous order, which is not 
thinking, but acting from a knowledge corresponding to their 
love. And because they are unable to think analytically, and 
to view a lower thought from any higher thought, they are un- 



N. 255] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 127 

able to speak, but are able only to utter sounds in accordance 
with the knowledge pertaining to their love. Yet the sensual 
man, who is in the lowest sense natural, differs from the beast 
only in this, that he can fill his memory with knowledges, and 
think and speak therefrom ; this i)ower he gets from a capacity 
proper to every man, of being able to understand truth if he 
chooses ; it is this capacity that makes the difference. Never- 
theless many, by abuse of this capacity, have made themselves 
lower than beasts. 



THE NATURAL DEGREE OF THE HUMAN MIND REGARDED IN 
ITSELF IS CONTINUOUS, BUT BY CORRESPONDENCE WITH 
THE TWO HIGHER DEGREES IT APPEARS WHEN IT IS 
ELEVATED AS IF IT WERE DISCRETE. 

256. Although this is hardly comprehensible, by those who 
have as yet no knowledge of degrees of height, it must never- 
theless be revealed, because it is a part of angelic wisdom ; and 
while the natural man is unable to think about this wisdom 
in the same way as angels do, nevertheless it can be compre- 
hended by his understanding, when it has been raised into the 
degree of light in which angels are ; for his understanding can 
be elevated even, to that extent, and enlightened according to 
its elevation. But this enlightenment of the natural mind 
does not ascend by discrete degrees ; but increases in a contin- 
uous degree, and as it increases, that mind is enlightened from 
within by the light of the two higher degrees. How this 
occurs can be comprehended from a perception of degrees of 
height, as being one above another, while the natural degree, 
which is the lowest, is a kind of general covering to the two 
higher degrees. Then, as the natural degree is raised up 
towards a degree of the higher kind, the higher acts from 
within upon the outer natural and illuminates it. This illu- 
mination is effected, indeed, from within, by the light of the 
higher degrees, but the natural degree which envelops and sur- 



128 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

rounds the higher receives it by continuity, thus more lucidly 
and purely in proportion to its ascent ; that is, from within, 
by the light of the higher degrees, the natural degree is en- 
lightened discretely, but in itself is enlightened continuously. 
From this it is evident that so long as man lives in the world, 
and is thereby in the natural degree, he cannot be elevated 
into very wisdom, such as the angels have, but only into higher 
light, even up to angels, and can receive enlightenment from 
their light that flows in from within and illuminates. But 
these things cannot as yet be more clearly described ; they can 
be better comprehended from effects ; for effects present causes 
in themselves in clear light, and thus illustrate them, when 
there is some previous knowledge of causes. 

257. The effects are these: (1) The natural mind may be 
raised up to the light of heaven in which angels are, and may 
perceive naturally, thus not so fully, what the angels perceive 
spiritually; nevertheless, man's natural mind cannot be raised 
into angelic light itself. (2) By means of his natural mind, 
raised to the light of heaven, man can think, yea, speak with 
angels ; but the thought and speech of the angels then flow 
into the natural thought and speech of the man, and not con- 
versely ; so that angels speak with man in a natural language, 
which is the man's mother tongue. (3) This is effected by a 
spiritual influx into what is natural, and not by any natural 
influx into what is spiritual. (4) Human wisdom, which so 
long as man lives in the natural world is natural, can by no 
means be raised into angelic wisdom, but only into some image 
of it. The reason is, that elevation of the natural mind is 
effected by continuity, as from shade to light, or from grosser 
to purer. Still the man in whom the spiritual degree has been 
opened comes into that wisdom when he dies; and he may 
also come into it by a suspension of bodily sensations, and 
then by an influx from above into the spiritual parts of his 
mind. (5) Man's natural mind consists of spiritual substances 
together with natural substances ; thought comes from its spir- 
itual substances, not from its natural substances ; these recede 



N. 257] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 129 

when the man dies, while its spiritual substances do not. Con- 
sequently, after death, when man becomes a spirit or angel, 
the same mind remains in a form like that which it had in the 
world. (6) The natural substances of that mind, which recede 
(as was said) by death, constitute the cutaneous covering of 
bhe spiritual body which spirits and angels have. By means 
of such covering, which is taken from the natural world, their 
spiritual bodies maintain existence ; for the natural is the out- 
most containant : consequently there is no spirit or angel who 
was not born a man. These arcana of angelic wisdom are here 
adduced that the quality of the natural mind in man may be 
known, which subject is further treated of in what follows. 

258. Every man is born into a capacity to understand 
truths even to the inmost degree in which the angels of the 
third heaven are ; for the human understanding, rising up by 
continuity around the two higher degrees, receives the light of 
their wisdom, in the manner stated above (n. 256). Therefore 
man has the ability to become rational according to his eleva- 
tion; if raised to the third degree he becomes rational from 
that degree, if raised to the second degree he becomes rational 
from that degree, if not raised he is rational in the first de- 
gree. It is said that he becomes rational from those degrees, 
because the natural degree is the general receptacle of their 
light. The reason why man does not become rational to the 
height that he might is, that love, which is of the will, cannot 
be raised in the same manner as wisdom, which is of the 
miderstanding. Love, which is of the will, is raised only by 
fl.eeing from evils as sins, and then by goods of charity, which 
are uses, which the man thereafter performs from the Lord. 
Consequently, when love, which is of the will, is not at the 
same time raised, wisdom, which is of the understanding, how- 
ever it may have ascended, falls back again do^\Ti to its own 
love. Therefore, if man's love is not at the same time raised 
into the spiritual degree, he is rational only in the lowest 
degree. From all this it can be seen that man's rational is in 
appearance as if it were of three degrees, a rational from the 
9 



130 AI!^GELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

celestial, a rational from the spiritual, and a rational from the 
natural; also that rationality, which is the capacity whereby 
man is elevated, is still in man whether he be elevated or not. 
259. It has been said that every man is born into that 
capacity, namely, rationality, but by this is meant every man 
whose externals have not been injured by some accident, either 
in the womb, or by some disease after birth, or by a wound 
inflicted on the head, or in consequence of some insane love 
bursting forth, and breaking down restraints. In such the 
rational cannot be elevated ; for life, which is of the will and 
understanding, has in such no bounds in which it can termi 
nate, so disposed that it can produce outmost acts according to 
order; for life acts in accordance with outmost determinations, 
though not from them. That there can be no rationality with 
infants and children, may be seen below (n. 266, at the end). 



THE NATURAL MIND, SINCE IT IS THE COVERING AND CONTAIN- 
ANT OF THE HIGHER DEGREES OF THE HUMAN MIND, IS 
REACTIVE; AND IF THE HIGHER DEGREES ARE NOT OPENED 
IT ACTS AGAINST THEM, BUT IF THEY ARE OPENED IT ACTS 
WITH THEM. 

260. It has been shown in the preceding chapter that as 
the natural mind is in the outmost degree, it envelops and 
encloses the spiritual mind and the celestial mind, which, in 
respect to degrees, are above it. It is now to be shown that the 
natural mind reacts against the higher or interior minds. It 
reacts because it covers, includes, and contains them, and this 
cannot be done without reaction; for unless it reacted, the 
interior or enclosed parts would become loosened and press 
outward and thus fall apart, just as the viscera, which are the 
interiors of the body, would push forth and fall asunder if the 
coverings which are about the body did not react against 
them; so, too, unless the membrane investing the motor fibers 
of a muscle reacted against the force of these fibers in their 



N. 260] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 131 

activities, not only would action cease, but all the inner 
tissues would be let loose. It is the same with every outmost 
degree of the degrees of height ; consequently with the natural 
mind with respect to higher degrees; for, as was said above, 
there are three degrees of the human mind, the natural, the 
spiritual, and the celestial, and the natural mind is in the out- 
most degree. Another reason why the natural mind reacts 
against the spiritual mind is, that the natural mind consists 
not only of substances of the spiritual world Ijut also of sub- 
stances of the natural world (as was said al)0ve, n. 257), and 
substances of the natural world of their very nature react 
against the substances of the spiritual world; for substances 
of the natural world are in themselves dead, and are acted 
upon from without by substances of the spiritual world; and 
substances which are dead, and which are acted upon from 
without, by their nature resist, and thus by their nature react. 
From all this it can be seen that the natural man reacts 
against the spiritual man, and that there is combat. It is the 
same thing whether the terms "natural and S]oiritual man" or 
"natural and spiritual mind" are used. 

261. Prom this it is obvious that when the spiritual mind 
is closed the natural mind continually acts against the things 
of the spiritual mind, fearing lest anything should flow in 
therefrom to disturb its own states. Everything that flows in 
through the spiritual mind is from heaven, for the spiritual 
mind in its form is a heaven ; while everything that flows into 
the natural mind is from the world, for the natural mind in its 
form is a world. From which it follows that when the spirit- 
ual mind is closed, the natural mind reacts against all things 
of heaven, giving them no admission except so far as they are 
serviceable to it as means for acquiring and possessing the 
things of the world. And when the things of heaven are made 
to serve the natural mind as means to its own ends, then those 
means, though they seem to be heavenly, are made natural; for 
the end qualifies them, and they become like the knowledges 
of the natural man, in which interiorly there is nothing of life. 



132 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

But as tilings heavenly cannot be so joined to things natural 
that the two act as one, they separate, and, with men merely 
natural, things heavenly arrange themselves from without, in 
a circuit about the natural things which are within. From this 
it is that a merely natural man can speak and preach about 
heavenly things, and even simulate them in his actions, though 
inwardly he thinks against them; the latter he does when 
alone, the former when in company. But of these things more 
in what follows. 

262. By virtue of the reaction which is in him from birth 
the natural mind, or man, when he loves himself and the world 
above all things, acts against the things that are of the spirit- 
ual mind or man. Then also he has a sense of enjoyment in 
evils of every kind, as adultery, fraud, revenge, blasphemy, and 
other like things ; he then also acknowledges nature as the 
creator of the universe ; and confirms all things by means of 
his rational faculty; and after confirmation he either perverts 
or suffocates or repels the goods and truths of heaven and the 
church, and at length either shuns them or turns his back upon 
them or hates them. This he does in his spirit, and in the 
body just so far as he dares to speak with others from his 
spirit without fear of the loss of reputation as a means to 
honor and gain. When man is such, he gradually shuts up the 
spiritual mind closer and closer. Confirmations of evil by 
means of falsities especially close it up; therefore evil and 
falsity when confirmed cannot be uprooted after death; they 
are only uprooted by means of repentance in the world. 

263. But when the spiritual mind is open the state of the 
natural mind is wholly different. Then the natural mind is 
arranged in compliance with the spiritual mind, and is subor- 
dinated to it. For the spiritual mind acts upon the natural 
mind from above or within, and removes the things therein that 
react, and adapts to itself those that act in harmony with itself, 
whereby the excessive reaction is gradually taken away. It is 
to be noted, that in things greatest and least of the universe, 
both livincr and dead, there is action and reaction, from which 



N. 2G3] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 133 

comes an equilibrium of all things ; this is destroyed when ac- 
tion overcomes reaction, or the reverse. It is the same with the 
natural and with the spiritual mind. When the natural mind 
acts from the enjoyments of its love and the pleasures of its 
thought, which are in themselves evils and falsities, the reac- 
tion of the natural mind removes those things which are of the 
spiritual mind and blocks the doors lest they enter, and it 
makes action to come from such things as agree with its 
reaction. The result is an action and reaction of the natural 
mind opposite to the action and reaction of the spiritual mind, 
whereby there is a closing of the spiritual mind like the twist- 
ing back of a spiral. But when the spiritual mind is opened, 
the action and reaction of the natural mind are inverted; for 
the spiritual mind acts from above or within, and at the same 
time it acts from below or from without, through those things 
in the natural mind which are arranged in compliance with it ; 
and it twists back the spiral in which the action and reaction 
of the natural mind lie. Por the natural mind is by birth in 
opposition to the things belonging to the spiritual mind; an 
opposition derived, as is well known, from parents by heredity. 
Such is the change of state which is called reformation and 
regeneration. The state of the natural mind before reformation 
may be compared to a spiral twisting or bending itself down- 
ward: but after reformation it may be compared to a spiral 
twisting or bending itself upwards ; therefore man before refor- 
mation looks downwards to hell, but after reformation looks 
upwards to heaven. 

THE ORIGIN OF EVIL IS FKOM THE ABUSE OF THE CAPACITIES 
PROPER TO MAN, THAT ARE CALLED RATIONALITY AND 
FREEDOM. 

264. By rationality is meant the capacity to understand 
what is true and thereby what is false, also to understand what 
is good and thereby what is evil ; and by freedom is meant the 
capacity to think, will, and do these things freely. From what 



134 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

precedes it is evident, and it will become more evident from 
vi^hat follows, that every man from creation, consequently from 
birth, has these two capacities, and that they are from the 
Lord ; that they are not taken away from man ; that from them 
is the appearance that man thinks, speaks, wills, and acts as 
from hunself ; that the Lord dwells in these capacities in every 
man, that man by virtue of that conjunction lives to eternity; 
that man by means of these capacities can be reformed and 
regenerated, but not without them ; finally, that by them man is 
distinguished from beasts. 

265. That the origin of evil is from the abuse of these 
capacities will be explained in the following order : — 

(1) A bad man equally with a good man enjoys these two 
capacities. 

(2) A bad man abuses these capacities to confirm evils and 
falsities, but a good man uses them to confirm goods and truths. 

(3) Evils and falsities confirmed in man are permanent, and 
come to be of his love, consequently of his life. 

(4) Such things as have come to be of the love and life are 
engendered in offspring. 

(5) All evils, both engendered and acquired, have their seat 
in the natural mind. 

266. (1) A had man equally ivith a good man enjoys these 
two caiKiGities. It was shown in the preceding chapter that 
the natural mind, as regards the understanding, can be elevated 
even to the light in which angels of the third heaven are, and 
can see truths, acknowledge them, and then give expression to 
them. From this it is plain that since the natural mind can be 
elevated, a bad man equally with a good man enjoys the capac- 
ity called rationality; and because the natural mind can be 
elevated to such an extent, it follows that a bad man can also 
think and speak about heavenly truths. Moreover, that he is 
able to will and to do them, even though he does not will and 
do them, both reason and experience affirm. E-eason affirms it : 
for who cannot will and do what he thinks ? His not willing 
and doin.o- it is because he does not love to will and do it 



N. 266] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 135 

This ability to will and to do is the freedom which every man 
has from the Lord; but his not willing and doing good when 
he can, is from a love of evil, which opposes ; but this love he 
is able to resist, and many do resist it. Experience in the 
* spiritual world has often corroborated this. I have listened to 
evil spirits who inwardly were devils, and who in the world 
had rejected the truths of heaven and the church. When the 
affection for knowing, in which every man is from childhood, 
was excited in them by the glory that, like the brightness of 
fire, surrounds each love, they perceived the arcana of angelic 
wisdom just as clearly as good spirits do who inwardly were 
angels. Those diabolical spirits even declared that they were 
able to will and act according to those arcana, but did not 
wish to. When told that they might will them, if only they 
would flee from evils as sins, they said that they could even do 
that, but did not wish to. From this it was evident that the 
wicked equally with the good have the capacity called free- 
dom. Let any one look within himself, and he will observe 
that it is so. Man has the power to will, because the Lord, 
from whom that capacity comes, continually gives the power; 
for, as was said above, the Lord dwells in every man in both 
of these capacities, and therefore in the capacity, that is, in 
the power, of being able to will. As to the capacity to under- 
stand, called rationality, this man does not have imtil his 
natural mind reaches maturity; until then it is like seed in 
imripe fruit, which cannot be opened in the soil and grow up 
into a shrub. ]S"either does this capacity exist in those men- 
tioned above (n. 259). 

267. (2) A bad man abuses these cajyacitles to confirm evils 
and falsities, but a good man uses them, to confirm goods and 
truths. From the intellectual capacity called rationality, and 
from the voluntary capacity called freedom, man derives the 
ability to confirm whatever he wishes ; for the natural man is 
able to raise his understanding into higher light to any extent 
he desires ; but one who is in evils and in falsities therefrom, 
raises it no higher than into the upper regions of his natural 



136 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

mind, and rarely as far as the border of tlie spiritual mind ; 
for tlie reason that he is in the delights of the love of his nat- 
ural mind, and when he raises the understanding above that 
mind, the delight of his love perishes ; and if it is raised still 
higher, and sees truths which are opposed to the delights of 
his life or to the principles of his self-intelligence, he either 
falsifies those truths or passes them by and contemptuously 
leaves them behind, or retains them in the memory as means 
to serve his life's love, or the pride of his self-intelligence. 
That the natural man is able to confirm whatever he wishes is 
plainly evident from the multitude of heresies in the Christian 
world, each of which is confirmed by its adherents. Who does 
not know that evils and falsities of every kind can be con- 
firmed? It is possible to confirm, and by the wicked it is 
confirmed within themselves, that there is no God, and that 
nature is every thmg and created herself; that religion is only 
a means for keeping simple minds in bondage; that human 
prudence does everything, and Divine providence nothing 
except sustaining the universe in the order in which it was 
created; also that murders, adulteries, thefts, frauds, and re- 
venge are allowable, as held by Machiavelli and his followers. 
These and many like things the natural man is able to confirm, 
and even to fill volumes with the confirmations; and when 
such falsities are confirmed they appear in their delusive light, 
but truths in such obscurity as to be seen only as phantoms of 
the night. In a word, take what is most false and present it 
as a proposition, and ask an ingenious person to prove it, and 
he will do so to the complete extinction of the light of truth; 
but set aside his confirmations, return and view the proposition 
itself from your own rationality, and you will see its falsity in 
all its deformity. From all this it can be seen that man is 
able to abuse these two capacities, Avhich he has from the Lord, 
to confirm evils and falsities of every kind. This no beast can 
do, because no beast enjoys these capacities. Consequently, 
a beast is born into all the order of its life, and into all the 
knowledge of its natural love, but man is not. 



N. 268] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 137 

268. (3) Evils and falsltlas eoyifir iiuid in man are pa'ina- 
nent, and coma to he of his love and life. Confirming evil and 
falsity is nothing else than putting away good and truth, and if 
persisted in, it is their rejection ; for evil removes and rejects 
good, and falsity truth. For this reason confirming evil and 
falsity is a closing up of heaven, — for every good and truth 
flows in from the Lord through heaven, — and when heaven is 
closed, man is in hell, and in a society there in which a like 
evil prevails and a like falsity ; from which hell he cannot after- 
wards be delivered. It has been granted me to speak with 
some who ages ago confirmed themselves in the falsities of their 
religion, and I saw that they remained in the same falsities, in 
the same way as they were in them in the world. The reason 
is, that all things in which a man confirms himself come to be 
of his love and life. They come to be of his love because they 
come to be of his will and understanding ; and will and under- 
standing constitute the life of every one ; and when they come 
to be of man's life, they come to be not only of his whole 
mind but also of his whole body. Prom this it is evident that 
a man who has confirmed himself in evils and falsities is such 
from head to foot, and when he is wholly such, by no turn- 
ing or twisting back can he be reduced to an opposite state, 
and thus withdrawn from hell. From all this, and from what 
precedes in this chapter, it can be seen what the origin of 
evil is. 

269. (4) Such things as have come to be of the love, cmd coii- 
sequently of the life, are engendered in offspring. It is known 
that man is born into evil, and that he derives it by inheritance 
from parents; though by some it is believed that he inherits it 
not from his parents, but through parents from Adam; this, 
however, is an error. He derives it from the father, from whom 
he has a soul that is clothed with a body in the mother. For 
the seed, which is from the father, is the first receptacle of life, 
but such a receptacle as it was with the father; for the seed is 
in the form of his love, and each one's love is, in things great- 
est and least, similar to itself; and there is in the seed a cona- 



138 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

tus to the liuman form, and by successive steps it goes forth 
into that form. From this it follows that evils called heredi- 
tary are from fathers, thus from grandfathers and great-grand- 
fathers, successively transmitted to offspring. This may be 
learned also from observation, for as regards affections, there 
is a resemblance of races to their first progenitor, and a 
stronger resemblance in families, and a still stronger resem- 
blance in households; and this resemblance is such that gen- 
erations are distinguishable not only by the disposition, but 
even by the face. But of this ingeneration of the love of evil 
by parents in offspring more will be said in what follows, 
where the correspondence of the mind, that is, of the will and 
understanding, with the body and its members and organs will 
be fully treated of. Here these few things only are brought 
forward, that it may be known that evils are derived from par- 
ents successively, and that they increase through the accumu- 
lations of one parent after another, until man by birth is noth- 
ing but evil ; also that the malignity of evil increases according 
to the degree in which the spiritual mind is closed up, for in 
this manner the natural mind also is closed above; finally, 
that there is no recovery from this in posterity except through 
their fleeing from evils as sins by the help of the Lord. In 
this and in no other way is the spiritual mind opened, and by 
means of such opening the natural mind is brought back into 
correspondent form. 

270. (5) All evils and their falsities, both engendered and 
acquired, have their seat in the natural "inind. Evils and their 
falsities have their seat in the natural mind, because that mind 
is, in form or image, a world; while the spiritual mind in its 
form or image is a heaven, and in heaven evil cannot be enter- 
tained. The spiritual mind, therefore, is not opened from 
birth, but is only in the capability of being opened. Moreover, 
the natural mind derives its form in part from substances of 
the natural Avorld; but the spiritual mind from substances of 
the spiritual world only ; and this mind is preserved in its 
integrity by the Lord, in order that man may be capable of 



N. 270] CONCEKNING DIVINE LOVE 139 

becoming a man; for man is Lorn an animal, but he becomes a 
man. The natural mind, with all its belongings, is coiled into 
gyres from right to left, but the spiritual mind into gyres from 
left to right; the two thus curving in directions contrary to 
each other — a proof that evil has its seat in the natural mind, 
and that of itself it acts against the spiritual mind. Moreover, 
the gyration from right to left is turned downward, thus 
towards hell, but the gyration from left to right tends upward, 
thns toward heaven. This Avas made evident to me by the fact 
that an evil spirit can gyrate his body only from right to left, 
not from left to right; while a good spirit can gyrate his body 
from right to left only with difficulty, but with ease from left to 
right. Gyration follows the flow of the interiors, which belong 
to the mind. 



EVILS AND FALSITIES ARE IN COMPLETE OPPOSITION TO GOODS 
AND TRUTHS, BECAUSE EVILS AND FALSITIES ARE DIA- 
BOLICAL AND INFERNAL, WHILE GOODS AND TRUTHS 
ARE DIVINE AND HEAVENLY. 

271. That evil and good are opposites, also the falsity of 
evil and the truth of good, every one acknowledges when he 
hears it. Still those who are in evil do not feel, and therefore 
do not perceive, otherwise than that evil is good ; for evil gives 
enjoyment to their senses, especially sight and hearing, and 
from that gives enjoyment also to their thoughts, and thns 
their perceptions. While, therefore, the evil acknowledge that 
evil and good are opposites, still, when they are in evil, they 
declare from their enjoyment of it that evil is good, and good 
evil. For example : — One who abuses his freedom to think 
and to do what is evil calls that freedom, while its opposite, 
namely, to think the good which in itself is good, he calls 
bondage ; when, in fact, the latter is to be truly free, and the 
former to be in bondage. He who loves adulteries calls it 
freedom to commit adultery, but not to be allowed to commit 



140 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

adultery he calls bondage; for in lascivionsness lie has a 
sense of enjoyment, but of the contrary in chastity. He who 
is in the love of ruling from love of self feels in that love an 
enjoyment of life surpassing other enjoyments of every kind; 
consequently, everything belonging to that love he calls good, 
and everything contrary to it he declares to be evil; when yet 
the reverse is true. It is the same with every other evil. 
While every one, therefore, acknowledges that evil and good 
are opposites, those who are in evils cherish a reverse con- 
ception of such opposition, and only those who are in good 
have a right conception of it. No one so long as he is in evil 
can see good, but he who is in good can see evil. Evil is below 
as in a cave, good is above as on a mountain. 

272. Now as many do not know what the nature of evil is, 
and that it is entirely opposite to good, and as this knowl- 
edge is important, the subject shall be considered in the fol- 
lowing order : — 

(1) The natural mind that is in evils and in falsities there- 
from is a form and image of hell. 

(2) The natural mind that is a form and image of hell de- 
scends through three degrees. 

(3) The three degrees of the natural mind that is a form and 
image of hell, are opposite to the three degrees of the spiritual 
mind which is a form and image of heaven. 

(4) The natural mind that is a hell is in every respect 
opposed to the sj)iritual mind that is a heaven. 

273. (1) Tlie natural mind that is in evils and in falsities 
therefrom is a form and image of hell. The nature of the 
natural mind in man in its substantial form cannot here be 
described, that is, its nature in its own form woven out of the 
substances of both worlds, in the brains where that mind in 
its first principles, has its seat. The universal idea of that 
form will be given in what follows, where the correspondence 
of the mind and body is to be treated of. Here somewhat only 
shall be said of its form as regards the states and their changes, 
whereby perceptions, thoughts, intentions, volitions, and their 



N. 273] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 141 

belongings are manifested; for, as regards these states and 
changes, the natural mind that is in evils and their falsities i^ 
a form and image of hell. Such a form supposes a substantial 
form as a subject; for without a substantial form as a subject, 
changes of state are impossible, just as sight is impossible 
without an eye, or hearing without an ear. In regard, then, to 
the form or image wherein the natural mind images hell, that 
form or image is such that the reigning love with its lusts, 
which is the universal state of that mind, is like what the 
devil is in hell; and the thoughts of the false arising out of 
that reigning love are, as it were, the devil's crew. By "the 
devil" and by "his crew" nothing else is meant in the Word. 
Moreover, the case is similar, since in hell there is a love 
of ruling from love of self, a reigning love, called there the 
"devil;" and the affections of the false, with the thoughts 
arising out of that love, are called " his crew." It is the same 
in every society of hell, with differences resembling the dif- 
ferences of species in a genus. And the natural mind that is 
in evils and in falsities therefrom is in a similar form ; conse- 
quently, a natural man who is of this character comes, after 
death, into a society of hell similar to himself, and then, in 
each and every particular, he acts in unison with it ; for he 
thus enters into his own form, that is, into the states of his 
own mind. There is also another love, called " satan, " subor- 
dinate to the former love that is called the devil ; it is the 
love of possessing the goods of others by every evil device. 
Cunning villainies and subtleties are its crew. Those who are 
in this hell are generally called satans ; those in the former, 
devils : and such of them as do not act in a clandestine way 
there do not disown their name. From this it is that the hells, 
as a whole, are called the Devil and Satan. The two hells are 
generically divided in accordance with these two loves, because 
all the heavens are divided into two kingdoms, the celestial 
and the spiritual, in accordance with two loves ; and the devil- 
hell corresponds, by opposites, to the celestial kingdom, and 
the satan-hell corresponds, by o]oposites, to the spiritual king- 



142 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

dom. That the heavens are divided into two kingdoms, the 
celestial and the spiritual, may be seen in the work on Heaven 
and Hell (n. 20-28). The reason why a natural mind of such 
a character is in form a hell, is that every spiritual form is 
like itself both in what is greatest and in what is least ; there- 
fore every angel is, in lesser form, a heaven, as is also shown 
in the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 51-58) ; from which it 
follows that every man or spirit who is a devil or a satan is, 
in lesser form, a hell. 

274. (2) The natural mind that is a form or image of 
hell descends through three degrees. It may be seen above (n. 
222-229) that both in the greatest and in the least of all 
things there are degrees of two kinds, namely, degrees of 
height and degrees of breadth. This is also true of the nat- 
ural mind in its greatest and its least parts. Degrees of 
height are what are now referred to. The natural mind, by 
its two capacities called rationality and freedom, is in such a 
state as to be capable of ascending through three degrees, or 
of descending through three degrees ; it ascends by goods and 
truths, and descends by evils and falsities. When it ascends, 
tlie lower degrees which tend to hell are shut, and when it 
descends, the higher degrees which tend to heaven are shut; 
for the reason that they are in reaction. These three degrees, 
higher and lower, are neither open nor shut in man in earliest 
infancy, for he is then ignorant both of good and truth and of 
evil and falsity; but as he lets himself into one or the other, 
the degrees are opened and shut on the one side or the other. 
When they are opened towards hell, the reigning love, which 
is of the will, obtains the highest or inmost place ; the thought 
of the false, which is of the understanding from that love, 
obtains the second or middle place ; and the result of the love 
through the thought, or of the will through the understand- 
ing, obtains the lowest place. The same is true here as of 
degrees of height treated of above ; they stand in order as end, 
cause, and effect, or as first end, middle end, and last end. 
The descent of these degrees is towards the body, consequently 



N. 274] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 143 

in the descent they wax grosser, and become material and cor- 
poreaL If truths from the Word are received in the second 
degree to form it, these truths are falsified by the first degree, 
which is the love of evil, and become servants and slaves. 
From this it can be seen what the truths of the church from 
the Word become with those who are in the love of evil, or 
whose natural mind is in form a hell, namely, that they are 
profaned because they serve the devil as means ; for the love 
of evil reigning in the natural mind that is a hell, is the devil, 
as was said above. 

275. (3) TJte three degrees of the natural mind that is a 
form and image of hell, are o'pposite to the three degrees of the 
spiritual Tnind which is a form, and image of heaven. It has 
been shown above that there are three degrees of the mind, 
called natural, spiritual, and celestial, and that the human 
mind, made up of these degrees, looks towards heaven, and 
turns itself about in that direction. From this it can be seen 
that the natural mind, looking downwards and turning itself 
about towards hell, is made up in like manner of three de- 
grees, and that each degree of it is opposite to a degree of 
that mind which is a heaven. That this is so has been made 
very clear to me by things seen in the spiritual world ; namely, 
that there are three heavens, and these distinct according to 
three degrees of height ; that there are three hells, and these 
also distinct according to three degrees of height or depth; 
that the hells are opposed to the heavens in each and every 
particular; also that the lowest hell is opposite to the highest 
heaven, and the middle hell to the middle heaven, and the 
uppermost hell to the lowest heaven. It is the same with the 
natural mind that is in the form of hell; for spiritual forms 
are like themselves in things greatest and least. The heavens 
and hells are thus opposite, because their loves are opposed. 
In the heavens, love to the Lord, and consequent love to the 
neighbor, constitute the inmost degree; in the hells, love of 
self and love of the world constitute the inmost degree. In 
the heavens, wisdom and intelligence, springing from their 



144 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

loves, constitute the middle degree; in the hells folly and in- 
sanity, springing from their loves and appearing like wisdom 
and intelligence, constitute the middle degree. In the heav- 
ens, the results from the two other degrees, either laid up in 
the memory as knowledges, or determined into actions in the 
bpdy, constitute the lowest degree; in the hells, the results 
from the two other degrees, which have become either knowl- 
edges or acts, constitute the outermost degree. How the goods 
and truths of heaven are turned, in the hells, into evils and fal- 
sities, thus into what is opposite, may be seen from this experi- 
ence : I heard that a certain Divine truth flowed down out of 
heaven into hell, and that in its descent by degrees it was 
converted on the way into what is false, until at the lowest 
hell, it became the exact opposite of that truth; from which it 
was manifest that the hells according to degrees are in oppo- 
sition to the heavens in regard to all goods and truths, these 
becoming evils and falsities by influx into forms turned the 
reverse way; for all inflowing, it is well known, is perceived 
and felt according to recipient forms and their states. This 
conversion into the opposite was made further evident to me 
from this experience: it was granted me to see the hells as 
they are placed relatively to the heavens ; and those who were 
there appeared inverted, the head downward and the feet up- 
ward; but it was said that they nevertheless appear to them- 
selves to be upright on their feet; comparatively like the anti- 
podes. By these evidences from experience, it can be seen 
that the three degrees of the natural mind, which is a hell in 
form and image, are opposite to the three degrees of the spir- 
itual mind which is a heaven in form and image. 
• 276. (4) The natural mind that is a hell is in complete 
opposition to the sxriritual mind luhich is a Jieaven. When the 
loves are opposite all things of perception become opposites; 
for out of love, which makes the very life of man, everything 
else flows like streams from their source ; the things not from 
that source separating in the natural mind from those which 
are. Whatever springs from man's reigning love is in the 



N. 276] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 145 

middle, and other things are at the sides. If these latter are 
truths of the church from the Word, they are transferred from 
the middle further away to the sides, and are finally extermi- 
nated ; and then the man, that is, the natural mind, x^erceives 
evil as good, and sees falsity as truth; and conversely. This 
is why he believes perfidy to be wisdom, insanity to be intelli- 
gence, cunning to be prudence, and evil devices to be inge- 
nuity; moreover, he makes nothing of Divine and heavenly 
things pertaining to the church and worship, while he regards 
bodily and worldly things as of the greatest worth. He thus 
inverts the state of his life, making what is of the head to be 
of the sole of the foot, and trampling upon it; and making 
what is of the sole of the foot to be of the head. Thus from 
being alive he becomes dead. One is said to be alive whose 
mind is a heaven, and one is said to be dead whose mind is a 
hell. 



ALL THINGS OF THE THREE DEGREES OF THE NATURAL MIND 
ARE INCLUDED IN THE DEEDS THAT ARE DONE BY THE 
ACTS OF THE BODY. 

277. By the knowledge of degrees, which is set forth in 
this Part, the following arcanum is disclosed : all things of the 
mind, that is, of the will and understanding of man, are in his 
acts or deeds, included therein very much as things visible and 
invisible are in a seed or fruit or egg. Acts or deeds by them- 
selves appear outwardly as these do, but in their internals 
there are things innumerable, such as the concurring forces 
of the motor fibers of the whole body and all things of the 
mind that excite and determine these forces, all of which, as 
shown above, are of three degrees. And since all things of the 
mind are in these, so also are things of the will, th^t is, all 
the affections of man's love, which make the first degree ; all 
things of the understanding, that is, all thoughts from his per- 
ception, which makes the second degree ; and all things of the 
10 



146 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Third 

memory, that is, all ideas of the thought nearest to speech, 
taken from the memory, which compose the third degree. Out 
of these things determined into act, deeds come forth, in 
which, seen in external form, prior things are not visible 
although they are actually therein. That the outmost, is the 
complex, containant, and base of things prior may be seen 
above (n. 209-216) ; and that degrees of height are in fulness 
in their outmost (n. 217-221). 

278. The acts of the body when viewed by the eye, appear 
thus simple and uniform, as seeds, fruits, and eggs do, in ex- 
ternal form, or as nuts and almonds in their shells, yet they 
contain in themselves all the prior things from which they 
exist, because every outmost is sheathed about and is thereby 
rendered distinct from things prior. So is each degree envel- 
oped by a covering, and thereby separated from other degrees ; 
consequently things of the first degree are not perceived by 
the second, nor those of the second by the third. Eor ex- 
ample : The love of the will, which is the first degree of the 
mind, is not perceived in the wisdom of the understanding, 
which is the second degree of the mind, except by a certain 
enjoyment in thinking of the matter. Again, the first degree, 
which is, as just said, the love of the will, is not perceived in 
the knowledge of the memory, which is the third degree, ex- 
cept by a certain pleasure in knowing and speaking. From all 
this it follows that every deed, or bodily act, includes all these 
things, although externally it appears simple, and as if it were 
a single thing. 

279. This is corroborated by the following: The angels who 
are with man perceive separately the things that are from the 
mind in the act, the spiritual angels perceiving those things 
therein that are from the understanding, and the celestial 
angels those things therein that are from the will. This ap- 
pears incredible, but it is true. It should be known, however, 
that the things of the mind pertaining to any subject that is 
under consideration, or before the mind, are in the middle, 
and the rest are round about these according to their affinities 



N. 279] CONCERNING DIVINK LOVE 147 

therewith. The angels declare that a man's character is per- 
ceived from a single deed, but in a likeness of his love, which 
varies according to its determinations into affections, and into 
thoughts therefrom. In a word, before the angels every act or 
deed of a spiritual man is like a palatable fruit, useful and 
beautiful, which when opened and eaten yields flavor, use, and 
delight. That the angels have such a perception of the acts 
and deeds of men may also be seen above (n. 220). 

280. It is the same with man's speech. The angels recog- 
nize a man's love from his tone in speaking, his wisdom from 
his articulation, and his knowledge from the meaning of the 
words. They declare, moreover, that these three are in every 
word, because the word is a kind of resultant, involving tone, 
articulation, and meaning. It was told me by angels of the 
third heaven that from each successive word that a man 
speaks in discourse they perceive the general state of his dis- 
position, and also some particular states. That in each single 
word of the Word there is something spiritual from the Di- 
vine wisdom, and something celestial from the Divine love ; 
and that these are perceived by angels when the Word is 
devoutly read by man, has been abundantly shown in The Doc- 
trine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture. 

281. The conclusion is, that in the deeds of a man whose 
natural mind descends through three degrees into hell there 
are all his evils and his falsities of evil ; and that in the deeds 
of a man whose natural mind ascends into heaven there are 
all his goods and truths ; and that both are perceived by the 
angels from the mere speech and act of man. From this it is 
said in the Word that a man "shall be judged according to 
his deeds," and that he shall render an account of his words. 



148 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Eourth 



PAET FOURTH. 

THE LORD FROM ETERNITY, WHO IS JEHOVAH, CREATED 
THE UNIVERSE AND ALL THINGS THEREOF FROM HIM- 
SELF, AND NOT FROM NOTHING. 

282. It is known throughout the world, and acknowledged 
by every wise man from interior perception, that God, who is 
the Creator of the universe, is One ; and it is known from the 
Word that God the Creator of the universe is called "Jehovah," 
which is from the verb to he, because He alone is. That the 
Lord from eternity is that Jehovah is shown by many state- 
ments from the Word in The Doctrine of the New Jerusaleyti 
concerning the Lord. Jehovah is called the Lord from eter- 
nity, since Jehovah assumed a Human that He might save men 
from hell; He then commanded His disciples to call Him Lord. 
Therefore in the I^ew Testament Jehovah is called "the Lord;'.^ 
as can be seen from this : — 

Thou shalt love Jeliovah thy God with all thy heart and with aU thy 
soul {Deut. vi. 5); 

but in the New Testament : — 

Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy 
soul {2fatt. xxii. 35). 

It is the same in other passages in the Gospels, taken from the 
Old Testament. 

283. Everyone who thinks from clear reason sees that the 
universe was not created out of nothing, for he sees that not 
anything can be made out of nothing ; since nothing is nothing, 
and to make anything out of nothing is a contradiction, and a 
contradiction is contrary to the light of truth, which is from 
Divine Wisdom ; and whatever is not from Divine Wisdom is 
not from Divine Omnipotence. Every one who thinks from 
clear reason sees also that all things have been created out of 
a Substance that is Substance in itself, for that is Esse itself, 



N. 283] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVT. 149 

out of which every thing that is can take form; and since God 
alone is Substance in itself, and therefore Esse itself, it is evi- 
dent that from this source alone is the formation of things. 
Many have seen this, because reason causes them to see it; and 
yet they have not dared to confirm it, fearing lest they might 
thereby be led to think that the created universe is God, be- 
cause from God, or that nature is from itself, and consequently 
that the inmost of nature is what is called God. For this rea- 
son, although many have seen that the formation of all things 
is from God alone and out of his Esse, yet they have not dared 
to go beyond their first thought on the subject, lest their under- 
standing should become entangled in a so-called Gordian knot, 
beyond the possibility of release. Such release would be impos- 
sible, because their thought of God, and of the creation of 
the universe by God, has been in accordance with time and 
space, which are properties of nature ; and from nature no one 
can have any perception of God and of the creation of the uni- 
verse ; but every one whose understanding is in any interior 
light can have a perception of nature and of its creation out of 
God, because God is not in time and space. That the Divine 
is not in space may be seen above (n. 7-10) ; that the Divine 
apart from space fills all the spaces of the universe (n. 69-72); 
and that the Divine apart from time is in all time (n, 73—76). 
In what follows it will be seen that although God has created 
the universe and all things thereof out of Himself, yet there is 
nothing whatever in the created universe that is God; and other 
things besides, which will place this matter in its proper light. 
284. Part First -of this Work treated of God, that He is 
Divine Love and Divine Wisdom ; that He is life, and that He 
is substance and form, which is the very and only Esse. Part 
Second treated of the spiritual sun and its world, and of the 
natural sun and its w^orld, and of the creation of the universe 
with all things thereof from God by means of these two suns. 
Part Third treated of degrees in which are each and all things 
that have been created. Part Pourth will now treat of the 
creation of the universe from God. All these subjects are now 



150 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Tourth 

explained, because the angels have lamented before the Lord, 
that when they look upon the world they see nothing but 
darkness, and among men no knowledge of God, of heaven, or 
of the creation of nature, for their wisdom to rest upon. 



THE LORD FROM ETERNITY, THAT IS, JEHOVAH, COULD NOT 
HAVE CREATED THE UNIVERSE AND ALL THINGS THERE- 
OF UNLESS HE WERE A MAN. 

285. Those who have a corporeal natural idea of God as a 
Man, are wholly unable to comprehend how God as a Man 
could have created the universe and all things thereof; for 
they think within themselves. How can God as a Man wander 
all over the universe from space to space, and create ? Or how 
can He, from His place, speak the word, and as soon as it is 
spoken, creation follow ? When it is said that God is a Man, 
such ideas present themselves to those whose conception of 
the God-Man is like their conception of a man in the world, 
and who think of God from nature and its properties, which 
are time and space. But those whose conception of God-Man 
is not drawn from their conception of a man in the world, nor 
from nature and its space and time, clearly perceive that unless 
God were a Man the universe could not have been created. 
Bring your thought into the angelic idea of God as being a 
Man, putting away, as much as you can, the idea of space, and 
you will come near in thought to the truth. In fact, some of 
the learned have a perception of spirits and angels as not in 
space, because they have a perception of the spiritual as apart 
from space. For the spiritual is like thought, which although 
it is in man, man is nevertheless able by means of it to be 
present as it were elsewhere, in any place however remote. 
Such is the state of spirits and angels, who are men even as 
regards their bodies. In whatever place their thought is, there 
they appear, because in the spiritual world spaces and distances 
are appearances, and make one with the thought that is from 



N. 285] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 151 

their affection. From all this it can be seen that God, who 
appears as a sun far above the spiritual world, and to whom 
there can belong no appearance of space, is not to be thought of 
from space. And it can then be comprehended that He created 
the universe out of Himself, and not out of nothing ; also that 
His Human IJody cannot be thought great or small, that is, 
of any one stature, because this also pertains to space ; conse- 
quently that in things first and last, and in things greatest and 
least, He is the same ; and still further, that the Human is the 
inmost in every created thing, though apart from space. That 
the Divine is the same in things greatest and least may be seen 
above (n. 77-82) ; and that the Divine apart from space fills all 
spaces (n. 69-72). And because the Divine is not in space, it is 
not continuous (nee est contirmum), as the inmost of nature is. 

286. That God unless He were a Man could not have cre- 
ated the universe and all things thereof, may be clearly appre- 
hended by any intelligent person from this, that he cannot 
deny that in God there is Love and Wisdom, mercy and clem- 
ency, and also goodness itself and truth itself, inasmuch as 
these are from God. And because he cannot deny this, neither 
can he deny that God is a Man ; for abstractly from man not 
one of these is possible ; for man is their subject, and to sepa- 
rate them from their subject is to say that they are not. 
Think of wisdom, and place it outside of man — is it anything? 
Can you conceive of it as something ethereal, or as something 
flaming ? You cannot ; unless perchance you conceive of it as 
being within these ; and if within these, it must be wisdom in 
a form such as man has ; it must be wholly in the form of man, 
not one thing can be lacking if wisdom is to be in that form. 
In a word, the form of wisdom is man ; and because man is the 
form of wisdom, he is also the form of love, mercy, clemency, 
good and truth, because these make one with wisdom. That 
love and wisdom are not possible except in a form, see above 
(n. 40-43). 

287. That love and wisdom are man is further evident from 
the fact that the angels of heaven are men in beauty in the 



152 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

measure in which they are in love and its wisdom from the 
Lord. The same is evident from what is said of Adam in the 
Word, that he was created into tlie likeness and into the image 
of God {Ge7i. i. 26), because into the form of love and wisdom. 
Every man on earth is born into the human form as regards 
his body, for the reason that his spirit, which is also called his 
soul, is a man; and this is a man because it is receptive of love 
and wisdom from the Lord; and so far as these are received by 
the spirit or soul of man, so far it becomes a man after the 
death of the material body which it had drawn about it ; and 
so far as these are not received it becomes a monster, which 
derives something of manhood from the ability to receive. 

288. Because God is a Man, the whole angelic heaven in 
the aggregate resembles a single man, and is divided into 
regions and provinces according to the members, viscera, and 
organs of man. Thus there are societies of heaven which con- 
stitute the province of all things of the brain, of all things of 
the facial organs, and of all things of the viscera of the body; 
and these provinces are distinct from each other, just as those 
organs are in man ; moreover, the angels know in what prov- 
ince of man they are. The whole heaven is in this image, 
because God is a Man. God is also heaven, because the angels, 
who constitute heaven, are recipients of love and wisdom from 
the Lord, and recipients are images. That heaven is in the 
form of all things of man is shown in the Arcana Cailestia, at 
the end of various chapters. 

289. All this makes evident how empty are the ideas of 
those who think of God as something else than a Man, and of 
the Divine attributes as not being in God as a Man, since 
these separated from man are mere figments of reason. That 
God is very Man, from whom every man is a man according 
to his reception of love and wisdom, may be seen above (n. 
11-13). This truth is here corroborated on account of what 
follows, that the creation of the universe by God, because He 
is a Man, may be perceived. 



N. 290] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 153 

THE LOUD FROM ETERNITY, THAT IS, JEHOVAH, BROUGHT 
FORTH FROM HIMSELF THE SUN OF THE SPIRITUAL 
WORLD, AND FROM THAT CREATED THE UNIVERSE AND 
ALL THINGS THEREOF. 

290. The sun of the spiritual world was treated of in Part 
Second of this work, and the following propositions were there 
established : — Divine Love and Divine Wisdom appear in the 
spiritual world as a sun (n. 83-88). Spiritual heat and spirit- 
ual light go forth from that sun (n. 89-92). That sun is not 
God, but is a Proceeding from the Divine Love and Divine Wis- 
dom of God-Man; so also are the heat and light from that sun 
(n. 93-98). The sun of the spiritual world is at a middle 
altitude, and appears far off from the angels like the sun of 
the natural world from men (n. 103-107). In the spiritual 
world the east is where the Lord appears as a sun, and from 
that the other quarters are determined (n. 119-123, 124-128). 
Angels turn their faces constantly to the Lord as a sun (n. 
129-134, 135-139). The Lord created the universe and all 
things thereof by means of the sun, which is the first proceed- 
ing of Divine Love and Divine Wisdom (n. 151-156). The 
sun of the natural world is mere fire, and nature, which de- 
rives its origin from that sun, is consequently dead; and the 
sun of the natural world was created in order that the work of 
creation might be completed and finished (n. 157-162). With- 
out a double sun, one living and the other dead, no creation is 
possible (n. 163-166). 

291. This also, among other things, is shown in Part Second; 
— that the spiritual sun is not the Lord, but is a Proceeding 
from His Divine Love and His Divine Wisdom. It is called a 
■proceeding^ because the sun was brought forth out of Divine 
Love and Divine Wisdom which are in themselves substance 
and form, and it is by means of this that the Divine ^proceeds. 
But as human reason is such as to be unwilling to yield assent 
unless it sees a thing from its cause, and therefore has some 
perception of how it is, — thus in the present case, how the sun 



154 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

of the spiritual world, wliich is not the Lord, but a proceeding 
from Him, was brought forth — something shall be said on this 
subject. In regard to this matter I have conversed much with 
the angels. They said that they have a clear perception of it 
in their own spiritual light, but that they cannot easily present 
it to man, in his natural light, owing to the difference between 
the two kinds of light and the consequent difference of 
thought. The matter, however, may be likened, they said, to the 
sphere of affections and of thoughts therefrom which encom- 
passes each angel, whereby his presence is made evident to 
others near and far. But that encompassing sphere, they said, 
is not the angel himself; it is from each and every thing of his 
body, wherefrom substances are constantly flowing out like a 
stream, and what flows out surrounds him; also that these 
substances, contiguous to his body, as they are constantly 
moved by his life's two fountains of motion, the heart and 
the lungs, arouse the same activities in the atmospheres, and 
thereby produce a perception as of his presence with others; 
therefore that it is not a separate sphere of affections and of 
thoughts therefrom that goes forth and is continuous from 
him, although it is so called, since the affections are mere 
states of the mind's forms in the angel. They said, moreover, 
that there is such a sphere about every angel, because there is 
one about the Lord, and that the sphere about the Lord is in 
like manner from Him, and that that sphere is their sun, that 
is, the sun of the spiritual world. 

292. A perception has often been granted me of such a 
sphere around each angel and spirit, and also a general 
sphere around many in a society. I have also been permit- 
ted to see it under various appearances, in heaven sometimes 
appearing like a thin flame, in hell like gross fire, also some- 
times in heaven like a thin and shining white cloud, and in 
hell like a thick and black cloud. It has also been granted 
me to perceive these spheres as various kinds of odors and 
stenches. By these experiences I was convinced that a sphere, 
consisting of substances set free and separated from their 



N. 292] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 155 

bodies, encompasses every one in heaven and every one in 
hell. 

293. It was also perceived that a sphere flows forth, not 
only from angels and spirits but also from each and all things 
that appear in the spiritual world, — from trees and from their 
fruits, from shrubs and from their flowers, from herbs, and 
from grasses, even from the soils and from their very particles. 
From which it was patent that both in the case of things liv- 
ing and things dead this is a universal law. That each thing is 
encompassed by something like that which is within it, and 
that this is continually exhaled from it. It is known, from the 
observation of many learned men, that it is the same in the 
natural world — that is, that there is a wave of effluvia con- 
stantly flowing forth out of man, also out of every animal, 
likewise out of tree, fruit, shrub, flower, and even out of metal 
and stone. This the natural world derives from the spiritual, 
and the spiritual world from the Divine. 

294. Because those things that constitute the sun of the 
spiritual world are from the Lord, but are not the Lord, they 
are not life in itself, but are devoid of life in itself; just as 
those things that flow forth from angel or man, and constitute 
spheres around him are not the angel or the man, but are from 
him, and devoid of his life. These spheres make one with the 
angel or man no otherwise than that they are concordant ; and 
this they are because taken from the forms of their bodies, 
which in them were forms of their life. This is an arcanimi 
which angels, with their spiritual ideas, are able to see in 
thought and also express in speech, but men with their natu- 
ral ideas are not; because a thousand spiritual ideas make one 
natural idea, and one natural idea cannot be resolved by man 
into any spiritual idea, much less into so many. The reason 
is that these ideas differ according to degrees of height, which 
were treated of in Part Third. 

295. That there is such a difference between the thoughts 
of angels and the thoughts of men was made known to me by 
this experience: — The angels were asked to think spiritually 



156 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

on some subject, and afterwards to tell me what they had 
thought. This they did; but when they wished to tell me they 
could not, and said that these things could not be expressed in 
words. It was the same with their spiritual language and their 
spiritual writing ; there was not a word of spiritual language 
that was like any word of natural language; nor was there 
anything of spiritual writing like natural writing, except the 
letters, each of which contained an entire meaning. But what 
is wonderful, they said that they seemed to themselves to 
think, speak, and write in the spiritual state in the same man- 
ner that man does in the natural state, when yet there is no 
similarity. Prom this it was plain that the natural and the 
spiritual differ according to degrees of height, and that they 
communicate with each other only by correspondences. 



THEKE ARE IN THE LORD THREE THINGS THAT ARE THE 
LORD, THE DIVINE OF LOVE, THE DIVINE OF WISDOM, 
AND THE DIVINE OF USE; AND THESE THREE ARE PRE- 
SENTED IN APPEARANCE OUTSIDE OF THE SUN OF THE 
SPIRITUAL WORLD, THE DIVINE OF LOVE BY HEAT, THE 
DIVINE OF WISDOM BY LIGHT, AND THE DIVINE OF USE 
BY THE ATMOSPHERE WHICH IS THEIR CONTAINANT. 

296. That heat and light go forth out of the sun of the spir- 
itual world, heat out of the Lord's Divine Love, and light out 
of His Divine Wisdom, may be seen above (n. 89-92, 99-102, 
146-150). Now it will be shown that the third which goes 
forth out of that sun is the atmosphere, which is the containant 
of heat and light, and that this goes forth out of the Lord's 
Divine which is called Use. 

297. Any one who thinks with any enlightenment can see 
that love has use for an end and intends it, and brings it forth 
by means of wisdom ; for love can bring forth no use of itself, 
but only by wisdom as a medium. AVhat, in fact, is love un- 



N. 207] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 157 

less there be soinetliing loved? That something is use; and 
because use is that which is loved, and is brought forth by 
means of wisdom, it follows that use is the containant of wis- 
dom and love. That these three, love, wisdom and use follow 
in order according to degrees of height, and that the outmost 
degree is the complex, containant, and base of the prior degrees 
has been shown (n. 209-21G, and elsewhere). Erom all this it 
can be seen that these three, the Divine of Love, the Divine of 
Wisdom, and the Divine of Use, are in the Lord, and are the 
Lord in essence. 

298. That man, as regards both his exteriors and his inte- 
riors, is a form of all uses, and that all the uses in the created 
universe correspond to those uses in him, will be fully shown 
in what follows ; it need only be mentioned here, that it may 
be known that God as a Man is the form itself of all uses, from 
which form all uses in the created universe derive their origin, 
thus that the created universe, viewed as to uses, is an image 
of Him. Those things are called uses which from God-Man^ 
that is, from the Lord, are by creation in order; but those 
things which are from what is man's own are not called uses ; 
since what is man's own is hell, and whatever is therefrom is 
contrary to order. 

299. Now since these three, love, wdsdom, and use, are in 
the Lord, and are the Lord ; and since the Lord is everywhere, 
for He is omnipresent ; and since the Lord cannot make Him- 
self present, such as He is in Himself and such as He is in 
His ov/n sun, to any angel or man, He therefore presents Him- 
self by means of such things as can be received, presenting 
Himself, as to love by heat, as to wisdom by light, and as to 
use by an atmosphere. The Lord presents Himself as to use 
by an atmosphere, because an atmosphere is a containant of 
heat and light, as use is the containant of love and wisdom. 
Eor light and heat going forth from the Divine Sun cannot go 
forth in nothing, that is, in vacuum, but must go forth in a 
containant which is a subject. This containant we call an at- 
mosphere ; and this encompasses the sun, receiving the sun in its 



158 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

bosom, and bearing it to heaven where angels are, and then to 
the world where men are, thus making the Lord's presence 
everywhere manifest. 

300. That there are atmospheres in the angelic world, as 
well as in the natural world, has been shown above (n. ITS- 
ITS, 1T9-183). It was there declared that the atmospheres of 
the spiritual world are spiritual, and the atmospheres of the 
natural world are natural. It can now be seen, from the ori- 
gin of the spiritual atmosphere most closely encompassing the 
spiritual sun, that everything belonging to it is in its essence 
such as the sun is in its essence. The angels, by means of their 
spiritual ideas, which are apart from space, elucidate this truth 
as follows : There is only one substance from which all things 
are, and the sun of the spiritual world is that substance ; and 
since the Divine is not in space, and is the same in things 
greatest and least, this is also true of that sun which is the first 
going forth of God-Man ; furthermore, this one only substance, 
which is the sun, going forth by means of atmospheres accord- 
ing to continuous degrees or degrees of breadth, and at the 
same time according to discrete degrees or degrees of height 
presents the varieties of all things in the created universe. 
The angels declared that these things are totally incomprehen- 
sible, unless spaces be removed from the ideas ; and if not 
removed, appearances must needs induce fallacies. But so long 
as the thought is held that God is the very Esse from which all 
things are, fallacies cannot enter. 

301. It is evident, moreover, from angelic ideas, which are 
apart from space, that in the created universe nothing lives 
except God-Man, that is, the Lord, neither is anything moved 
except by life from Him, nor has being except through the sun 
from Him ; so that it is a truth, that in God we live, and move, 
and have our being. 



N. 302] CONCERNING ])IVINE LOVE. 159 

THE ATMOSPHERES, OF WHICH THERE ARE THREE BOTH IN 
THE SriRITUAL AND IN THE NATURAL WORLD, IN THEIR 
OUTMOSTS CLOSE INTO SUBSTANCES AND MATTERS SUCH 
AS ARE IN LANDS. 

302. It has been shown in Part Third (n. 173-176), that 
there are three atmospheres both in the spiritual and in the 
natural world, which are distinct from each other according to 
degrees of height, and which, in their progress toward lower 
things, decrease [in activity] according to degrees of breadth. 
And since atmospheres in their progress toward lower things 
decrease [in activity], it follows that they constantly become 
more compressed and inert, and finally, in outmosts, become so 
compressed and inert as to be no longer atmospheres, but sub- 
stances at rest, and in the natural world, fixed like those in the 
lands that are called matters. As such is the origin of sub- 
stances and matters, it follows, first, that these substances and 
matters also are of three degrees ; secondly, that they are held 
together in mutual connection by encompassing atmospheres; 
thirdly, that they are fitted for the production of all uses in 
their forms. 

303. That such substances or matters as are in earths, were 
brought forth by the sun through its atmospheres any one will 
readily acknowledge who reflects that there are continual medi- 
ations from the First to outmosts, and that nothing can take 
form except from what is prior to itself, and so finally from 
the First. The First is the sun of the spiritual world, and the 
First of that sun is God-Man, or the Lord. Now as atmospheres 
are those prior things, whereby the spiritual sun manifests it- 
self in outmosts, and as these prior things continually decrease 
in activity and expansion down to the outmosts, it follows that 
when their activity and expansion come to an end in outmosts 
they become substances, and matters such as are in lands, which 
retain within them, from the atmospheres out of which they 
originated, an effort and conatus to bring forth uses. Those 
who do not evolve the creation of the universe and all things 



160 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Eoukth 

thereof by continuous mediations from the First [Being], can 
but hold hypotheses, disjoined and divorced from their causes, 
which, when surveyed by a mind with an interior perception of 
things, do not appear like a house, but like heaps of rubbish. 
304. From this universal origin of all things in the created 
universe, every particular thereof has a similar order; in that 
these also go forth from their first to outmosts which are rela- 
tively in a state of rest, that they may terminate and become 
permanent. Thus in the human body fibers proceed from their 
first forms until at last they become tendons ; also fibers with 
vessels proceed from their first forms until they become car- 
tilages and bones ; upon these they may rest and become 
permanent. Because of such a progression of fibers and ves- 
sels in man from firsts to outmosts, there is a similar pro- 
gression of their states, which are sensations, thoughts, and 
affections. These, also, from their firsts, where they are in 
light, proceed through to outmosts, where they are in shade ; 
or from their firsts, where they are in heat, to outmosts where 
they are not in heat. With such a progression of these there 
is also a like progression of love and of all things thereof, and 
of wisdom and all things thereof. In a word, such is the pro- 
gression of all things in the created universe. This is the 
same as was shown above (n. 222-229), that there are degrees 
of both kinds in the greatest and least of all created things. 
There are degrees of both kinds even in the least things of all, 
because the spiritual sun is the sole substance from which 
all things are (according to the spiritual ideas of the angels, 
n. 300). 



IN THE SUBSTANCES AND MATTERS OF WHICH LANDS ARE 
FORMED THERE IS NOTHING OF THE DIVINE IN ITSELF, 
BUT STILL THEY ARE FROM THE DIVINE IN ITSELF. 

305. From the origin of lands (treated of in the preceding 
chapter), it can be seen, that in their substances and matters 
there is nothing of the Divine in itself, but that they are de- 



N. 305] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 161 

void of all that is Divine in itself. For tliey are, as was said, 
the endings and closings of the atmospheres, whose heat has 
died away into cold, whose light into darkness, and whose ac- 
tivity into inertness. Nevertheless, by continuation from the 
substance of the spiritual sun, they have brought with them 
what there was in that substance from the Divine, which (as 
said above, n. 291-298), was the sphere encompassing God- 
Man, or the Lord. From that sphere, by continuation from 
the sun through the atmospheres as mediums have arisen the 
substances and matters of which the lands are formed. 

306. The origin of lands from the spiritual sun through 
the atmospheres, as mediums, can no otherwise be described 
by expressions flowing out of natural ideas, but may by ex- 
pressions flowing out of spiritual ideas, because these are 
apart from space, and for this reason, they do not fall into 
any expressions of natural language. That spiritual thoughts, 
speech, and writings differ so entirely from natural thoughts, 
speech, and writings, that they have nothing in common, and 
have communication only by correspondences, may be seen 
above (n. 295). It may suffice, therefore, if the origin of 
lands be perceived in some measure naturally. 



ALL USES, WHICH ARE ENDS OF CREATION ARE IN FORMS, 
WHICH FORMS THEY TAKE FROM SUBSTANCES AND MAT- 
TERS SUCH AS ARE IN LANDS. 

307. All things treated of hitherto, as the sun, atmos- 
pheres, and lands, are only means to ends. The ends of cre- 
ation are those things that are produced by the Lord as a sun, 
through the atmospheres, out of lands ; and these ends are 
called uses. In their whole extent these are all things of 
the vegetable kingdom, all things of the animal kingdom, and 
finally the human race, and the angelic heaven which is from 
it. These are called uses, because they are recipients of Di- 
ll 



162 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

vine Love and Divine Wisdom, also because tliey have regard 
to God the Creator from whom they are, and thereby conjoin 
Him to His great work; by which conjunction it comes that, 
as they sprang forth from Him, so do they have unceasing ex- 
istence from Him. They are said to have regard to Grod the 
Creator from whom they are, and to conjoin Him to His great 
work, but this is to speak according to appearance. It is meant 
that Grod the Creator causes them to have regard and to conjoin 
themselves to Him as it were of themselves; but how they 
have regard and thereby conjoin will be declared in what fol- 
lows. Something has been said before on these subjects in their 
place, as that Divine Love and Divine Wisdom must neces- 
sarily have being and form in other things created by them- 
selves (n. 37-51) ; that all things in the created universe are re- 
cipients of Divine Love and Divine Wisdom (n. 55-60) ; that 
the uses of all created things ascend by degrees to man, and 
through man to G od the Creator from whom they are (n. 65-68). 

308. Who does not see clearly that uses are the ends of 
creation, when he considers that from God the Creator noth- 
ing can have form, and therefore nothing can be created, ex- 
cept use ; and that to be use, it must be for the sake of others ; 
and that use for the sake of self is also for the sake of others, 
since a use for the sake of self looks to one's being in a state 
to be of use to others ? Whoso considers this is also able to 
see, that use which is use cannot spring from man, but must 
be in man from that Being from whom everything that comes 
forth is use, that is, from the Lord. 

309. But as the forms of uses are here treated of, the sub- 
ject shall be set forth in the following order: — 

(1) In lands there is a conatus to produce uses in forms, 
that is, forms of uses. 

(2) In all forms of uses there is a kind of image of the cre- 
ation of the universe. 

(.3) In all forms of uses there is a kind of image of man. 
(4) In all forms of uses there is a kind of image of the In- 
finite and the Eternal 



N. 310] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 163 

310. (1) Iif landi^ there is a conatus to produce uses in 
fo7'ms, that is, forms of uses. That there is this conatus in 
lands, is evident from their source, since the substances and 
matters of which lands consist are endings and closings of 
atmospheres which proceed as uses from the spiritual sun (as 
may be seen above, n. 305, 306). And because the substances 
and matters of which lands consist are from that source, and 
their aggregations are held in connection by the pressure of 
the surrounding atmospheres, it follows that they have from 
that a perpetual conatus to bring forth forms of uses. The 
very quality that makes them capable of bringing forth they 
derive from their source, as being the outmosts of atmos- 
pheres, with which they are constantly in accord. Such a 
conatus and quality are said to be in lands, but it is meant 
that they are present in the substances and matters of which 
lands consist, whether these are in the lands or in the atmos- 
pheres as exhalations from the lands. That atmospheres are 
full of such things is well known. That there is such a cona- 
tus and such quality in the substances and matters of lands is 
plain from the fact that seeds of all kinds, opened by means of 
heat even to their inmost core, are impregnated by the most 
subtile substances (which can have no other than a spiritual 
origin), and through this they have power to conjoin them- 
selves to use, from which comes their prolific principle. Then 
through conjunction with matters from a natural origin they 
are able to produce forms of uses, and thereafter to deliver 
them as from a womb, that they may come forth into light, 
and thus sprout up and grow. This conatus is afterwards con- 
tinuous from the lands through the root even to outmosts, 
and from outmosts to firsts, wherein use itself is in its origin. 
Thus uses pass into forms ; and forms, in their progression 
from firsts to outmosts and from outmosts to firsts, derive 
from use (which is like a soul) that each and every thing of 
the form is of some use. Use is said to be like a soul, since 
its form is like a body. It also follows that there is a cona- 
tus more interior, that is, the conatus to produce uses for the 



164 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

animal kingdom through vegetable growths, since by these 
animals of every kind are nourished. It further follows that 
in all these there is an inmost conatus, the conatus to perform 
use to the human race. From all this these things follow : (1) 
that there are outmosts, and in outmosts are all prior things 
simultaneously in their order, according to what has been fre- 
quently explained above ; (2) that as there are degrees of both 
kinds in the greatest and least of all things (as was shown 
above, n. 222-229), so there are likewise in this conatus ; (3) 
that as all uses are brought forth by the Lord out of out- 
mosts, so in outmosts there must be a conatus to uses. 

311. Still none of these are living conatus, for they are the 
conatus of life's outmost forces ; within which forces there 
exists, from the life out of which they spring, a striving to 
return at last to their origin through the means afforded. In 
outmosts, atmospheres become such forces ; and by these forces, 
substances and matters, such as are in the lands, are molded 
into forms and held together in forms both within and with- 
out. But the subject is too large to allow a more extended ex- 
planation here. 

312. The first production from these earthy matters, while 
they were still new and in their simple state, was production 
of seed ; the first conatus therein could not be any other. 

313. (2) In all forms of uses there is a kind of image of 
creation. Forms of uses are of a threefold kind; forms of uses 
of the mineral kingdom, forms of uses of the vegetable king- 
dom, and forms of uses of the animal kingdom. The forms of 
uses of the mineral kingdom cannot be described, because they 
are not visible to the eye. The first forms are the substances 
and matters of which the lands consist, in their minutest di- 
visions ; the second forms are aggregates of these, and are of 
infinite variety ; the third forms come from plants that have 
fallen to dust, and from animal remains, and from the contin- 
ual evaporations and exhalations from these, which are added 
to lands and make their soil. These forms of the mineral king- 
dom in three degrees represent creation in an image in this, 



N. 313] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 1G5 

that, made active by the sun through the atmospheres and 
their heat and light, they Ijring forth uses in forms, which 
uses were creative ends. This image of creation lies deeply 
hidden within their conatus (of which see above, n. 310). 

314. In the forms of uses of the vegetable kingdom an 
image of creation appears in this, that from their firsts they 
proceed to their outmosts, and from outmosts to firsts. Their 
firsts are seeds, their outmosts are stalks clothed with bark ; 
and by means of the bark which is the outmost of the stalk, 
they tend to seeds which, as was said, are their firsts. The 
stalks clothed with layers of bark represent the globe clothed 
with lands, out of which come the creation and formation of 
all uses. That vegetation is effected through the outer and 
inner barks and coatings, by a climbing up, by means of the 
coverings of the roots (which are continued around the stalks 
and branches), into the beginnings of the fruit, and in like 
manner through the fruits into the seeds, is known to many. 
An image of creation is displayed in forms of uses in the pro- 
gress of the formation of uses from firsts to outmosts, and 
from outmosts to firsts ; also in this, that in the whole pro- 
gression there lies the end of producing fruit and seeds, which 
are uses. From what has been said above it is plain, that the 
progression of the creation of the universe was from its First 
(which is the Lord encircled by the sun) to outmosts which 
are lands, and from these through uses to its First, that is, 
the Lord; also that the ends of the whole creation were uses. 

315. It should be known that to this image of creation the 
heat, light, and atmospheres of the natural world contribute 
nothing whatever. It is only the heat, light, and atmospheres 
of the sun of the spiritual world that do this, bringing that 
image with them, and clothing it with the forms of uses of the 
vegetable kingdom. The heat, light, and atmospheres of the 
natural world simply open the seeds, keep their products in a 
state of expansion, and clothe them with the matters that give 
them fixedness. And this is done not by any forces from their 
own sun (which viewed in themselves are null), but by forces 



166 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

from the spiritual sun, by wliicli the natural forces are unceas- 
ingly impelled to these services. Natural forces contribute 
nothing whatever towards forming this image of creation, for 
the image of creation is spiritual. But that this image may be 
manifest and perform use in the natural world, and may stand 
fixed and be permanent, it must be materialized, that is, filled 
in with the matters of that world. 

316. In the forms of uses of the animal kingdom there is a 
similar image of creation, in that the animal body, which is the 
outmost thereof, is formed by a seed deposited in a womb or 
an ovum, and this body, when mature, brings forth new seed. 
This progression is similar to the progression of the forms of 
uses of the vegetable kingdom : seeds are the beginnings ; the 
womb or the ovum is like the ground ; the state before birth is 
like the state of the seed in the ground while it takes root ; the 
state after birth until the animal becomes prolific is like the 
growth of a tree until it reaches its state of fruit-bearing. 
From this parallelism it is plain that there is a likeness of cre- 
ation in the forms of animals as well as in the forms of plants, 
in that there is a progression from firsts to outmosts, and from 
outmost s to firsts. A like image of creation exists in every 
single thing there is in man ; for there is a like progression of 
love through wisdom into uses, consequently a like progression 
of the will through the understanding into acts, and of char- 
ity through faith into deeds. Will and understanding, also 
charity and faith, are the firsts as their source ; acts and deeds 
are the outmosts ; from these, by means of the enjoyments of 
uses, a return is made to their firsts, which, as was said, are 
the will and understanding, or charity and faith. That the 
return is effected by means of the enjoyments of uses is very 
evident from the enjoyments felt in those acts and deeds 
which are from any love, in that they flow back to the first 
of the love from which they spring and that thereby conjunc- 
tion is effected. The enjoyments of acts and deeds are what 
are called the enjoyments of uses. A like progression from 
firsts to outmosts, and from outmosts to firsts, is exhibited in 



N. 316] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 167 

the forms most purely organic of affections and thoughts in 
man. In his brains there are those star-like forms called the 
cineritious substances ; out of these go forth fibers through 
the medullary substance by the neck into the body ; passing 
through to the outmosts of the body, and from outmosts re- 
turning to their firsts. This return of fibers to their firsts is 
made through the blood-vessels. There is a like progression of 
all affections and thoughts, which are changes and variations 
of state of those forms or substances, for the fibers issuing out 
of those forms or substances are comparatively like the atmos- 
pheres from the spiritual sun, which are containants of heat 
and light ; while bodily acts are like the things produced from 
the lands by means of atmospheres, the enjoyments of their 
uses returning to the source from which they Sprang. But 
that the progression of these is such, and that within this pro- 
gression there is an image of creation, can hardly be compre- 
hended fully by the understanding, both because thousands 
and myriads of forces operating in act appear as one, and be- 
cause the enjoyments of uses do not appear as ideas in the 
thought, but only affect without distinct perception. On this 
subject see what has been declared and explained above, as 
follows : The uses of all created things ascend by degrees of 
height to man, and through man to God the Creator from 
whom they are (n. 65-68). The end of creation takes form 
in outmosts, which end is that all things may return to the 
Creator and that there may be conjunction (n. 167-172). But 
these things will appear in still clearer light in the following 
Part, where the correspondence of the will and understanding 
with the heart and lungs will be treated of. 

317. (3) In all forms of uses there is a kind of image of 
man. This has been shown above (n. 61-64). That all uses, 
from firsts to outmosts and from outmosts to firsts, have rela- 
tion to all parts of man and have correspondence with them, 
consequently that man is, in a kind of image, a universe, and 
conversely that the universe viewed as to uses is in image a 
man, will be seen in the following chapter. 



168 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

318. (4) Bi all forms of uses there is a kind of image of the 
Infinite and the Eternal. Tlie image of the Infinite in these 
forms is plain from their conatus and power to fill the spaces 
of the whole world, and even of many worlds, to infinity. For 
a single seed produces a tree, shrub, or plant, which fills its 
own space; and each tree, shrub, or plant produces seeds, in 
some cases thousands of them, which, when sown and grown 
up, fill their own spaces ; and if from each seed of these there 
should proceed as many more, reproduced again and again, in 
the course of years the whole world would be filled ; and if the 
production Avere still continued many worlds would be filled; 
and this to infinity. Estimate a thousand seeds from one, and 
multiply the thousand by a thousand ten times, twenty times, 
even to a hundred times, and you will see. There is a like 
image of the Eternal in these forms; seeds are propagated 
from year to year, and the propagations never cease ; they have 
not ceased from the creation of the world till now, and will 
not cease to eternity. These two are standing proofs and at- 
testing signs that all things of the universe have been created 
by an Infinite and Eternal God. Beside these images of the 
Infinite and Eternal, there is another image of the Infinite and 
Eternal in varieties, in that there can never be a substance, 
state, or thing in the created universe the same as or identical 
Avith any other, neither in atmospheres, nor in lands, nor in 
the forms arising out of these. Thus not in any of the things 
which fill the universe can any thing the same be produced to 
eternity. This is plainly to be seen in the variety of the faces 
of human beings; no one face can be found throughout the 
world which is the same as another, nor can there be to all 
eternity, consequently not one mind, for the face is the type 
of the mind. 



N. 319] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 169 

ALL THINGS OF THE CREATED UNIVERSE, VIEWI5D IN REFERENCE 
TO USES, REPRESENT MAN IN AN IMAGE, AND THIS TESTI- 
FIES THAT GOD IS A MAN 

319. By the ancients man was called a microcosm, from his 
representing the macrocosm, that is, the universe in its whole 
complex; but it is not known at the present day why man was 
so called by the ancients, for no more of the universe or macro- 
cosm is manifest in him than that he derives nourishment and 
bodily life from its animal and vegetable kingdoms, and that 
he is kept in a living condition by its heat, sees by its light, 
and hears and breathes by its atmospheres. Yet these things 
do not make man a microcosm, as the universe with all things 
thereof is a macrocosm. The ancients called man a microcosm, 
or little universe, from truth which they derived from the 
knowledge of correspondences, in which the most ancient 
people were, and from their communication with angels of 
heaven ; for angels of heaven know from the things which they 
see about them that all things of the universe, viewed as to 
uses, represent man as an image. 

320. But the truth that man is a microcosm, or little uni- 
verse, because the created universe, viewed as to uses is, in 
image, a man, cannot come into the thought and from that into 
the knowledge of any one on earth from the idea of the uni- 
verse as it is viewed in the spiritual world; and therefore it 
can be corroborated only by an angel, who is in the spiritual 
world, or by some one to whom it has been granted to be in 
that world, and to see things which are there. As this has 
been granted to me, I am able, from what I have seen there, to 
disclose this arcanum. 

321. It should be known that the spiritual world is, in ex- 
ternal appearance, wholly like the natural world. Lands, 
mountains, hills, valleys, plains, fields, lakes, rivers, springs of 
water are to be seen there, as in the natural world ; thus all 
things belonging to the mineral kingdom. Paradises, gardens, 
groves, woods, and in them trees and shrubs of all kinds bear- 



170 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

ing fruit and seeds ; also plants, flowers, herbs, and grasses are 
to be seen there; thus all things pertaining to the vegetable 
kingdom. There are also to be seen there, beasts, birds, and 
fishes of every kind ; thus all things pertaining to the animal 
kingdom. Man there is an angel or spirit. This is premised 
that it may be known that the universe of the spiritual world 
is wholly like the universe of the natural world, with this dif- 
ference only, that things in the spiritual world are not fixed 
and settled like those in the natural world, because in the spir- 
itual world nothing is natural but every thing is spiritual. 

322. That the universe of that world represents man in an 
image can be clearly seen from this, that all things just men- 
tioned (n. 321) appear to the life, and take form about the 
angel, and about the angelic societies, as if they were produced 
or created by them ; they are about them permanently, and do 
not pass away. That they are as if they were produced or 
created by them is seen by their no longer appearing when 
the angel goes away, or when the society passes to another 
place ; also when other angels come in place of these the ap- 
pearance of all things about them is changed — in the paradises 
the trees and fruits are changed, in the flower gardens the 
flowers and seeds, in the fields the herbs and grasses, also 
the kinds of animals and birds are changed. Such things 
take form and are changed in this manner, because all these 
things take form according to the affections and consequent 
thoughts of the angels, for they are correspondences. And 
because things that correspond make one with that to which 
they correspond they are an image representative of it. The 
image itself is not seen when these things are viewed in their 
forms, it is seen only when they are viewed in respect to uses. . 
It has been granted me to perceive that angels, when their 
eyes were opened by the Lord, and they saw these things from 
the correspondence of uses, recognized and saw themselves 
therein. 

323. Inasmuch as these things which have existence about 
the angels, corresponding to their affections and thoughts, rep- 



N. 323] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 171 

resent a universe, in that there are lands, phuits, and animals, 
and these constitute an image representative of the angel, it is 
evident why the ancients called man a microcosm. 

324. That this is so has been abundantly confirmed in the 
Arcana Coilestia, also in the work on lleaoeu and Hell, and 
occasionally in the preceding pages where correspondence is 
treated of. It has been there shown also that nothing is to 
be found in the created universe which has not a correspond- 
ence with something in man, not only with his affections and 
their thoughts, but also with his bodily organs and viscera ; 
not with these however as substances, but as uses. From this 
it is that in the Word, where the church and the man of the 
church are treated of, such frequent mention is made of trees, 
such as " olives," " vines," and " cedars ;" of " gardens," 
" groves," and " woods ;" and of the " beasts of the earth," 
" birds of the air," and " fish of the sea." They are there men- 
tioned because they correspond, and by correspondence make 
one, as was said above; consequently, when such things are 
read in the Word by man, these objects are not perceived by 
angels, but the church or the men of the church in respect to 
their states are perceived instead. 

325. Since all things of the universe have relation in an 
image to man, the wisdom and mtelligence of Adam are de- 
scribed by the " garden of Eden," wherein were all kinds of 
trees, also rivers, precious stones, and gold, and animals to 
which he gave names ; by all of which are meant such things 
as were in Adam, and constitute that which is called man. 
Nearly the same things are said of Ashur, by whom the church 
in respect to intelligence is signified {Ezek. xxxi. 3-9) ; and of 
Tyre, by which the church in respect to knowledges of good 
and truth is signified (Ezek, xxviii. 12, 13). 

326. From all this it can be seen that all things in the uni- 
verse, viewed from uses, have relation in an image to man, 
and that this testifies that God is a Man. For such things 
as have been mentioned above take form about the angelic 
man, not from the angels, but from the Lord through the 



172 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

angels. For they take their form from the influx of the Lord's 
Divine Love and Divine Wisdom into the angel, who is a re- 
cipient, and before whose eyes all this is brought forth like the 
creation of a universe. From this they know there that God 
is a Man, and that the created universe, viewed in its uses, is 
an image of God. 



ALL THINGS CREATED BY THE LOUD ARE USES ; THEY ARE. USES 
IN THE ORDER, DEGREE, AND RESPECT IN WHICH THEY 
HAVE RELATION TO MAN, AND THROUGH MAN TO THE 
LORD, FROM WHOM [tHEY ARE]. 

327. In respect to this it has been shown above: That 
from God the Creator nothing can take form except uses (n. 
308); that the uses of all created things ascend by degrees 
from outmost things to man, and through man to God the Cre- 
ator, from whom they are (n. 65-68) ; that the end of creation 
takes form in outmosts, which end is, that all things may 
return to God the Creator, and that there may be conjunction 
(n. 167-172) ; that things are uses so far as they have regard 
to the Creator (n. 307) ; that the Divine must necessarily have 
beii\g and form in other things created by itself (n. 47-51) ; that 
all things of the universe are recipients according to uses, and 
this according to degrees (n. 58) ; that the universe, viewed 
from uses, is an image of God (n. 59) ; and many other things. 
From all which this truth is plain, that all things created by 
the Lord are uses, and that they are uses in that order, degree, 
and respect in which they have relation to man, and through 
man to the Lord from whom [they are]. It remains now that 
some things should be said in detail respecting uses. 

328. By man, to whom uses have relation, is meant not 
alone an individual but an assembly of men, also a society 
smaller or larger, as a commonwealth, kingdom, or empire, or 
that largest society, the whole world, for epch of these is a 



N. 328] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 173 

man. Likewise in the heavens, the whole angelic heaven is as 
one man before the Lord, and equally every society of heaven; 
from this it is that every angel is a man. That this is so may 
be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 68-103). This 
makes clear what is meant by man in what follows. 

329. The end of the creation of the universe clearly shows 
what use is. The end of the creation of the universe is the 
existence of an angelic heaven; and as the angelic heaven is 
the end, man also or the human race is the end, since heaven 
is from that. From which it follows that all created things 
are mediate ends, and that these are uses in that order, de- 
gree, and respect in which they have relation to man, and 
through man to the Lord. 

330. Inasmuch as the end of creation is an angelic heaven 
out of the human race, and thus the human race itself, all 
other created things are mediate ends, and these, as having re- 
lation to man, with a view to his conjunction with the Lord, 
refer themselves to these three things in him, his body, his ra- 
tional, and his spiritual. For man cannot be conjoined to the 
Lord unless he be spiritual, nor can he be spiritual unless he 
be rational, nor can he be rational unless his body is in a 
sound state. These three are like a house ; the body like the 
foundation, the rational like the superstructure, the spiritual 
like those things which are in the house, and conjunction with 
the Lord like dwelling in it. From this can be seen in what 
order, degree, and respect uses (which are the mediate ends of 
creation) have relation to man, namely, (1) for sustaining his 
body, (2) for perfecting his rational, (3) for receiving what is 
spiritual from the Lord. 

331. Uses for sustaining the body relate to its nourishment, 
its clothing, its habitation, its recreation and enjoyment, its 
protection and the preservation of its state. The uses created 
for the nourishment of the body are all things of the vegetable 
kingdom suitable for food and drink, as fruits, grapes, grain, 
pulse, and herbs ; in the animal kingdom all things which are 
eaten, as oxen, cows, calves, deer, sheep, kids, goats, lambs, 



174 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

and tlie milk they yield; also fowls and fish of many kinds. 
The uses created for the clothing of the body are many other 
products of these two kingdoms ; in like manner, the uses for 
habitation, also for recreation, enjoyment, protection, and 
preservation of state. These are not mentioned because they 
are well known, and their mere enumeration would fill pages. 
There are many things, to be sure, which are not used by 
man ; but what is superfluous does not do away with the use, 
but ensures its continuance. Misuse of uses is also possible, 
but misuse does not do away with use, even as falsification of 
truth does not do away with truth except with those who 
falsify it. 

332. Uses for 'perfecting the rational are all things that 
give instruction about the subjects above mentioned, and are 
called sciences and branches of study, pertaining to natural, 
economical, civil and moral affairs, which are learned either 
from parents and teachers, or from books, or from intercourse 
with others, or by reflection on these subjects by oneself. 
These things perfect the rational so far as they are uses in a 
higher degree, and they are permanent as far as they are 
applied to life. Space forbids the enumeration of these uses, 
by reason both of their multitude and of their varied relation 
to the common good. 

333. Uses for receiving the spiritual from the Lord, are all 
things that belong to religion and to worship therefrom; thus 
all things that teach the acknowledgment and knowledge of 
God and the knowledge and acknowledgment of good and truth 
and thus eternal life, which are acquired in the same way as 
other learning, from parents, teachers, discourses^ and books, 
and especially by applying to life what is so learned; and in 
the Christian world, by doctrines and discourses from the 
Word, and through the Word from the Lord. These uses in 
their full extent may be described under the same heads as the 
uses of the body, as nourishment, clothing, habitation, recrea- 
tion and enjoyment, and preservation of state, if only they are 
applied to the soul ; as nutrition to goods of love, clothing to 



N. 333] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 175 

truths of wisdom, habitation to heaven, recreation and enjoy- 
ment to felicity of life and heavenly joy, protection to safety 
from infesting evils, and preservation of state to eternal life. 
All these things are given by the Lord according to the ac- 
knowledgment that all bodily things are also from the Lord, 
and that a man is only as a servant and house-steward ap- 
pointed over the goods of his Lord. 

334. That such things have been given to man to use and 
enjoy, and that they are free gifts, is clearly evident from the 
state of angels in the heavens, who have, like men on earth, a 
body, a rational, and a spiritual. They are nourished freely, 
for food is given them daily ; they are clothed freely, for gar- 
ments are given them; their dwellings are free, for houses are 
given them ; nor have they any care about all these things ; and 
so far as they are rational-spiritual do they have enjoyment, 
protection, and preservation of state. The difference is that 
angels see that these things, — because created according to the 
state of their love and wisdom, — are from the Lord (as was 
shown in the preceding chapter, n. 322); but men do not see 
this, because their harvest returns yearly, and is not in accord 
with the state of their love and wisdom, but in accord with the 
care bestowed by them. 

335. These things are called uses, because through man they 
have relation to the Lord; nevertheless, they must not be said 
to be uses from man for the Lord's sake, but from the Lord for 
man's sake, inasmuch as in the Lord all uses are infinitely one, 
but in man there are no uses except from the Lord ; for man can- 
not do good from himself, but only from the Lord, and good is 
what is called use. The essence of spiritual love is doing good 
to others, not for the sake of self but for the sake of others; 
infinitely more' is this the essence of Divine Love. It is like 
the love of parents for their children, in that parents do good 
to their children from love, not for their own sake but for their 
children's sake. This is especially manifest in a mother's love 
for her offspring. Because the Lord is to be adored, worshiped 
and glorified, He is supposed to love adoration, worship, and 



176 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

glory for His own sake; but He loves these for man's sake, 
because by means of them man comes into a state in which the 
Divine can flow in and be perceived; since by means of them 
man puts away that which is his own, which hinders influx 
and reception, for what is man's own, which is self-love, hardens 
the heart and shuts it up. This is removed by man's acknowl- 
edging that from himself comes nothing but evil and from the 
Lord nothing but good; from this acknowledgment there is a 
softening of the heart and humiliation, out of which flow forth 
adoration and worship. From all this it follows, that the use 
which the Lord performs for Himself through man is that man 
may be able to do good from love , and since this is the Lord's 
love, its reception is the enjoyment of His love. Therefore, 
let no one believe that the Lord is with those who merely wor- 
ship Him, He is with those who do His commandments, thus 
who perform uses ; with such He has His abode, but not with 
the former. (See what was said above on this subject, n. 47-49.) 



EVIL USES WERE NOT CREATED BY THE LORD, BUT ORIGI- 
NATED TOGETHER WITH HELL. 

336. All good things that take form in act are called uses; 
and all evil things that take form in act are also called uses, 
but evil uses, while the former are called good uses. Now, 
since all good things are from the Lord and all evil things from 
hell, it follows that none but good uses were created by the 
Lord, and that evil uses arose out of hell. By the uses spe- 
cially treated of in this chapter are meant all those things 
which are to be seen upon the earth, as animals of every kind 
and plants of every kind. Such things of both kingdoms as are 
useful to man are from the Lord, but those which are harmful 
to man are from hell. By uses from the Lord are likewise 
meant all things that perfect the rational of man, and cause 
him to receive the spiritual from the Lord ; but by evil uses are 



N. 336] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 177 

meant all things that destroy the rational, and make man un- 
able to become spiritual. Those things that are harmful to man 
are called uses because they are of use to the evil in doing evil, 
and also are serviceable in absorbing malignities and thus also 
as remedies. " Use" is employed in both senses, as love is when 
we speak of good love and evil love ; moreover, everything that 
love does it calls use. 

337. That good uses are from the Lord, and evil uses from 
hell, will be shown in the following order. 

(1) What is meant by evil uses on the earth. 

(2) All things that are evil uses are in hell, and all things 
that are good uses are in heaven. 

(3) There is unceasing influx from the spiritual world into 
the natural world. 

(4) Those things that are evil uses are effected by the oper- 
ation of influx from hell, wherever there are such things as 
correspond thereto. 

(5) This is done by the lowest spiritual separated from what 
is above it. 

(6) There are two forms into which the operation by influx 
takes place, the vegetable and the animal. 

(7) Both these forms receive the ability to propagate their 
kind and the means of propagation. 

338. (1) What is ineant by evil uses on the earth. By evil 
uses on earth are meant all noxious things in both the animal 
and vegetable kingdom, also in the mineral kingdom. It is 
needless to enumerate all the noxious things in these kingdoms, 
for to do so would merely heap up names, and doing this with- 
out indicating the noxious effect that each kind produces would 
not contribute to the object which this work has in view. For 
the sake of information a few examples will sufB.ce: — In the 
animal kingdom there are poisonous serpents, scorpions, croco- 
diles, great snakes, horned owls, screech owls, mice, locusts, 
frogs, spiders ; also flies, drones, moths, lice, mites ; in a word, 
creatures that destroy grasses, leaves, fruits, seed, food, and 
drink, and are harmful to beast and man. In the vegetable 

12 



178 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

kingdom there are all hurtful, virulent, and poisonous herbs, 
with leguminous plants and shrubs of like character ; and in 
the mineral kingdom all poisonous earths. From these few ex- 
amples it can be seen what is meant by evil uses on earth ; for 
evil uses are all things that are opposite to good uses (of which 
in the preceding paragraph, n. 336). 

339. (2) All things that are evil uses are in hell, and all 
things that are good uses are in heaven. Before it can be seen 
that all evil uses that take form on earth are not from the 
Lord but from hell, something must be premised concerning 
heaven and hell, without a knowledge of which evil uses as 
well as good may be attributed to the Lord, and it may be 
believed that they are together from creation ; or they may be 
attributed to nature, and their origin to the sun of nature. 
From these two errors man cannot be delivered, unless he 
knows that nothing whatever takes form in the natural world 
that does not derive its cause and therefore its origin from the 
spiritual world, and that good is from the Lord, and evil from 
the devil, that is, from hell. By the spiritual world is meant 
both heaven and helh In heaven are to be seen all those things 
that are good uses (of which in a preceding article, n. 336). 
In hell are to be seen all those that are evil uses (see just 
above, n. 338, where they are enumerated). These are wild 
creatures of every kind, as serpents, scorpions, great snakes, 
crocodiles, tigers, wolves, foxes, swine, owls of different kinds, 
bats, rats, and mice, frogs, locusts, spiders, and noxious insects 
of many kinds ; also hemlocks and aconites, and all kinds of 
poisons, both of herbs and of earths; in a word, everything 
hurtful and deadly to man. Such things appear in the hells to 
the life precisely like those on and in the earth. They are 
said to appear there 5 yet they are not there as on earth, for 
they are mere correspondences of lusts that swarm out of their 
evil loves, and present themselves in such forms before others. 
Because there are such things in the hells, these abound in foul 
smells, cadaverous, stercoraceous, urinous, and putrid, wherein 
the diabolical spirits there take delight, as animals do in rank 



N. 339] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 170 

stenches. From this it can be seen that like things in the 
natural world did not derive their origin from the Lord, and 
were not created from the beginning, neither did they spring 
from nature through her sun, but are from hell. That they 
are not from nature through her sun is plain, for the spiritual 
inflows into the natural, and not the reverse. And that they 
are not from the Lord is plain, because hell is not from Him, 
therefore nothing in hell corresponding to the evils of its in- 
habitants is from Him. 

340. (3) There is unceasing influx out of the spiritual 
world into the natural world. He who does not know that there 
is a spiritual world, or that it is distinct from the natural 
world, as what is prior is distinct from what is subsequent, or 
as cause from the thing caused, can have no knowledge of this 
influx. This is the reason why those who have written on the 
origin of plants and animals could not do otherwise than as- 
cribe that origin to nature; or if to God, then in the sense 
that God had implanted in nature from the beginning a power 
to produce such things, — not knowing that no power has been 
implanted in nature, since nature, in herself, is dead, and con- 
tributes no more to the production of these things than a tool 
does, for instance, to the work of a mechanic, the tool acting 
only as it is continually moved. It is the spiritual, deriving 
its origin from the sun where the Lord is, and proceeding to 
the outmosts of nature, that produces the forms of plants and 
animals, exhibiting the marvels that exist in both, and filling 
the forms with matters from the earth, that they may become 
fixed and enduring. But because it is now known that there is 
a spiritual world, and that the spiritual is from the spiritual 
sun, in which the Lord is and which is from the Lord, and that 
the spiritual is what impels nature to act, as what is living 
impels what is dead, also that like things exist in the spiritual 
world as in the natural world, it can now be seen that plants ■ 
and animals have had their existence only from the Lord 
through that world, and through that world they have perpet- 
ual existence. Thus there is unceasing influx from the spirit- 



180 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

iial world into the natural. That this is so will be abundantly 
corroborated in the next chapter. Noxions things are produced 
on earth through influx from hell, by the same law of permis- 
sion whereby evils themselves from hell flow into men. This 
law will be set forth in the Angelic Wisdom Concerning the 
Divine Frovidence. 

341. (4) Those things that are evil uses are effected by the 
operation of influx from hell, wherever there are such things 
as corres2)ond thereto. The things that correspond to evil uses, 
that is, to hurtful plants and noxious animals, are cadaverous, 
putrid, excrementitious, stercoraceous, rancid, and urinous mat- 
ters; consequently, in places where these are, such herbs and 
such animalcules spring forth as are mentioned above ; and in 
the torrid zone, like things of larger size, as serpents, basilisks, 
crocodiles, scorpions, rats, and so forth. Every one knows that 
swamps, stagnant ponds, dung, fetid bogs, are full of such 
things ; also that noxious insects fill tlie atmospliere in clouds, 
and noxious vermin walk the earth in armies, and consume its 
herbs to the very roots. I once observed in my garden, that in 
the space of a half yard, nearly all the dust was turned into 
minute insects, for Avhen it was stirred with a stick, they rose 
in clouds. That cadaverous and putrid matters are in accord 
with these noxious and useless little things, and that the two 
are homogeneous, is evident from mere observation ; and is still 
more clearly seen from the cause, which is, that like stenches 
and fumes exist in the hells, where such little things are like- 
wise to be seen. Those hells are therefore named accordingly ; 
some are called cadaverous, some stercoraceous, some urinous, 
and so on. But all these hells are covered over, that those 
vapors may not escape from them. For when they are opened 
a very little, which happens when novitiate devils enter, they 
excite vomiting and cause headache, and such as are also 
poisonous induce fainting. The very dust there is also of the 
same nature, wherefore it is there called damned dust. From 
this it is evident that there are such noxious insects wherever 
there are such stenches, because the two correspond. 



N. 342] CONCERNING MVINP: LOVE 181 

342. It now becomes a matter of inquiry whether such 
things spring from eggs conveyed to the spot by means of air, 
or rain, or water oozing through the soil, or whether they spring 
from the dam}) and stenclies tliemselves. That these noxious 
animalcules and insects mentioned above are hatched from eggs 
which have been carried to the spot, or which have lain hidden 
everywhere in the ground since creation, is opposed to all ob- 
servation. For worms spring forth in minute seeds, in the 
kernels of nuts, in wood, in stones, and even from leaves, and 
upon plants and in plants there are lice and grubs which are 
accordant with them. Of flying insects, too, there are such as 
appear in houses, fields, and woods, which arise in like manner 
in summer, with no oviform matters sufficient to account for 
them ; also such as devour meadows and lawns, and in some 
hot localities fill and infest the air; besides those that swim 
and fly unseen in filthy waters, wines becoming sour, and pesti- 
lential air. These facts of observation support those who say 
that the odors, effluvia, and exhalations emitted from plants, 
earths, and ponds, are what give the initiative to such things. 
That when they have come forth, they are afterwards propa- 
gated either by eggs or offshoots, does not disprove their im- 
mediate generation; since every living creature, along with 
its minute viscera, receives organs of generation and means 
of propagation (see below, n. 347). In agreement with these 
phenomena is the fact heretofore unknown that there are like 
things also in the hells. 

343. That the hells mentioned above have not only com- 
munication but conjunction with such things in the earths may 
be concluded from this, that the hells are not distant from men, 
but are about them, yea, are within those who are evil ; thus 
they are contiguous to the earth; for man, in regard to his 
affections and lusts, and consequent thoughts, and in regard to 
his actions springing from these, which are good or evil uses, 
is in the midst either of angels of heaven or of spirits of hell ; 
and as such things as are on the earth are also in the heavens 
and hells, it follows that influx therefrom directly produces 



182 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

such things when the conditions are favorable. All things, in 
fact, that appear in the spiritual world, whether in heaven or 
in hell, are correspondences of affections or lusts, for they 
take form there in accordance with these; consequently when 
affections or lusts, which in themselves are spiritual, meet with 
homogeneous or corresponding things in the earths, there are 
present both the spiritual that furnishes a soul, and the mate- 
rial that furnishes a body. Moreover, within everything spirit- 
ual there is a conatus to clothe itself with a body. The hells 
are about men, and therefore contiguous to the earth, because 
the spiritual world is not in space, but is where there is a cor- 
responding affection. 

344. I heard two presidents of the English Royal Society, 
Sir Hans Sloane and Martin Folkes, conversmg together in 
the spiritual world about the existence of seeds and eggs, and 
about productions from them in the earths. The former as- 
cribed them to nature, and contended that nature was en- 
dowed from creation with a power and force to produce such 
effects by means of the sun's heat. The other maintained that 
this force is in nature unceasingly from God the Creator. To 
settle the discussion, a beautiful bird appeared to Sir Hans 
Sloane, and he was asked to examine it to see whether it dif- 
fered in the smallest particle from a similar bird on earth. He 
held it in his hand, examined it, and declared that there was 
no difference. He knew indeed that it was nothing but an 
affection of some angel represented outside of the angel as a 
bird, and that it Avould vanish or cease with its affection. And 
this came to pass. By this experience Sir Hans Sloane was 
convinced that nature contributes nothing whatever to the 
production of plants and animals, that they are produced 
solely by what flows into the natural world out of the spirit- 
ual world. If that bird, he said, were to be infilled, in its mi- 
nutest parts, with corresponding matters from the earth, and 
thus fixed, it would be a lasting bird, like the birds on the 
earth; and that it is the same with such things as are from 
hell. To this he added that had he known what he now knew 



N. 344] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 183 

of the spiritual world, he would have ascribed to nature no 
more than this, that it serves the spiritual, which is from God, 
in fixing the things which flow in unceasingly into nature. 

345. (5) This is effected hy the lowest spiritual separated 
from ivhat is above it. It was shown in Part Third that the 
spiritual flows down from its sun even to the outmosts of 
nature through three degrees, which are called the celestial, 
the spiritual, and the natural; that these three degrees are in 
man from creation, consequently from birth; that they are 
opened according to man's life; that if the celestial degree 
which is the highest and inmost is opened, man becomes celes- 
tial; if the spiritual degree which is the middle is opened, he 
becomes spiritual ; but if only the natural degree which is the 
lowest and outermost is opened, he becomes natural; that if 
man becomes natural only, he loves only corporeal and worldly 
things; and that so far as he loves these, so far he does not 
love celestial and spiritual things, and does not look to God, 
and so far he becomes evil. Prom all this it is evident that 
the lowest spiritual, which is called the spiritual-natural, can 
be separated from its higher degrees, and is separated in such 
men as hell consists of. This lowest spiritual can separate it- 
self from its higher parts, and look to hell, in men only ; it 
cannot b'e so separated in beasts, or in soils. Prom which it 
follows that these evil uses mentioned above are effected on 
the earth by this lowest spiritual separated from what is 
above it, such as it is in those who are in hell. That the nox- 
ious things on the earth have their origin in man, thus from 
hell, may be shown by the state of the land of Canaan, as de- 
scribed in the Word; in that when the children of Israel lived 
according to the commandments, the earth yielded its increase, 
likewise the flocks and herds ; but when they lived contrary to 
the commandments the ground was barren, and as it is said, 
accursed; instead of harvests it yielded thorns and briars, the 
flocks and herds miscarried, and wild beasts broke in. The 
same may be inferred from the locusts, frogs, and lice in 
Egypt. 



184 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

346. (6) There are two forms into which the operation by 
influx takes jdace, the vegetable and the animal form. That 
there are only two iiiiiversal forms produced out of the earth 
is known from the. two kingdoms of nature, called the animal 
and the vegetable kingdoms, also that all the subjects of either 
kingdom possess many things in common. Thus the subjects 
of the animal kingdom have organs of sense and organs of 
motion and members and viscera that are actuated by brains, 
hearts, and lungs. >So the subjects of the vegetable kingdom 
send down a root into the ground, and bring forth stem, 
branches, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. Both the animal 
and the vegetable kingdoms, as regards the production of, 
their forms, derive their origin from spiritual influx and oper- 
ation out of the sun of heaven where the Lord is, and not 
from the influx and operation of nature out of her sun ; from 
this they derive nothing except their fixation, as was said 
above. All animals, great and small, derive their origin from 
the spiritual in the outmost degree, which is called the natu- 
ral; man alone from all three degrees, called the celestial, 
spiritual, and natural. As each degree of height or discrete 
degree decreases from its perfection to its imperfection, as 
light to shade, by continuity, so do animals; there are there- 
fore perfect, less perfect, and imperfect animals. The perfect 
animals are elephants, camels, horses, mules, oxen, sheep, 
goats, and others which are of the herd or the flock; the less 
perfect are birds; and the im]oerfect are fish and shell-fish; 
these, as being the lowest of that degree, are as it were in 
shade, while the former are in light. Yet animals, since they 
live only from the lowest spiritual degree,, which is called the 
natural, can look nowhere else than towards the earth and to 
food there, and to their own kind for the sake of propagation ; 
the soul of all these is natural affection and appetite. The 
subjects of the vegetable kingdom comprise, in like manner, 
the perfect, less perfect, and imperfect; the perfect are fruit 
trees, the less perfect are vines and shrubs, and the imperfect 
are grasses. But plants derive from the spiritual out of which 



N. 346] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 185 

they spring that they are uses, while animals derive from the 
spiritual out of which they spring that they are affections and 
appetites, as was shown above. 

347. (7) Each of these forms receives with its existence the 
means of pro2:)agation. In all prodircts of the earth, which 
pertain, as was said above, either to the vegetable or to the 
animal kingdom, there is a kind of image of creation, and a 
kind of image of man, and also a kind of image of the infinite 
and the eternal ; this was shown above (n. 313-318) ; also that 
the image of the infinite and the eternal is clearly manifest in 
the capacity of all these for infinite and eternal propagation. 
They all, therefore, receive means of propagation; the subjects 
of the animal kingdom through seed, in the Qgg or in the 
womb or by spawning ; and the subjects of the vegetable 
kingdom through seeds in the ground. From which it can be 
seen that although the more imperfect and the noxious animals 
and plants originate through immediate influx out of hell, yet 
afterwards they are propagated mediately by seeds, eggs, or 
grafts ; consequently, the one position does not annul the other. 

348. That all uses, both good and evil, are from a spiritual ori- 
gin, thus from the sun where the Lord is, may be illustrated by 
this experience. I have heard that goods and truths have been 
sent down through the heavens by the Lord to the hells, and that 
these same, received by degrees to the lowest deep, were there 
turned into evils and falsities, which are the opposite of the 
goods and truths sent down. This took place because recipient 
subjects turn all things that inflow into such things as are in 
agreement with their own forms, just as the white light of the 
sun is turned into ugly colors or into black in those objects 
whose substances are interiorly of such a form as to suffocate 
and extinguish the light, and as stagnant ponds, dung-hills, and 
dead bodies turn the heat of the sun into stenches. From all this 
it can be seen that even evil uses are from the spiritual sun, 
but that good uses are changed in hell into evil uses. It is evi- 
dent, therefore, that the Lord has not created and does not 
create any except good uses, but that hell produces evil uses. 



186 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

THE VISIBLE THINGS IN THE CREATED UNIVERSE BEAR WIT- 
NESS THAT NATURE HAS PRODUCED AND DOES PRODUCE 
NOTHING, BUT THAT THE DIVINE OUT OF ITSELF, AND 
THROUGH THE SPIRITUAL WORLD, HAS PRODUCED AND 
DOES PRODUCE ALL THINGS. 

349. Speaking from appearances, most men say that the 
sun by heat and light produces whatever is to be seen in 
plains, fields, gardens, and forests; also that the sun by its 
heat hatches worms from eggs, and makes prolific the beasts 
of the earth and the fowls of the air; and that it even gives 
life to man. Those who speak from appearances only may 
speak in this way without ascribing these things to nature, 
because they are not thinking about the matter; as there are 
those who speak of the sun as rising and setting, and causing 
days and years, and being now at this or that altitude; such 
persons speak from appearances, and in doing so, do not 
ascribe such effects to the sun, because they are not thinking 
of the sun's fixity or the earth's revolution. But those who 
confirm themselves in the idea that the sun produces the 
things that appear upon the earth by means of its heat and 
light, end by ascribing all things to nature, even the creation 
of the universe, and become naturalists and, at last, atheists. 
These may continue to say that God created nature and en- 
dowed her with the power of producing such things, but this 
they say from fear of losing their good name; and by God the 
Creator they still mean nature, and some mean the innermost 
of nature, and then the Divine things taught by the church 
they regard as of no account. 

350. There are some who are excusable for ascribing certain 
visible things to nature, for two reasons. First, because they 
have had no knowledge of the sun of heaven, where the Lord 
is, or of influx therefrom, or of the spiritual world and its 
state, or even of its presence with man, and therefore had no 
other idea than that the spiritual is a purer natural; conse- 
quently, that angels are in the ether or in the stars ; and that 



N. 350] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 187 

the devil is either man's evil, or, if an actual existence, that 
he is in the air or the abyss ; also that the souls of men, after 
death, are either in the interior of the earth, or in an unde- 
termined somewhere till the day of judgment ; and other like 
things deduced by fancy out of ignorance of the spiritual 
world and its sun. 

Secondly, they are excusable, because they are unable to see 
how the Divine could produce everything that appears on the 
earth, where there are not only good things but also evil things ; 
and they are afraid to confirm themselves in such an idea, lest 
they ascribe the evil things also to God, and form a material 
conception of God, and make God and nature one, and thus 
confound the two. 

For these two reasons those are excusable who have believed 
that nature produces the visible world by a power implanted 
in her by creation. But those who have made themselves athe- 
ists by confirmations in favor of nature are not excusable, 
because they might have confirmed themselves in favor of the 
Divine. Ignorance indeed excuses, but does not remove, fal- 
sity which has been confirmed, for such falsity coheres with 
evil, thus with hell. Consequently, those same persons who 
have confirmed themselves in favor of nature to such an ex- 
tent as to separate the Divine from nature, regard nothing as 
sin, because all sin is against the Divine, and this they have 
separated, and thus have rejected it; and those who in spirit 
regard nothing as sin, after death when they become spirits, 
since they are in bonds to hell, rush into wickednesses which 
are in accord with the lusts to which they have given rein. 

351. Those who believe in a Divine operation in all the de- 
tails of nature, are able by very many things they see in nature 
to confirm themselves in favor of the Divine, as fully as others 
confirm themselves in favor of nature, yea, more fully. For 
those who confirm themselves in favor of the Divine give atten- 
tion to the wonders which are displayed in the production both 
of plants and animals. In the 'production of plants^ how out of 
a little seed cas'': into the ground there goes forth a root, and 



188 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourm 

by means of the root a stem, and brandies, leaves, flowers, and 
fruits in succession, even to new seeds; just as if the seed 
knew the order of succession, or the process by which it is to 
renew itself. Can any reasonable person think that the sun, 
which is mere fire, has this knowledge, or that it is able to 
empower its heat and light to effect these results, or is able to 
fashion these wonderful things in plants, and to contemplate 
use ? Any man of elevated reason who sees and weighs these 
things, cannot think otherwise than that they come from Him 
who has infinite reason, that is, from God, Those who ac- 
knowledge the Divine also see and think this, but those who 
do not acknowledge the Divine do not see or think this be- 
cause they do not wish to ; thus they sink their rational into 
the sensual, which draws all its ideas from the lumen which is 
proper to the bodily senses and which confirms their illusions, 
saying, Do you not see the sun effecting these things by its 
heat 'and light ? What is a thing that you do not see ? Is it 
anything ? 

Those who confirm themselves in favor of the Divine give 
attention to the wonders which are displayed in the ])rodiiction 
of animals ; to mention here only, in reference to eggs, how 
the chick in its seed or beginning lies hidden therein, with 
everything requisite till it is hatched, also with everything per- 
taining to its subsequent development, until it becomes a bird 
or winged thing of the same form as its parent. And if one 
observes the living form, it is such as to fill any one with aston- 
ishment who thinks deeply^ seeing that in the minutest as in 
the largest living creatures, even in the invisible, as in the vis- 
ible, there are the organs of sense, namely, sight, hearing, smell, 
taste, and touch ; and organs of motion which are muscles, for 
they fly and walk ; also viscera surrounding the heart and lungs, 
which are set in action by brains. That even the commonest 
insects enjoy such organisms is shown in their anatomy as de- 
scribed by some writers, and especially by Swammerdam, in his 
B'iblia NatuTQi. Those who ascribe everything to nature, see 
all these things, but they merely perceive that they exist, and 



N. 351] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 189 

say that nature produces them. They say this because they 
have turned their minds away from thinking about the Divine; 
and those who have done this are unable, when they see the 
wonderful things in nature, to think rationally, still less spir- 
itually ; but they think sensually and materially ; and then they 
think in nature from nature, and not above nature, just as 
those do who are in hell. They differ from beasts only in hav- 
ing the power to think rationally, that is, in being able to un- 
derstand, and therefore to think otherwise, if they choose. 

352. Those who have averted themselves from thinking 
about the Divine when observing the wonderful things in na- 
ture, and who thereby become sensual, do not reflect that the 
sight of the eye is so gross as to see many little insects as an 
obscure speck, when yet each one of these is organized to feel 
and to move, and is accordingly furnished with fibers and ves- 
sels, also with a minute heart, pulmonary tubes, viscera, and 
brains ; also that these organs are woven out of the purest 

*subsfances in nature, their tissues corresponding to that some- 
what of life by which their minutest parts are separately 
moved. When the sight of the eye is so gross that many such 
creatures, with innumerable particulars m each, appear to it 
as an obscure speck, and yet those who are sensual think and 
judge by that sight, it is clear how dulled their minds are, and 
therefore what thick darkness they are in concerning spiritual 
things. 

353. Any one who chooses may confirm himself in favor of 
the Divine from things seen in nature, and whoever thinks 
about God in reference to life does so confirm himself; as 
when he observes the birds of the air, how each species knows 
its food and where to find it, recognizes its kind by sound and 
sight, and which among other kinds are its friends and which 
its enemies ; how also they mate, have knowledge of the sex- 
ual relation, skilfully build nests, lay eggs therein, sit upon 
these, know the period of incubation, and this having elapsed, 
bring forth their young, love them most tenderly, cherish them 
under their wings, bring them food and feed them, until they 



190 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fourth 

can do for themselves, perform the same offices, and bring 
forth a family to perpetuate their kind. Any one who is will- 
ing to reflect on the Divine influx through the spiritual world 
into the natural can see such influx in these things, and if he 
will, can say from his heart, Such knowledges cannot flow into 
these creatures out of the sun through its rays of light, for 
the sun, from which nature derives its origin and essence, is 
mere Are, consequently its rays of light are wholly dead; and 
thus he may conclude that such things are from the influx of 
Divine Wisdom into the outmosts of nature. 

354. Any one may confirm himself in favor of the Divine 
from things visible in nature, when he sees larvse, from the 
delight of some impulse, desiring and longing to change their 
terrestial state to a certain likeness of the heavenly state, and 
for this purpose creeping into corners, and putting themselves 
as it were into a womb in order to be born again, and there 
becoming chrysalises, aurelias, caterpillars, nymphs, and at 
length butterflies ; and having undergone this metamorphosis,* 
and each after its kind been decked with beautiful wings, they 
ascend into the air as into their heaven, and there disport 
themselves joyfully, form marriage unions, lay eggs, and pro- 
vide for themselves a posterity, nourished meanwhile with 
pleasant and sweet food from flowers. Who that confirms 
himself in favor of the Divine from the visible things in 
nature can help seeing a kind of image of man's earthly state 
in these as larvse, and in them as butterflies an image of the 
heavenly state ? Those who confirm themselves in favor of 
nature see the same things, but because in heart they have 
rejected the heavenly state of man they call them merely nat- 
ural instincts. 

355. Any one may confirm himself in favor of the Divine 
from things seen in nature by giving attention to what is 
known about bees : that they know how to collect wax and 
suck honey from herbs and flowers, and to build cells like lit- 
tle houses, and set them in the form of a city, with streets 
through which to come in and go out ; that they scent at long 



N. 355] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 191 

distances the flowers and herbs from which they collect wax 
for their houses and honey for food, and laden with these fly 
back in a direct line to their hive ; thus jn-oviding themselves 
with food and habitation for the coming winter, as if they had 
foresight and knowledge of it. They also set over them a 
mistress as queen, out of whom a posterity may be propagated ; 
and for her they build a sort of a palace over themselves with 
guards around it ; and when her time of bringing forth is at 
hand, she goes attended by her guards from cell to cell, and 
lays her eggs, which the crowd of followers smear over to pro- 
tect them from the air, from which a new progeny springs 
forth for them. When this progeny becomes mature enough 
to do the same, it is driven from the hive. The expelled 
swarm first collects, and then in a close body, to preserve its 
integrity, flies away in quest of a home for itself. Moreover, 
in the autumn the useless drones are led out and are deprived 
of their wings to prevent their returning and consuming the 
food for which they have not labored : not to mention other 
particulars. From all this it can be seen that bees, because of 
their use to the human race, have from influx from the spirit- 
ual world, a form of government similar to that among men 
on earth, and even like that of angels in heaven. Can any 
man of ununpaired reason fail to see that these doings of the 
bees are not from the natural world ? What has that sun, 
from which nature springs, in common with a government that 
vies with and resembles the government of heaven? From 
these things and others very similar to them in the brute cre- 
ation, the confessor and worshiper of nature confirms himself 
in favor of nature, while the confessor and worshiper of G-od 
confirms himself from the same things in favor of the Di- 
vine ; for the spiritual man sees in them spiritual things and 
the natural man natural things, thus each according to his 
character. As for myself, such things have been proofs to 
me of an influx of the spiritual into the natural, that is, of the 
spiritual world into the natural world, thus of an influx from 
the Lord's Divine Wisdom. Consider, moreover, whether jon 



192 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Eourth 

can think analytically concerning any form of government, or 
any civil law, or moral virtue, or spiritual truth, unless the 
Divine out of His wisdom flows in through the spiritual 
world ? For myself, I could not and cannot. For having now 
observed that influx perceptibly and sensibly for about nine- 
teen years continually, I speak as an eye-witness. 

356. Can anything natural regard use as an end and dis- 
pose uses into series and forms? No one can do this unless 
he be wise; and no one but God, whose wisdom is infinite, can 
so give order and form to the universe. Who else or what else 
is able to foresee and provide all things needful for the food 
and clothing of man, — food from the fruits of earth and from 
animals, and clothmg from the same ? How marvelous that so 
insignificant a creature as the silk-worm should clothe in silk 
and splendidly adorn both women and men, from queens and 
kings to maidservants and menservants, and that insignificant 
insects like the bees should supply wax for the candles by 
which temples and palaces are made brilliant. These and many 
other things are manifest proofs that the Lord from Himself 
by means of the spiritual world, brings about everything that 
comes into existence in nature. 

357. To this must be added that those who have confirmed 
themselves in favor of nature, from the visible things of the 
world, until they have become atheists, have been seen by me 
in the spiritual world; and in the spiritual light their under- 
standing appeared open below, but closed above, because in 
thought they had looked downward toward the earth, and not 
upward toward heaven. Above their sensual, which is the bot- 
tom of the understanding, appeared something like a veil; 
which in some flashed with hellish fire, in some was black like 
soot, and in some livid like a corpse. Therefore let every one 
beware of confirmations in favor of nature : let him confirm 
himself in favor of the Divine : there is no lack of material. 



N. 358] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 193 



PAET FIFTH. 

TWO RECEPTACLES AND ABODES FOR HIMSELF, CALLED 
WILL AND UNDERSTANDING, HAVE BEEN CREATED 
AND FORMED BY THE LORD IN MAN; THE WILL FOR 
HIS DIVINE LOVE, AND THE UNDERSTANDING FOR 
HIS DIVINE WISDOM. 

358. The Divine Love and Divine Wisdom of God the Cre- 
ator, who is tlie Lord from eternity, and also the creation of 
the universe, have been treated of; something shall now be said 
of the creation of man. We read (in Gen. i. 26) that man was 
created " in the image of God, after His likeness." By " image 
of God" is there meant the Divine Wisdom, and by "likeness" 
of God the Divine Love ; since wisdom is nothing but an image 
of love, for in wisdom love presents itself to be seen and recog- 
nized, and because it is seen and recognized in wisdom, wisdom 
is an image of it. Moreover love is the esse of life, and wisdom 
is the existere of life therefrom. In angels the likeness and 
image of God clearly appear, since love from within shines 
forth in their faces, and wisdom in their beauty, and their 
beauty is a form of their love. I have seen and know. 

359.' Man cannot be an image of God, after His likeness, 
unless God is in him and is his life from the inmost. That 
God is in man and, from the inmost, is his life, follows from 
what has been shown above (n. 4-6), that God alone is life, 
and that men and angels are recipients of life from Him. 
Moreover, that God is in man and that He makes His abode 
with him, is known from the Word ; for which reason it is cus- 
tomary for preachers to declare that men ought to prepare 
themselves to receive God, that He may enter into them, and 
be in their hearts, that they may be His dwelling-place. The 
devout man says the same in his prayers, and some speak 
more openly respecting the Holy Spirit, which they believe to 
13 



194 ANGELIC WISDOM [Pakt Fifth 

be in them when they are in holy zeal, and from that zeal 
they think, speak, and preach. That the Holy Spirit is the 
Lord, and not a God who is a person by Himself, has been 
shown in The Doctri7ie of the New Jerusaleyii Concerning the 
Lord (n. 51-53). For the Lord declares : — 

In tliat day ye shall know that ye are in Me, and I in you {John 
xiv. 20 ; so also in chap, xv, 4, 5 ; and chap, xvii. 23). 

360. Now because the Lord is Divine Love and Divine 
Wisdom, and these two essentially are Himself, it is necessary, 
in order that He may abide in man and give life to man, that 
He should create and form in man receptacles and abodes for 
Himself; the one for love and the other for wisdom. These 
receptacles and abodes in man are called will and understand- 
ing; the receptacle and abode of love is called the will, and the 
receptacle and abode of wisdom is called the understanding. 
That these two are the Lord's in man, and that from these two 
man has all his life, will be seen in what follows. 

361. That every man has these two, will and understanding, 
and that they are distinct from each other, as love and wisdom 
are distinct, is known and is not known in the world. It is 
known from common perception, but it is not known from 
thought and still less from thought when written out; for who 
does not know from common perception that the will and the 
understanding are two distinct things in man ? For every one 
perceives this when he hears it stated, and may himself say to 
another. This man means well, but does not understand clearly; 
while that one's understanding is good, but his will is not ; I 
like the man whose understanding and will are both good ; but 
I do not like him whose understanding is good and his will 
bad. Yet when he thinks about the will and the understand- 
ing he does not make them two and distinguish them, but con- 
founds them, since his thought then acts in common with the 
bodily sight. When writing he apprehends still less that will 
and understanding are two distinct things, because his thought 
then acts in common with the sensual, that is, with what is 



N. 361] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 195 

the man's own. From this it is that some can think and speak 
well, but cannot write well. This is common with women. It 
is the same with many other things. Is it not known by every- 
one from common perception that a man whose life is good is 
saved, but that a man whose life is bad is condemned ? Also 
that one whose life is good will enter the society of angels, and 
will there see, hear, and speak like a man ? Also that one who 
from justice does what is just and from what is right does 
right, has a conscience ? But if one lapses from common per- 
ception, and submits these things to thought, he does not know 
what conscience is; or that the soul can see, hear, and speak 
like a man ; or that the good of life is anything except giving 
to the poor. And if from thought you write about these 
things, you confirm them by appearances and fallacies, and by 
words of sound but of no substance. Por this reason many of 
the learned who have thought much, and especially who have 
written much, have weakened and obscured, yea, have destroyed 
their common perception ; while the simple see more clearly 
what is good and true than those who think themselves their 
superiors in wisdom. This common perception comes by influx 
from heaven, and descends into thought even to sight; but 
thought separated from common perception falls into imagina- 
tion from the sight and from what is man's own. You may 
observe that this is so. Tell some truth to any one that is in 
common perception, and he will see it ; tell him that from God 
and in God we are and live and are moved, and he will see it; 
tell him that God dwells with man in love and in wisdom, and 
he will see it ; tell him further that the will is the receptacle of 
love, and the understanding of wisdom, and explain it a little, 
and he will see it; tell him that God is Love itself and Wisdom 
itself, and he will see it; ask him what conscience is, and he 
will tell you. But say the same things to one of the learned, 
who has not thought from common perception, but from prin- 
ciples or from ideas obtained from the world through sight, 
and he will not see. Then consider which is the wiser. 



196 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

WILL AND UNDERSTAJSTDING, WHICH ARE THE RECEPTACLES OF 
LOVE AND WISDOM, ARE IN THE BRAINS, IN THE WHOLE 
AND IN EVERY PART OF THEM, AND THEREFROM IN THE 
BODY, IN THE WHOLE AND IN EVERY PART OF IT. 

362. This shall be shown m the following order: — 

(1) Love and wisdom, and will and understanding there- 
from, make the very life of man. 

(2) The life of man in its first principles is in the brains, 
and in its derivatives in the body. 

(3) Such as life is in its first principles, such it is in the 
whole and in every part. 

(4) By means of first principles life is in the whole from 
every part, and in every part from the whole. 

(5) Such as the love is, such is the wisdom, consequently 
such is the man. 

363. (1) Love and ivisdom, and will omd understanding 
therefrom^ maize the very life of man. Scarcely any one knows 
what life is. When one thinks about life, it seems as if it were 
a fleeting something, of which no distinct idea is possible. It 
so seems because it is not known that God alone is life, and 
that His life is Divine Love and Divine Wisdom. From this 
it is evident that in man life is nothing else than love and 
Avisdom, and that there is life in man in the degree in which 
he receives these. It is known that heat and light go forth 
from the sun, and that all things in the universe are recipients 
and grow warm and bright in the degree in which they re- 
ceive. So do heat and light go forth from the sun where the 
Lord is ; the heat going forth therefrom is love, and the light 
wisdom (as shown in Part Second). Life, therefore, is from 
these two which go forth from the Lord as a sun. That love 
and wisdom from the Lord is life can be seen also from this, 
that man grows torpid as love recedes from him, and stupid as 
wisdom recedes from him, and that were they to recede alto- 
gether he would become extinct. There are many things per- 
taining to love which have received other names because they 



N. 803] 'CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 197 

are derivatives, such as ali'ectioiis, desires, appetites, and their 
pleasures and enjoyments; and there are many things pertain- 
ing to wisdom, such as perception, reflection, recollection, 
thought, intention to an end ; and there are many pertaining 
to both love and wisdom, such as consent, conclusion, and 
determination to action ; besides others. All of these, in fact, 
pertain to both, but they are designated from the more promi- 
nent and nearer of the two. From these two are derived ulti- 
mately sensations, those of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and 
touch, with their enjoyments and pleasures. It is according to 
appearance that the eye sees : but it is the understanding that 
sees through the eye ; consequently seeing is predicated also 
of the understanding. The appearance is that the ear hears : 
but it is the understanding that hears through the ear ; conse- 
quently hearing is predicated also of attention and giving 
heed, which pertain to the understanding. The appearance is 
that the nose smells, and the tongue tastes : but it is the un- 
derstanding that smells and also tastes by virtue of its per- 
ception; therefore smelling and tasting are predicated also of 
perception. So in other cases. The sources of all these are 
love and wisdom; from which it can be seen that these two 
make the life of man. 

364. Everyone sees that the understanding is the recep- 
tacle of wisdom, but few see that the will is the receptacle of 
love. This is because the will does not act at all by itself, 
but only through the understanding; also because the love 
of the will, in passing over into the wisdom of the understand- 
ing, is first changed into affection, and thus passes over; and 
affection is not perceived except by something pleasant in 
thinking, speaking, and acting, which is not noticed. Still 
it is evident that love is from the will, for the reason that 
every one wills what he loves, and does not will what he does 
not love. 

365. (2) The life of man in its first principles is in the 
brains, and in its derivatives in the body. In first principles 
means in its firsts, and in derivatives means in what is brought 



198 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

forth and formed from its firsts. By life in first principles is 
meant will and understanding. These two are what are in 
their first principles in the brains, and in their derivatives in 
the body. It is evident that the first principles or firsts of life 
are in the brains : — 

(1) From the feeling itself; since man perceives, when he 
exerts his mind and thinks, that he thinks in the brain. He 
draws in as it were the sight of the eye, contracts the fore- 
head, and perceives the mental process to be within, especially 
inside the forehead and somewhat above it. 

(2) Erom man's formation in the womb; in that the brain 
or head is first developed, and continues for some time larger 
than the body. 

(3) In that the head is above and the body below; and it is 
according to order for the higher to act upon the lower, and 
not the reverse. 

(4) In that, when the brain is injured in the womb or by a 
wound or by disease, or by excessive application, thought is 
weakened and sometimes the mind becomes deranged. 

(5) In that all the external senses of the body, sight, hear- 
ing, smell, and taste, with touch (the universal sense) as also 
speech, are in the front part of the head, which is called the 
face, and communicate immediately through fibers with the 
brains, and derive therefrom their sensitive and active life. 

(6) It is from this that affections, which are of love, appear 
imaged forth in the face, and that thoughts, which are of wis- 
dom, are revealed in a kind of sparkle of tRe eyes. 

(7) Anatomy teaches that all fibers descend from the brains 
through the neck into the body, and that none ascend from 
the body through the neck into the brains. And where the 
fibers are in their first principles or firsts, there life is in its 
first principles or firsts. Will any one venture to deny that 
life has its origin where the fibers have their origin ? 

(8) Ask any one of common perception where his thought 
resides or where he thinks, and he will say. In the head. Then 
appeal to some one who has assigned the seat of the soul to 



N. 365] CONCERNING DIVJNE LOVE 199 

some gland or to the heart or somewhere else, and ask him 
where affection and thought therefrom are in their firsts, 
whether they are not in the brain ? and he will answer, No, 
or that he does not know. The cause of this ignorance may 
be seen above (n. 301). 

366. (3) SncJi as life is in its first ijrinciples^ such it is in 
the tvhole and in euerij imrt. That this may be perceived, it 
shall now be told where in the brains these first principles are, 
and how they become derivative. Anatomy shows where in 
tlie brains these first principles are; it teaches that there are 
two brains; that these are continued from the head into the 
spinal column ; that they consist of two substances, called cor- 
tical substance and medullary substance; that cortical sub- 
stance consists of innumerable gland-like forms, and medullary 
substance of innumerable fiber-like forms. Now as these lit- 
tle glands are heads of fibrils, they are also their first prin- 
ciples. For from these, fibers begin and thereupon go forth, 
gradually bundling themselves into nerves. These bundles or 
nerves, when formed, descend to the organs of sense in the 
face, and to the organs of motion in the body, and form them. 
Consult any one skilled in the science of anatomy, and you 
will be convinced. This cortical or glandular substance con- 
stitutes the surface of the cerebrum^ and also the surface of the 
corpora striata^ from which proceeds the medulla oblongata; 
it also constitutes the iniddle of the cerehellum, and the middle 
of the spinal marrow. But medullary or fibrillary substance 
everywhere begins in and proceeds from the cortical ; out of it 
nerves arise, and from them all things of the body. That this 
is true is proved by dissection. They who know these things, 
either from the study of anatomical science or from the testi- 
mony of those who are skilled in the science, can see that the 
first principles of life are in the same place as the beginnings 
of the fibers, and that fibers cannot go forth from themselves, 
but must go forth from first ]3rinciples. These first principles, 
that is, beginnings, which appear as little glands, are almost 
countless ; their multitude may be compared to the multitude 



200 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

of stars ill the universe ; and the multitude of fibrils coming 
out of them may be compared to the multitude of rays going 
forth from the stars and bearing their heat and light to the 
earth. The multitude of these little glands may also be com- 
pared to the multitude of angelic societies in the heavens, 
which also are countless, and, I have been told, are in like 
order as the glands. Also the multitude of fibrils going out 
from these little glands may be compared to the spiritual 
truths and goods vs^hich in like manner flow down from the 
angelic societies like rays. From this it is that man is like a 
universe, and like a heaven in least form (as has been fre- 
quently said and shown above). From all which it can now be 
seen that such as life is in first principles, such it is in deriva- 
tives ; or such as it is in its firsts in the brains, such it is in 
the things arising therefrom in the body. 

367. (4) By means of first 'princi'ples life is in the whole 
from every part, and in every part from the whole. This is 
because the whole, which is the brain and the body together, 
is originally made up of nothing but fibers proceeding from 
their first principles in the brains. It has no other origin, as 
is evident from what has been shown just above (n. 366); conse- 
quently, the whole is from every part ; and by means of these 
first principles life is in every part from the whole, because 
the whole dispenses to each part its task and needs, thereby 
making it to be a part in the whole. In a word, the whole has 
existence from the parts, and the parts have permanent exist- 
ence from the whole. That there is such reciprocal com- 
munion, and conjunction thereby, is clear from many things in 
the body. For the same order prevails there as in a state, 
commonwealth, or kingdom ; the community has its existence 
from the individuals which are its parts, and the parts or in- 
dividuals have permanent existence from the community. It is 
the same with every thing that has form, most of all in man. 

368. (5) Such as the love is, such is the wisdom, consequent- 
ly such is the man. For such as the love and wisdom are, such 
are the will and understanding, since the will is the receptacle 



N. 308] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 201 

of love, and the understanding of wisdom, as has heen shown 
above ; and these two make the man and his character. Love 
is manifold, so manifold that its varieties are limitless; as can 
be seen from the human race on tlie earths and in the heavens. 
There is no man or angel so like another that there is no differ- 
ence. Love is what distinguishes; for every man is his own 
love. It is supposed that wisdom distinguishes ; Ijut wisdom is 
from love ; it is the form of love ; love is the esse of life, and 
wisdom is the existere of life from that esse. In the world it is 
believed that the understanding makes the man ; but this is 
believed because the understanding can be elevated, as was 
shown above, into the light of heaven, giving man the appear- 
ance of being wise ; yet so much of the understanding as tran- 
scends, that is to say, so much as is not of the love, although 
it appears to be man's and therefore to determine man's char- 
acter, is only an appearance. For so much of the understand- 
ing as transcends is, indeed, from the love of knowing and 
being wise, but not at the same time from the love of applying 
to life what man knows and is wise in. Consequently, in the 
world it either in time passes away or lingers outside of the 
things of memory in its mere borders as something ready to 
drop off ; and therefore after death it is separated, no more of 
it remaining than is in accord with the spirit's own love. In- 
asmuch as love makes the life of man, and thus the man him- 
self, all societies of heaven, and all angels in societies, are 
arranged according to affections belonging to love, and no so- 
ciety nor any angel in a society according to anything of the 
understanding separate from love. So likewise in the hells 
and their societies, but in accordance with loves opposite to 
the heavenly loves. From all this it can be seen that such as 
the love is such is the wisdom, and consequently such is the 
man. 

369. It is acknowledged, indeed, that man is such as his 
reigning love is, but only in respect to his mind and disposi- 
tion, not in respect to his body, thus not wholly. But it has 
been made known to me by much experience in the spiritual 



202 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

world, that man from head to foot, that is, from things pri- 
mary in the head to the outmosts in the body, is such as his 
love is. For all in the spiritual world are forms of their own 
love ; the angels forms of heavenly love, the devils of hellish 
love ; the devils deformed in face and body, but the angels 
beautiful in face and body. Moreover, when their love is as- 
sailed their faces are changed, and if much assailed they whol- 
ly disappear. This is peculiar to that world, and so happens 
because their bodies make one with their minds. The reason 
is evident from what has been said above, that all things of 
the body are derivatives, that is, are things woven together 
by means of fibers out of first principles, which are receptacles 
of love and wisdom. Howsoever these first principles may be, 
their derivatives cannot be different ; therefore wherever first 
principles go their derivatives follow, and cannot be separated. 
For this reason he who raises his mind to the Lord is wholly 
raised up to Him, and he who casts his mind down to hell is 
wholly cast down thither ; consequently the whole man, in con- 
formity to his life's love, comes either into heaven or into hell. 
That man's mind is a man because God is a Man, and that the 
body is the mind's external, which feels and acts, and that they 
are thus one and not two, is a matter of angelic wisdom. 

370. It is to be observed that the very forms of man's 
members, organs, and viscera, as regards the structure itself, 
are from fibers that arise out of their first principles in the 
brains; but these become fixed by means of such substances 
and matters as are in earths, and from earths in air and in 
ether. This is effected by means of the blood. Consequently, 
in order that all parts of the body may be maintained in their 
formation and rendered permanent in their functions, man re- 
quires to be nourished by material food, and to be continually 
renewed. 



N. 371] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 203 

THERE IS A COlMiKSl'ONDKNCK OK TIIK WILL WI'I'Il THE HEART, 
AND OF THK UNDERSTANDIJSKi WITH THE LUNGS. 

371. This shall be shown in the following series: — 

(1) All things of the mind have relation to the will and 
understanding, and all things of the body to the heart and 
lungs. 

(2) There is a correspondence of tlie will and understanding 
with the heart and lungs, consequently a correspondence of all 
things of the mind with all things of the body. 

(3) The will corresponds to the heart. 

(4) The understanding corresponds to the lungs. 

(5) By means of this correspondence many arcana relating 
to the will and understanding, thus also to love and wisdom, 
may be disclosed. 

(6) Man's mind is his spirit, and the spirit is the man, while 
the body is the external by means of which the mind or spirit 
feels and acts in its world. 

(7) The conjunction of man's spirit with his body is by 
means of the correspondence of his will and understanding 
with his heart and lungs, and their separation is from non- 
correspondence. 

372. (1) All things of the mind have relation to the will 
and understanding, and all things of tlie body to the heart and 
lungs. By the mind nothing else is meant than the will and 
understanding, which in their complex are all things that 
affect man and all that he thinks, thus all things of man's af- 
fection and thought. The things that affect man are of his 
will, and the things that he thinks are of his understanding. 
That all things of man's thought are of his understanding is 
known, since he thinks from the understanding; but it is not 
so w^ell known that all things of man's affection are of his 
will, this is not so well known because when man is thinking 
he pays no attention to the affection, but only to what he is 
thinking; just as when he hears a person speaking, he pays no 
attention to the tone of the voice but only to the language. 



204 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

Yet affection is related to thought as the tone of the voice is 
to the language; consequently the affection of the one speak- 
ing is known by the tone, and his thought by the language. 
Affection is of the will, because all affection is of love, and the 
will is the receptacle of love, as was shown above. He that is 
not aware that affection is of the will confounds affection with 
understanding, for he declares it to be one with thought, yet 
they are not one but act as one. That they are confounded is 
evident from the common expression, I think I will do this, 
meaning, I will to do it. But that they are two is also evi- 
dent from a common expression, I wish to think about this 
matter ; and when one thinks about it, the affection of the will 
is present in the thought of the understanding, like the tone 
in speech, as was said before. That all parts of the body have 
relation to the heart and lungs is known, but that there is 
a correspondence of the heart and lungs with the will and 
understanding is not known. This subject will therefore be 
treated in what follows. 

373. Because the will and understanding are the recepta- 
cles of love and wisdom, these two are organic forms, or forms 
organized out of the purest substances ; for such they must be 
to be receptacles. It is no objection that their organization is 
imperceptible to the eye ; it lies beyond the reach of vision, 
even when this is increased by the microscope. The smallest 
insects are also too small to be seen, yet they have organs of 
sense and motion, for they feel, walk, and fly. That they have 
brains, hearts, pulmonary pipes, and viscera, acute observers 
have discovered from their anatomy by means of the micro- 
scope. Since minute insects themselves are not visible, and 
still less so their component viscera, and since it is not denied 
that they are organized even to each single particle in them, 
how can it be said that the two receptacles of love and wis- 
dom, called will and understanding, are not organic forms? 
How can love and wisdom, which are life from the Lord, act 
upon what is not a subject, or upon what has no substantial 
existence? Without organic forms, how can thought inhere; 



N. 373] CONCERNING IJIVINE L(JVE ' 205 

and from thought inlierent in nothing can one speak? Is not 
the brain, where thouglit comes forth, complete and organized 
in every part ? The organic forms themselves are there visible 
even to the naked eye ; and the receptacles of the will and un- 
derstanding, in their first principles, are plainly to be seen in 
the cortical substance, where they are perceptible as minute 
glands (on which see above, n, 366). Do not, I pray, think of 
these things from an idea of vacuum. Vacuum is nothing, 
and in nothing nothing takes place, and from nothing nothing 
comes forth. (On the idea of vacuum, see above, n. 82.) 

374. (2) There is a correspondence of the luill and under- 
standing ivith the heart and lungs, conseq^uently a correspondence 
of all things of the mind ivith all things of the body. This is 
new: it has hitherto been unknown because it has not been 
known what the spiritual is, and how it differs from the natural; 
therefore it has not been known what correspondence is; for 
there is a correspondence between things spiritual and things 
natural, and by means of correspondence they are conjoined. 
It is said that heretofore there has been no knowledge of what 
the spiritual is, or of what its correspondence with the natural 
is, and therefore what correspondence is; yet these might have 
been known. Who does not know that affection and thought 
are spiritual, therefore that all things of affection and thought 
are spiritual ? Who does not know that action and speech are 
natural, therefore that all things of action and speech are natu- 
ral? Who does not know that affection and thought, which 
are spiritual, cause man to act and to speak? From this who 
cannot see what correspondence is between things spiritual 
and things natural ? Does not thought make the tongue speak, 
and affection together with thought make the body act ? There 
are two distinct things : I can think without speaking, and I 
can will without acting; and the body, it is known, neither 
thinks nor wills, but thought falls into speech, and will de- 
scends into action. Does not affection also beam forth from 
the face, and there exhibit a type of itself? This every one 
knows. Is not affection, regarded in itself, spiritual, and the 



206 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

change of countenance, called the expression, natural ? From 
this who might not conclude that there is correspondence ; and 
further, a correspondence of all things of the mind with all 
things of the body ; and since all things of the mind have rela= 
tion to affection and thought, or what is the same, to the will 
and understanding, and all things of the body to the heart and 
lungs, — that there is a correspondence of the will with the 
heart and of the understanding with the lungs ? Such things 
have remained unknown, though they might have been known, 
because man has become so external as to be unwilling to ac- 
knov/ledge anything except the natural. This has become the 
joy of his love, and from that the joy of his understanding; 
consequently it has become distasteful to him to raise his 
thought above the natural to anything spiritual separate from 
the natural; therefore, from his natural love and its delights, 
he can think of the spiritual only as a purer natural, and of 
correspondence only as a something flowing in by continuity; 
yea, the merely natural man cannot think of anything sepa- 
rate from the natural ; any such thing to him is nothing. 

Again, these things have not heretofore been seen and 
known, because everything of religion, that is, everything 
called spiritual, has been banished from the sight of man by 
the dogma of the whole Christian world, that matters theolog- 
ical, that is, spiritual, which councils and certain leaders have 
decreed, are to be believed blindly because (as they say) they 
transcend the understanding. Some, therefore, have imagined 
the spiritual to be like a bird flying above the air in an ether 
to which the sight of the eye does not reach; when yet it is like 
a bird of paradise, which flies near the eye, even touching the 
pupil with its beautiful wings and longing to be seen. By the 
sight of the eye intellectual vision is meant. 

375. The correspondence of the will and understanding 
with the heart and lungs cannot be abstractly proved, that is, 
by mere reasonings, but it may be proved by effects. It is 
much the same as it is with the causes of things which can be 
seen rationally, yet not clearly except by means of effects ; for 



N. 375] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 207 

causes are in effects, and by means of effects make themselves 
visible; and until causes are thus made visible, the mind is not 
assured respecting them. In what follows, the effects of this 
correspondence will be described. But lest any one should fall 
into ideas of this correspondence imbibed from hypotheses 
about the soul, let him first read over carefully the proposi- 
tions in the preceding chapter, as follows : Love and wisdom, 
and the will and understanding therefrom, make the very life 
of man (n. 363, 364). The life of man is in first principles in 
the brains, and in derivatives in the body (n. 365). Such as 
life is in first principles, such it is in the whole and in every 
part (n. 366). By means of these first principles life is in the 
whole from every part, and in every part from the whole (n. 
367). Such as the love is, such is the wisdom, consequently 
such is the man (n. 368). 

376. It is permitted to introduce here, in the way of evi- 
dence, a representation of the correspondence of the will and 
understanding with the heart and lungs which was seen in 
heaven among the angels. By a wonderful flowing into spiral 
movements, such as no words can express, the angels formed 
the likeness of a heart and the likeness of lungs, with all the 
interior structures therein; and in this they were falling in 
with the flow of heaven, for heaven from the inflowing of love 
and wisdom from the Lord strives to come into such forms. 
They thus represented the conjunction of the heart and lungs, 
and at the same time the correspondence of these with the love 
of the will and with the wisdom of the understanding. This 
correspondence and union they called the heavenly marriage ; 
saying that in the whole body, and in its several members, 
organs, and viscera, it is the same as in the things belonging 
to the heart and lungs ; also that where the heart and lungs do 
not act, each in its turn, there can be no motion of life from 
any voluntary principle, and no sensation of life from any 
intellectual principle. 

377. Inasmuch as the correspondence of the heart and 
lungs with the will and understanding is treated of in what 



208 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

now follows, and upon this correspondence is based that of 
all parts of the body, namely, the members, the organs of 
the senses, and the viscera throughout the body, and inas- 
much as the correspondence of natural things with spiritual 
has been heretofore unknown, and yet is amply shown in two 
works, one of which treats of Heaven and Hell and the other, 
the Arcana Coelestia, of the spiritual sense of the Word in 
Genesis and Exodus, I will here point out what has been writ- 
ten and shown in those two works respecting correspondence. 
In the work on Heaven and Hell: The correspondence of all 
things of heaven with all things of man (n. 87-102). The 
correspondence of all things of heaven with all things on 
earth (n. 103-115). In the Arcana Coelestia, the work on the 
spiritual sense of the Word in Genesis and Exodus : The cor- 
respondence of the face and its expressions with the affec- 
tions of the mind (n. 1568, 2988, 2989, 3631, 4796, 4797, 4800, 
5165, 5168, 5695, 9306). The correspondence of the body, its 
gestures and actions, with things intellectual and things vol- 
untary (n. 2988, 3632, 4215). The correspondence of the senses 
in general (n. 4318-4330). The correspondence of the eyes 
and of their sight (n. 4403-4420). The correspondence of 
the nostrils and of smell (n. 4624-4634). The correspond- 
ence of the ear, and of hearing (n. 4652-4660). The corre- 
spondence of the tongue and of taste (n. 4791-4805). The 
correspondence of the hands, arms, shoulders and feet (n. 
4931-4953). The correspondence of the loins and organs of 
generation (n. 5050-5062). Tlie correspondence of the inter- 
nal viscera of the body, especially of the stomach, thymus 
gland, the receptacle and ducts of the chyle and lacteals, and of 
the mesentery (n. 5171-5180, 5181, 5189). The correspondence 
of the spleen (n. 9698). The correspondence of the peritonaeum, 
kidneys and bladder (n. 5377-5385). The correspondence of the 
liver, and of the hepatic, cystic and pancreatic ducts (n. 5183- 
5185). The correspondence of the intestines (n. 5392-5395, 
5379). The correspondence of the bones (n. 5560-5564). The 
correspondence of the skin (n. 5552-5559). The correspond- 



N. 377] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 209 

ence of heaven with man (n. 911, 1900, 1982, 2996-2998, 
3624-3649, 3741-3745, 3884, 4051, 4279, 4403, 4423, 4524, 
4525, 6013, 6057, 9279, 9632). All things that exist in the 
natural world and in its three kingdoms correspond to all 
things which appear in the spiritual world (n. 1632, 1831, 
1881, 2758, 2990-2993, 2997-3003, 3213-3227, 3483, 3624- 
3649, 4044, 4053, 4116, 4366, 4939, 5116, 5377, 5428, 5477, 
8211, 9280). All things that appear in the heavens are cor- 
respondences (n. 1521, 1532, 1619-1625, 1807, 1808, 1971, 
1974, 1977, 1980, 1981, 2299, 2601, 3213-3226, 3349, 3350, 
3475-3485, 3748, 9481, 9570, 9576, 9577). The correspond- 
ence of the sense of the letter of the Word and of its spirit- 
ual sense is treated of in the Arcana Ccelestia throughout ; 
and on this subject see also the Doctrine of the New Jerusa- 
lem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 5-26, 27-65). 

378. (3) The will corresponds to the heart. This can not be 
seen so clearly taken by itself as when the will is considered 
in its effects (as was said above). Taken by itself it can be 
seen by this, that all affections, which are of love, induce 
changes in the heart's pulsations, as is evident from the pulse 
of the arteries, which act synchronously with the heart. The 
heart's changes and pulsations in accordance with the love's 
affections are innumerable. Those felt by the finger are only 
that the beats are slow or quick, high or low, weak or strong, 
regular or irregular, and so on; thus that there is a difference 
in joy and in sorrow, in tranquillity of mind and in wrath, in 
fearlessness and in fear, in hot diseases and in cold, and so on. 
Because the two motions of the heart, systolic and diastolic, 
change and vary in this manner according to the affections of 
each one's love, many of the ancient and after them some 
modern writers have assigned the affections to the heart, and 
have made the heart their dwelling-place. From this have 
come into common language such expressions as a stout heart, 
a timid heart, a joyful heart, a sad heart, a soft heart, a hard 
heart, a great heart, a weak hearty a whole heart, a broken 
heart, a heart of flesh, a heart of stone ; likewise being gross, 
14 



210 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Eifth 

or soft, or tender in heart; giving the heart to a thing, giving 
a single heart, giving a new heart, laying up in the heart, re- 
ceiving in the heart, not reaching the heart, harclenmg one's 
heart, a friend at heart; also the terms concord, discord, vecor- 
dia, and other similar terms expressive of love and its affec- 
tions. There are like expressions in the Word, because the 
Word was written by correspondences. Whether you say love 
or will it is the same, because the will is the receptacle of love, 
as was explained above. 

379. It is known that there is vital heat in man and in 
every living creature; but its origin is not known. Every 
one speaks of it from conjecture, consequently such as have 
known nothing of the correspondence of natural things with 
spiritual have ascribed its origin, some to the sun's heat, 
some to the activity of the parts, some to life itself; but as 
they have not known what life is, they have been content 
with the mere phrase. But any one who knows that there 
is a correspondence of love and its affections with the heart 
and its derivations may know that the origin of vital heat 
is love. For love goes forth as heat from the spiritual sun 
where the Lord is, and moreover is felt as heat by the an- 
gels. This spiritual heat which in its essence is love, is what 
inflows by correspondence into the heart and its blood, and 
imparts heat to it, and at the same time vivifies it. That a 
man grows hot, and, as it were, is fired, according to his love 
and the degree of it, and grows torpid and cold according to 
its decrease, is known, for it is felt and seen ; it is felt by 
the heat throughout the body, and seen by the flushing of 
the face; and on the other hand, extinction of love is felt 
by coldness in the body, and is seen by paleness in the face. 
Because love is the life of man, the heart is the first and the 
last of his life; and because love is the life of man, and the 
soul maintains its life in the body by means of the blood, in 
the Word blood is called the soul (Ge7i. ix. 4; Levit. xvii. 
14). The various meanings of soul will be explained in what 
follows. 



N. 380] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 211 

380. The redness, also, of the blood is from the correspond- 
ence of the heart and the blood with love and its affection; 
for in the spiritual world there are all kinds of colors, of 
which red and white are the fundamental, the rest deriving 
their varieties from these and from their opposites, which 
are a dusky hre color and black. Red there corresponds to 
love, and white to wisdom. Ked corresponds to love because 
it originates in the fire of the spiritual sun, and white corre- 
sponds to wisdom because it originates in the light of that 
sun. And because there is a corresx)ondence of love with the 
heart, the blood must needs be red, and reveal its origin. For 
this reason in the heavens where love to the Lord reigns the 
light is flame-colored, and the angels there are clothed in pur- 
ple garments ; and in the heavens where wisdom reigns the 
light is white, and the angels there are clothed in white linen 
garments. 

381. The heavens are divided into two kingdoms, one called 
celestial, the other spiritual ; in the celestial kingdom love to 
the Lord reigns, and in the spiritual kingdom wisdom from that 
love. The kingdom where love reigns is called heaven's cardiac 
kingdom, the one where wisdom reigns is called its pulmonic 
kingdom. Be it known, that the whole angelic heaven in its 
aggregate represents a single man, and before the Lord ap- 
pears as a single man; consequently its heart makes one king- 
dom and its lungs another. For there is a general cardiac 
and pulmonic movement throughout heaven, and a particular 
movement therefrom in each angel. The general cardiac and 
pulmonic movement is from the Lord alone, because love and 
wisdom are from Him alone. For these two movements are in 
the sun where the Lord is and which is from the Lord, and 
from that in the angelic heavens and in the universe. Banish 
spaces and think of omnipresence, and you will be convinced 
that it is so. That the heavens are divided into two king- 
doms, celestial and spiritual, see the work on Heaven and Hell 
(n. 20-28) ; and that the whole angelic heaven in the aggre- 
gate represents a single man (n. 59-67). 



212 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

382. (4) The understanding corresponds to the lungs. This 
follows from what has been said of the correspondence of the 
will with the heart ; for there are two things, will and under- 
standing, which reign in the spiritual man, that is, in the 
mind, and there are two things, heart and lungs, which reign 
in the natural man, that is, in the body; and there is corre- 
spondence (as was said above) of all things of the mind with 
all things of the body; from which it follows that as the will 
corresponds to the heart, so the understanding corresponds to 
the lungs. Moreover, that the understanding corresponds to 
the lungs any one may observe in himself, both from his 
thought and from his speech. (1) From thought: No one is 
able to think except with the concurrence and concordance 
of the pulmonary respiration ; consequently, when he thinks 
tacitly he breathes tacitly, if he thinks deeply he breathes 
deeply ; he draws in the breath and lets it out, contracts and 
expands the lungs, slowly or quickly, eagerly, gently, or in- 
tently, all in conformity to his thought, thus to the influx of 
affection from love ; yea, if he hold the breath entirely he is 
unable to think, except in his spirit by its respiration, which 
is not manifestly perceived. (2) From speech : Since not the 
least vocal sound flows forth from the mouth without the con- 
current aid of the lungs, — for the sound, which is articulated 
into words, all comes forth from the lungs through the trachea 
and epiglottis, — therefore, according to the inflation of these 
bellows and the opening of the passage the voice is raised even 
to a shout, and according to their contraction it is lowered; 
and if the passage is entirely closed speech ceases and thought 
with it. 

383. Since the understanding corresponds to the lungs and 
thought therefrom to the respiration of the lungs, in the Word, 
" soul" and " spirit" signify the understanding ; for example : — 

Tliou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy 
soul {Matt. xxii. 37). 

God will give a new heart and a new spirit {Ezek. xxxvi, 26; Psalm 
11. 10). 



N. 383] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 213 

That "heart" signifies the love of tlie will was shown above; 
therefore "soul" and "spirit" signify the wisdom of the un- 
derstanding. That the spirit of God, also called the Holy 
Spirit, means Divine Wisdom, and therefore Divine Truth 
which is the light of men, may be seen in Tlte Doctrine of the 
New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 50, 51), therefore, 

The Lord breathed on His disciples, and said, Receive ye the Holy 
Spirit {John xx. 22); 

for the same reason it is said that: — 

Jehovah God breathed into the nostrils of Adam the breath of lives, 
and he was made into a living soul {Gen. ii. 7); 

also He said to the prophet : — 

Prophesy upon the breath, and say unto the wind, Come from the 
four winds, breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live 
{Ezek. xxxvii. 9); 

likewise in other places; therefore the Lord is called "the 
breath of the nostrils," and "the breath of life." Because 
respiration passes through the nostrils, perception is signified 
by them; and an intelligent man is said to be keen-scented, 
and an unintelligent man to be dull-scented. For the same 
reason, spirit and tvind in the Hebrew, and in some other lan- 
guages, are the same word; for the word spirit is derived from 
a word that means breathing ; and therefore when a man dies 
he is said to give up the ghost [anima]. It is for the same 
reason that men believe the spirit to be wind, or an airy some- 
thing like breath breathed out from the lungs, and the soul to 
be of like nature. From all this it can be seen that to "love 
God with all the heart and all the souP' means to love Him 
with all the love and with all the understanding, and to " give 
a new heart and a new spirit" means to give a new will and a 
new understanding. Because " spirit" signifies understanding, 
it is said of Bezaleel: — 

That he was filled with the spirit of wisdom, of intellig^ence, and of 
knowledge {Exod. xxxi. 3); 

and of Joshua: — 

That he was filled with the spirit of wisdom {Beut. xxxiv. 9); 



214 , ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Titth 

and Nebuchadnezzar says of Daniel : — 

That an excellent spirit of knowledge, of intelligence, and of wisdom, 
was in him {Dan. v, 11, 12, 14); 

and it is said in Isaiah : — 

They that err in spirit shall learn intelligence (xxix, 24); 

likewise in many other places. 

384. Since all things of the mind have relation to the will 
and understanding, and all things of the body to the heart and 
lungs, there are in the head tw^o brains, distinct from each 
other as will and understanding are distinct. The cerebellum 
is especially the organ of the will, and the cerebrum of the 
understanding. Likewise the heart and lungs in the body are 
distinct from the remaining parts there. They are separated 
by the diaphragm, and are enveloped by their own covering, 
called the pleura, and form that part of the body called the 
chest. In the other parts of the body, called members, organs, 
and viscera, there is a joining together of the two, and thus 
there are pairs ; for instance, the arms, hands, loins, feet, eyes, 
and nostrils; and within the body the kidneys, ureters, and 
testicles; and the viscera which are not in pairs are divided 
into right and left. Moreover, the brain itself is divided into 
two hemispheres, the heart into two ventricles, and the lungs 
into two lobes ; the right of all these having relation to the 
good of truth, and the left to the truth of good, or, what is the 
same, the right having relation to the good of love from which 
is the truth of wisdom, and the left having relation to the 
truth of wisdom which is from the good of love. And because 
the conjunction of good and truth is reciprocal, and by means 
of that conjunction the two become as it were one, therefore 
the pairs in man act together and conjointly in functions, 
motions, and senses. 

385. (5) Bj/ tneans of this correspondence many arcana 
relating to the will and understanding , thus also to love and 
wisdoniy may he disclosed. In the world it is scarcely known 
what the will is or what love is, for the reason that man is 



N. 385] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 215 

not able, by himself, to love, and from love to will, although he is 
able as it were by himself to exercise intelligence and thought; 
just as he is not able of himself to cause the heart to beat, 
although he is able of himself to cause the lungs to respire. 
Now because it is scarcely known in the world what the will is 
or what love is, but it is known what the heart and the lungs 
are, — for these are objects of sight and can be examined, and 
have been examined and described by anatomists, while the 
will and the understanding are not objects of sight, and can- 
not be so 'examined — therefore when it is known that these 
correspond, and by correspondence act as one, many arcana 
relating to the will and understanding may be disclosed that 
could not otherwise be disclosed ; those for instance relating 
to the conjunction of the will with the understanding, and 
the reciprocal conjunction of the understanding with the will; 
those relating to the conjunction of love with wisdom, and the 
reciprocal conjunction of wisdom with love; also those relat- 
ing to the derivation of love into affections, and to the con- 
sociation of affections, to their influx into perceptions and 
thoughts, and finally their influx according to correspondence 
into the bodily acts and senses. These and many other arcana 
may be both disclosed and illustrated by the conjunction of 
the heart and lungs, and by the influx of the blood from the 
heart into the lungs, and reciprocally from the lungs into the 
heart, and therefrom through the arteries into all the mem- 
bers, organs and viscera of the body. 

386. (6) Mail's mind is his spirit, and the spirit is the Tnan, 
while the body is an external by means of which the mind or 
spirit feels and acts in its world. That man's mind is his spir- 
it, and that the spirit is the man, can hardly enter the faith 
of those who have supposed the spirit to be wind, and the 
soul to be an airy something like breath breathed out from the 
lungs. For they say, How can the spirit, when it is spirit, be 
the man, and how can the soul, when it is soul, be the man ? 
They think in the same way of God because He is called a 
Spirit. This idea of the spirit and the soul has come from the 



216 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

fact that spirit and wind in some languages are the same 
word ; also, that when a man dies, he is said to give up the 
ghost or spirit ; also, that life returns, after suffocation or 
swooning, when the spirit or breath of the lungs comes back. 
Because in these cases nothing but the breath or air is per- 
ceived, it is concluded from the eye and bodily sense that the 
spirit and soul of man after death is not the man. From this 
corporeal conclusion about the spirit and soul, various hypo- 
theses have arisen, and these have given birth to a belief that 
man after death does not become a man until the day of the 
last judgment, and that meanwhile his spirit remains some- 
where or other awaiting reunion with the body, according to 
what has been shown in the Continuation concerning the Last 
Judgment (n. 32-38). Because man's mind is his spirit, the 
angels, who also are spirits, are called minds. 

387. Man's mind is his spirit, and the spirit is the man, 
because by the mind all things of man's will and understand- 
ing are meant, which things are in first principles in the brains 
and in derivatives in the body; therefore in respect to their 
forms they are all things of man. This being so, the mind 
(that is, the will and understanding) impels the body and all 
its belongings at will. Does not the body do whatever the 
mind thinks and wills ? Does not the mind incite the ear to 
hear, and direct the eye to see, move the tongue and the lips to 
speak, impel the hands and fingers to do whatever it pleases, 
and the feet to walk whither it will? Is the body, then, any- 
thing but obedience to its mind ; and can the body be such 
unless the mind is in its derivatives in the body ? Is it con- 
sistent with reason to think that the body acts from obedience 
simply because the mind so wills? in which case they should 
be two, the one above and the other below, one commanding, 
the other obeying. As this is in no way consistent with rea- 
son, it follows that man's life is in its first principles in the 
brains, and in its derivatives in the body (according to what 
has been said above, n. 365) ; also that such as life is in first 
principles, such it is in the whole and in every part (n. 366); 



N. 387] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 217 

and by means of these first principles life is in the whole from 
every part, and in every part from the whole (367). That all 
things of the mind have relation to the will and understand- 
ing, and that the will and understanding are the receptacles 
of love and wisdom from the Lord, and that these two make 
the life of man, has been shown in the preceding pages. 

388. From what has now been said it can also be seen that 
man's mind is the man himself. For the primary texture of 
the human form, that is, the human form itself with each and 
every thing thereof, is from first principles continued from 
the brain through the nerves, in the manner described above. 
It is this form into which man comes after death, who is then 
called a spirit or an angel, and who is in all completeness a 
man, but a spiritual man. The material form that is added 
and superinduced in the world, is not a human form by itself, 
but only by virtue of the spiritual form, to which it is added 
and superinduced that man may be enabled to perform uses in 
the natural world, and also to draw to himself out of the purer 
substances of the world a fixed containant of spiritual things, 
and thus continue and perpetuate life. It is a truth of angelic 
wisdom that man's mind, not alone in general, but in every 
particular, is in a perpetual conatus toward the human form, 
for the reason that God is a Man. 

389. That man may be man there must be no part lacking, 
either in head or in body, that has existence in the complete 
man ; since there is nothing therein that does not enter into 
the human form and constitute it ; for it is the form of love and 
wisdom, and this, in itself considered, is Divine. In it are all 
terminations of love and wisdom, which in God-Man are infi- 
nite, but in His image, that is, in man, angel, or spirit, are 
finite. If any part that has existence in man were lacking, 
there would be lacking something of termination from the 
love and wisdom corresponding to it, whereby the Lord might 
be from firsts in outmosts with man, and might from His Di- 
vine Love through His Divine Wisdom provide uses in the 
created world. 



. 218 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

390. (7) The conjunction of Tnan^s sjnrit with his body is by 
means of the correspondence of his will and understanding with 
his heart and lungs, and their separation is fronn non-correspond- 
ence. As it has heretofore been mikiiown that man's mind, 
by which is meant the will and understanding, is his spirit, 
and that the spirit is a man ; and as it has been unknown that 
man's spirit, as well as his body, has a pnlse and respiration, it 
could not be known that the pulse and respiration of the spirit 
in man flow into the pulse and respiration of his body and pro- 
duce them. Since, then, man's spirit, as well as his body, 
enjoys a pulse and respiration, it follows that there is a like 
correspondence of the pulse and respiration of man's spirit 
with the pulse and respiration of his body, — for, as was said, 
his mind is his spirit, — consequently, when the two pairs of 
motions cease to corres^oond, separation takes jjlace, which 
is death. Separation or death ensues when from any kind of 
disease or accident the body comes into such a state as to be 
unable to act in unison with its spirit, for thus correspondence 
perishes, and with it con j miction; not, however, when respira- 
tion alone ceases, but when the heart's pulsation ceases. For 
so long as the heart is moved, love with its vital heat remains 
and preserves life, as is evident in cases of swoon and suffoca- 
tion, and in the condition of fetal life in the womb. In a word, 
man's bodily life depends on the correspondence of its pulse 
and respiration with the pulse and respiration of his spirit; 
and when that correspondence ceases, the bodily life ceases, 
and his spirit departs and continues its life in the spiritual 
world, which is so similar to his life in the natural world that 
he does not know that he has died. Men generally enter the 
spiritual world two days after the death of the body. For I 
have spoken with some after two days. 

391. That a spirit, as well as a man on earth in the body 
enjoys a pulse and a respiration, can only be proved by spirits 
and angels themselves, when privilege is granted to speak with 
them. This privilege has been granted to me. When ques- 
tioned about the matter they declared that they are just as 



N. 391] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 219 

much men as those in the world are, and possess a body as 
well as they, but a spiritual body, and feel the beat of the 
heart in the chest, and the beat of the arteries in the wrist, 
just as men do in the natural world. I have questioned many 
about the matter, and they all gave like answer. That man's 
spirit respires within his body has been granted me to learn by 
personal experience. On one occasion angels were allowed 
to control my respiration, and to diminish it at pleasure, and 
at length to withdraw it, until only the respiration of my 
spirit remained, which I then perceived by sense. A like ex- 
perience was granted me when permitted to learn the state of 
the dying (as may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 
449). I have sometimes been brought into the respiration of 
my spirit only, which I have then sensibly perceived to be in 
accord with the common respiration of heaven. Also many 
times I have been in a state like that of angels, and also raised 
up into heaven to them, and being then out of the body in 
spirit, I talked with angels with a respiration in like manner 
as in the world. From this and other personal evidence it has 
been made clear to me that man's spirit respires, not only in 
the body but also after it has left the body ; that the respira^ 
tion of the spirit is so silent as not to be jjerceptible to man ; 
and that it inflows into the manifest respiration of the body 
almost as cause flows into effect, or thought into the lungs 
and through the lungs into speech. From all this it is also 
evident that conjunction of spirit and body in man is by means 
of the correspondence of the cardiac and pulmonic movement 
in both. 

392. These two movements, the cardiac and the pulmonic, 
derive their origin and persistence from this, that the whole 
angelic heaven, in general and in particular, is in these two 
movements of life; and the whole angelic heaven is in these 
movements because the Lord pours them in from the sun, 
where He is, and which is from Him; for these two move- 
ments are maintained by that sun from the Lord. It is evi- 
dent that such is their origin; since all things of heaven and 



220 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Eifth 

all tilings of the world depend on the Lord through that sun 
in a connection, by virtue of form, like a chain-work from the 
first to outmosts, also since the life of love and wisdom is from 
the Lord, and all the forces of the universe are from life. 
That the variation of these movements is according to the re- 
ception of love and wisdom, also follows. 

393. More will be said in what follows of the correspond- 
ence of these movements, as what the nature of that corre- 
spondence is in those who respire with heaven, and what it is 
in those who respire with hell ; also what it is in those who 
speak with heaven, but think with hell, thus what it is with 
hypocrites, flatterers, deceivers, and others. 



FKOM THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE HEART WITH THE WILL 
AND OF THE LUNGS WITH THE UNDERSTANDING, EVERY- 
THING MAY BE KNOWN THAT CAN BE KNOWN ABOUT THE 
WILL AND UNDERSTANDING, OR ABOUT LOVE AND WISDOM, 
THEREFORE ABOUT THE SOUL OF MAN. 

394. Many in the learned world have wearied themselves 
with inquiries respecting the soul ; but as they knew nothing 
of the spiritual world, or of man's state after death, they could 
only frame theories, not about the nature of the soul, but 
about its operation on the body. Of the nature of the soul 
they coidd have no idea except as something most pure in the 
ether, and of its containing form they could have no idea ex- 
cept as being ethereal. But knowing that the soul is sj^irit- 
ual, they dared not say much about the matter openly, for fear 
of ascribing to the soul something natural. With this concep- 
tion of the soul, and yet knowing that the soul operates' on the 
body, and produces all things in it that relate to its sensation 
and motion, they have wearied themselves, as was said, with 
inquiries respecting the operation of the soul on the body. 
This has been held by some to be effected by influx, and by 



N. 394] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 221 

some to be effected hy luirniony. But as this investigation has 
disclosed nothing in which the mind anxious to see the real 
truth can acquiesce, it has been granted me to speak with 
angels, and to be enlightened on the subject by their wisdom; 
the fruits of which are as follows : Man's soul, which lives 
after death, is his spirit, and is in complete form a man; the 
soul of this form is the w411 and understanding, and the soul 
of these is love and wisdom from the Lord ; these two are what 
constitute man's life, which is from the Lord alone; yet for 
the sake of man's reception of Him, He causes life to appear 
as if it were man's ; but that man may not claim life for him- 
self as his, and thus withdraw himself from this reception of 
the Lord, the Lord has also taught that everything of love, 
which is called good, and everything of wisdom, which is 
called truth, is from Him, and nothing of these from man; 
and as these two are life, that everything of life which is life 
is from Him. 

395. Since the soul in its very esse is love and wisdom, and 
these two in man are from the Lord, there are created in man 
two receptacles, which are also the abodes of the Lord in man ; 
one for love, the other for wisdom, the one for love called the 
will, the other for wisdom called the understanding. Now 
since Love and Wisdom in the Lord are one distinctly (as may 
be seen above, n. 17-22), and Divine Love is of His Divine 
Wisdom, and Divine W^isdom is of His Divine Love (n. 34— 
39), and since these so go forth from God-Man, that is, from 
the Lord, therefore these two receptacles and abodes of the 
Lord in man, the will and understanding, are so created by the 
Lord as to be distinctly two, and yet make one in every opera- 
tion and every sensation ; for in these the will and understand- 
ing cannot be separated. Nevertheless, to enable man to be- 
come a receptacle and an abode of the Lord, it is provided, as 
necessary to this end, that man's understanding can be raised 
above his proper love into some light of wisdom in the love of 
which the man is not, and that he can thereby see and be 
taught how he must live if he would come also into that higher 



222 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

love, and thus enjoy eternal happiness. But by the misuse of 
this power to elevate the understanding above his proper love, 
man has subverted in himself that which might have been the 
receptacle and abode of the Lord (that is, of love and wisdom 
from the Lord), by making the will an abode for the love of self 
and the world, and the understanding an abode for whatever 
confirms those loves. From this it has come that these two 
abodes, the will and understanding, have become abodes of in- 
fernal love, and by confirmations in favor of these loves, abodes 
of infernal thought, which in hell is esteemed as wisdom. 

396. The reason why the love of self and love of the world 
are infernal loves, and yet man has been able to come into 
them and thus subvert the will and understanding within him, 
is as follows: the love of self and the love of the world by 
creation are heavenly loves ; for they are loves of the natural 
man serviceable to spiritual loves, as a foundation is to a 
house. Por man, from the love of self and the world, seeks 
the welfare of his body, desires food, clothing, and habitation, 
is solicitous for the welfare of his family, and to secure em- 
ployment for the sake of use, and even, in the interest of 
obedience, to be honored according to the dignity of the affairs 
which he administers, and to find delight and refreshment in 
worldly enjoyment; yet all this for the sake of the end, which 
must be use. For through these things man is in a state to 
serve the Lord and to serve the neighbor. When, however, 
there is no love of serving the Lord and serving the neighbor, 
but only a love of serving himself by means of the world, then 
from being heavenly that love becomes hellish, for it causes a 
man to sink his mind and disposition in what is his own, and 
that in itself is wholly evil. 

397. ISTow that man may not by the understanding be in 
heaven while by the will he is in hell, as is possible, and may 
thereby have a divided mind, after death everything of the 
understanding which transcends its own love is removed ; 
whereby it comes that in everyone the will and understanding 
finally make one. With those in heaven the will loves good 



N. 397] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 223 

and the understcaiiding thinks truth ; but with those in hell the 
will loves evil and the understanding thinks falsity. The same 
is true of man in this world when he is thinking from his spir- 
it, as he does when alone ; yet many, so long as they are in the 
body, when they are not alone think otherwise. They then 
think otherwise because they raise their understanding above 
the proper love of their will, that is, of their spirit. These 
things have been said, to make known that the will and un- 
derstanding are two distinct things, although created to act as 
one, and that they are made to act as one after death, if not 
before. 

398. Now since love and wisdom, and therefore will and 
understanding, are what are called the soul, and how the soul 
acts upon the body, and effects all its operations, is to be shown 
in what follows, and since this may be known from the corre- 
spondence of the heart with the will, and of the lungs with the 
understanding, by means of that correspondence what follows 
has been disclosed: — 

(1) Love or the will is man's very life. 

(2) Love or the will strives unceasingly towards the human 
form and all things of that form. 

(3) Love or the will is unable to effect anything by its human 
form without a marriage with wisdom or the understanding. 

(4) Love or the will prepares a house or bridal chamber for 
its future wife, which is wisdom or the understanding. 

(5) Love or the will also prepares all things in its human 
form, that it may act conjointly with wisdom or the under- 
standing. 

(6) After the nuptials, the first conjunction is through affec- 
tion for knowing, from which springs affection for truth. 

(7) The second conjunction is through affection for under- 
standing, from which springs perception of truth. 

(8) The third conjunction is through affection for seeing 
truth, from which springs thought. 

(9) Through these three conjunctions love or the will is in 
its sensitive life and in its active life. 



224 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

(10) Love or the will introduces wisdom or the understand- 
ing into all things of its house. 

(11) Love or the will does nothing except in conjunction 
with wisdom or the understanding. 

(12) Love or the will conjoins itself to wisdom or the 
understanding, and causes wisdom or the understanding to 
be reci|)rocally conjoined to it. 

(13) Wisdom or the understanding, from the potency given 
to it by love or the will, can be elevated, and can receive such 
things as are of light out of heaven, and perceive them. 

(14) Love or the will can in like manner be elevated, and can 
perceive such things as are of heat out of heaven, provided it 
loves its consort in that degree. 

(15) Otherwise love or the will draws down wisdom or the 
understanding from its elevation, that it may act as one with 
itself. 

(16) Love or the will is purified by wisdom in the under- 
standing, if they are elevated together. 

(17) Love or the will is defiled in the understanding and by 
it, if they are not elevated together. 

(18) Love, when purified by wisdom in the understanding, 
becomes spiritual and celestial. 

(19) Love, when defiled in the understanding and by it, be- 
comes natural and sensual. 

(20) The capacity to understand called rationality, and the 
capacity to act called freedom, still remain. 

(21) Spiritual and celestial love is love towards the neigh- 
bor and love to the Lord ; and natural and sensual love is love 
of the world and love of self. 

(22) It is the same with charity and faith and their con- 
junction as with the will and understanding and their con- 
junction. 

399. (1) Love or the will is nutn^s very life. This follows 
from the correspondence of the heart with the will (considered 
above, n. 378-381). For as the heart acts in the body, so does 
the Avill act in the mind; and as all things of the body depend 



N. 399] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 225 

for existence and motion upon the heart, so do all things of the 
mind depend for existence and life upon the will. It is said, 
upon the will, but this means upon the love, because the will 
is the receptacle of love, and love is life itself (see above, n. 
1-3), and love, which is life itself, is from the Lord alone. 
By the heart and its extension into the body through the arte- 
ries and veins it can be seen that love or the will is the life of 
man, for the reason that things that correspond to each other 
act in a like manner, except that one is natural and the other 
spiritual. How the heart acts in the body is evident from 
anatomy, which shows that wherever the heart acts by means 
of the vessels put forth from it, everything is alive or subser- 
vient to life ; but where the heart by means of its vessels does 
not act, everything is lifeless. Moreover, the heart is the first 
and last thing to act in the body. That it is the first is evi- 
dent from the fetus, and that it is the last is evident from the 
dying, and that it may act without the co-operation of the 
lungs is evident from cases of suffocation and swooning; from 
which it can be seen that the life of the mind depends solely 
upon the will, in the same way as the substitute life of the 
body depends on the heart alone ; and that the will lives 
when thought ceases, in the same way as the heart lives when 
breathing ceases. This also is evident from the fetus, from 
the dying, and from cases of suffocation and swooning. From 
w^hich it follows that love or the will is man's very life. 

400. (2) Love or the ivlll strives unceasingly towards the 
human form and all things of that form. This is evident from 
the correspondence of heart and will. For it is known that all 
things of the body are formed in the womb, and that they are 
formed by means of fibers from the brains and blood vessels 
from the heart, and that out of these two the tissues of all 
organs and viscera are made ; from which it is evident that all 
things of man have their existence from the life of the will, 
which is love, from their first principles, out of the brains, 
through the fibers ; and all things of his body out of the heart 
through the arteries and veins. From this it is clearly evident 
15 



226 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

that life (which is love and the will therefrom), strives unceas- 
ingly towards the human form. And as the human form is 
made up of all the things there are in man, it follows that love 
or the will is in a continual conatus and effort to form all these. 
There is such a conatus and effort towards the human form, be- 
cause God is a Man, and Divine Love and Divine Wisdom is 
His life, and from His life is everything of life. Any one can 
see that unless Life which is very Man acted into that which 
in itself is not life, the formation of anything such as exists in 
man would be impossible, in whom are thousands of thousands 
of things that make a one, and that inianimously aspire to an 
image of the Life from which they spring, that man may be- 
come a receptacle and abode of that Life. From all this it can 
be seen that love, and out of the love the will, and out of the 
will ths heart, strive ruiceasingiy towards the human form. 

401. (3) Love or the will is unable to effect anything hij its 
human form without a marriage ivith ivisdom or the under- 
standing. This also is evident from the correspondence of the 
heart with the will. The embryo man lives by the heart, not 
hj the lungs. For in the fetus the blood does not flow from 
the heart into the lungs, giving it the ability to respire ; but it 
flows through the foramen ovale into the left ventricle of the 
heart ; consequently the fetus is unable to move any part of its 
body, but lies enswathed, neither has it sensation, for its organs 
of sense are closed. So is it with love or the will, from which 
the fetus lives indeed, though obscurely, that is, without sensa- 
tion or action. But as soon as the lungs are opened, which is 
the case after birth, he begins to feel and act, and likewise to 
Avill and think. From all this it can be seen, that love or the 
will is unable to effect anything by means of its human form 
without a marriage with wisdom or the understanding. 

402. (4) Liove or the u'ill prepares a house or bridal chamber 
for its future ivife, which is ivisdom or the understanding. In 
the created universe and in each of its particulars there is a 
marriage of good and truth ; and this is so because good is of 
love and truth is of Avisdom, and these two are in the Lord, 



N. 402] CONCEKNING DIVINE LOVE 227 

and out of Him all tliiiii^^s are created. How this marriage has 
existence in man can be seen mirrored in the conjunction of 
the heart with the lungs ; since the heart corresj)onds to love 
or good, and the lungs to wisdom or truth (see above, n. 378- 
381,382-384). From that conjunction it can be seen how love 
or the will betroths to itself wisdom or the understanding, 
and afterwards weds it, that is, enters into a kind of marriage 
with it. Love betroths to itself wisdom by preparing for it a 
house or bridal chamber, and marries it by conjoining it to 
itself by affections, and afterwards lives wisely with it in that 
house. How this is cannot be fully described except in spirit- 
ual language, because love and wisdom, consequently will and 
understanding, are spiritual; and spiritual things can, indeed, 
be expressed in natural language, but can be perceived only 
obscurely, from a lack of knowledge of what love is, what wis- 
dom is, what affections for good are, and what affections for 
wisdom, that is, affections for truth, are. Yet the nature of 
the betrothal and of the marriage of love with wisdom, or of 
will with understanding, can be seen by the parallel that is 
furnished by their correspondence with the heart and lungs. 
What is true of these is true of love and wisdom, so entirely 
that there is no difference whatever except that one is natural 
and the other spiritual. Thus it is evident from the heart and 
lungs, that the heart first forms the lungs, and afterwards joins 
itself to them; it forms, the lungs in the fetus, and joins itself 
to them after birth. This the heart does in its abode which 
is called the breast, where the two are encamped together, sepa- 
rated from the other parts of the body by a partition called 
the diaphragm and by a covering called the pleura. So it is 
with love and wisdom or with will and understanding. 

403. (5) Love 01' the vjill j-jrepares all things in its on-n 
hwman form, that it may act conjointly icith ivisdoni or the 
under standiyig. AYe say, will and understanding, but it is to 
be carefully borne in mind that the will is the entire man ; for 
it is the will that, with the understanding, is in first princi- 
ples in the brains, and in derivatives in the body, consequently 



228 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

in the whole and in every part (see above, n. 365-367). From 
this it can be seen that the will is the entire man as regards 
his very form, both the general form and the particular form 
of all parts; and that the understanding is its partner, as the 
lungs are the partner of the heart. Beware of cherishing an 
idea of the will as something separate from the human form, 
for it is that same form. From this it can be seen not only 
how the will prepares a bridal chamber 'for tlie understanding, 
but also how it prepares all things in its house (which is the 
whole body) that it may act conjointly with the understand- 
ing. This it prepares in such a way that as each and every 
thing of the body is conjoined to the will, so is it conjoined to 
the understanding; in other words, that as each and every- 
thing of the body is submissive to the will, so is it submissive 
to the understanding. How each and every thing of the body 
is prepared for conjunction with the understanding as well as 
with the will, can be seen in the body only as m a mirror or 
image, by. the aid of anatomical knowledge, which shows how 
all things in the body are so connected, that when the lungs 
respire each and every thing in the entire body is moved by 
the respiration of the lungs, and at the same time from the 
beating of the heart. Anatomy shows that the heart is joined 
to the lungs through the auricles, "which are continued into 
the interiors of the lungs ; also that all the viscera of the en- 
tire body are joined through ligaments to the chamber of the 
breast; and so joined that when the lungs respire, each and 
all things, in general and in particular, partake of the respi- 
ratory motion. Thus when the lungs are inflated, the ribs 
expand the thorax, the pleura is dilated, and the diaphragm is 
stretched wide, and with these all the lower parts of the body, 
which are connected with them by ligaments therefrom, re- 
ceive some action through the pulmonic action ; not to mention 
further facts, lest those who have no knowledge of anatomy, 
on account of their ignorance of its terma should be confused 
in regard to the subject. Consult any skilful and discerning 
anatomist whether all things in the entire body, from the 



N. 403] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 229 

breast down, be not so bound together, that when the lungs 
expand by resi)iration, each and all of them are moved to ac- 
tion synchronous with the pulmonic action. From all this the 
nature of the conjunction prepared by the will between the 
understanding and each and every thing of the human form is 
now evident. Only explore the connections well and scan 
them Avith an anatomical eye ; then, following the connections, 
consider their co-operation with the breathing lungs and with 
the heart ; and finally, in thought, substitute for the lungs the 
understanding, and for the heart the will, and you will see. 

404. (6) After the nuptials, the first conjunction is through 
affection for knowing, from which springs affection for truth. 
By the nuptials is meant man's state after birth, from a state 
of ignorance to a state of intelligence, and from this to a state 
of wisdom. The first state which is one of pure ignorance, is 
not meant here by nuptials, because there is then no thought 
from the understanding, and only an obscure affection from 
the love or will. This state is initiatory to the nuptials. In 
the second state, which belongs to man in childhood, there is, 
as we know, an affection for knowing, by means of which the 
infant child learns to speak and to read, and afterwards grad- 
ually learns such things as belong to the understanding. That 
it is love, belonging to the will, that effects this, cannot be 
doubted; for unless it were effected by love or the will it 
would not be done. That every man has, after birth, an affec- 
tion for knowing, and through that acquires the knowledge by 
which his understanding is gradually formed, enlarged, and 
perfected, is acknowledged by every one who thoughtfully 
takes counsel of experience. It is also evident that from this 
comes affection for truth ; for when man, from affection for 
knowing, has become intelligent, he is led not so much by 
affection for knowing as by affection for reasoning and form- 
ing conclusions on subjects which he loves, whether econom- 
ical or civil or moral. When this affection is raised to spiritual 
things, it becomes affection for spiritual truth. That its first 
or initiatory state was affection for knowing, may be seen from 



230 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

the fact that aifection for truth is an exalted affection for 
knowing ; for to be affected by truths is the same as to wish 
from affection to know them, and when found, to drink them 
in from the joy of affection, 

(7) The second conjunction is through affection for under- 
standing, from which springs jperception of truth. This is evi- 
dent to any one who is willing by rational insight to examine 
the matter. From rational insight it is clear that affection for 
truth and perception of truth are two powers of the under- 
standing, which in some persons harmonize as one, and in 
others do not. They harmonize as one in those who wish to 
perceive truths with the understanding, but do not in those 
who only wish to know truths. It is also clear that every one 
is in perception of truth so far as he is in an affection for 
understanding ; for if you take away affection for understanding 
truth, there will be no perception of truth ; but give the affec- 
tion for understanding truth, and there will be perception of 
truth according to the degree of affection for it. No man of 
sound reason ever lacks perception of truth, so long as he 
has affection for understanding truth. That every man has a 
capacity to understand truth, which is called rationality, has 
been shown above. 

(8) The third conjunction is through affection for seeing 
truth, from ivhich springs thought. That affection for know- 
ing is one thing, affection for understanding another, and affec- 
tion for seeing truth another, or that affection for truth is one 
thing, perception of truth another, and thought another, is 
seen but obscurely by those who cannot perceive the operations 
of the mind as distinct, but is seen clearly by those who can. 
This is obscurely seen by those who do not perceive the opera- 
tions of the mind as distinct, because with those who are in 
aifection for truth and in perception of truth, these operations 
are simultaneous in the thought, and when simultaneous they 
cannot be distinguished. Man is in manifest thought when his 
spirit thinks in the body, which is especially the case when he 
is in company with others ; but when he is in affection for un- 



N. 404] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 231 

derstanding, and through that comes into perception of truth, 
he is then in the thought of his spirit, which is meditation. 
This passes, indeed, into the thought of the body, but into silent 
thought; for it is above bodily thought, and looks upon what 
belongs to thought from the memory as below itself, drawing 
therefrom either conclusions or confirmations. But real affec- 
tion for truth is perceived only as a pressure of will from 
something pleasurable which is interiorly in meditation as its 
life, and is little noticed. From all this it can now be seen 
that these three, affection for truth, perception of truth, and 
thought, follow in order from love, and that they have exist- 
ence only in the understanding. For when love enters into 
the understanding, which it does when their conjunction is 
accomplished, it first brings forth affection for truth, then 
affection for understanding that which it knows, and lastly, 
affection for seeing in the bodily thought that which it under- 
stands ; for thought is nothing but internal sight. It is true 
that thought is the first to be manifest, because it is of the 
natural mind ; but thought from perception of truth which is 
from affection for truth is the last to be manifest ; this thought 
is the thought of wisdom, but the other is thought from the 
memory through the sight of the natural mind. All operations 
of love or the will not within the understanding have relation 
not to affections for truth, but to affections for good. 

405. That these three from the will's love follow in order 
in the understanding can, indeed, be comprehended by the ra- 
tional man, but yet cannot be clearly seen and thus so proved 
as to command belief. But as love that is of the will acts as 
one with the heart by correspondence, and wisdom that is of 
the understanding acts as one with the lungs (as has been 
shown above) therefore what has been said (in n. 404) about 
affection for truth, perception of truth, and thought, can no- 
where be more clearly seen and proved than in the lungs and 
the mechanism thereof. These, therefore, shall be briefly 
described. After birth, the heart discharges the blood from its 
right ventricle into the lungs ; and after passing through these 



232 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

it is emptied into the left ventricle : thus the heart opens the 
lungs. This it does through the pulmonary arteries and veins. 
The lungs have bronchial tubes which ramify, and at length 
end in air-cells,, into which the lungs admit the air, and thus 
respire. Around the bronchial tubes and their ramifications 
there are also arteries and veins called the bronchial, arising 
from the vena azygos or vena cava, and from the aorta. These 
arteries and veins are distinct from the pulmonary arteries and 
veins. From this it is evident that the blood flows into the 
lungs by two ways, and flows out from them by two ways. This 
enables the lungs to respire non-synchronously with the heart. 
That the alternate movements of the heart and the alternate 
movements of the lungs do not act as one is well known. Now, 
inasmuch as there is a correspondence of the heart and lungs 
with the will and understanding (as shown above), and inas- 
much as conjunction by correspondence is of such a nature 
that as one acts so does the other, it can be seen by the flow of 
the blood out of the heart into the lungs how the will flows 
into the understanding, and produces the results mentioned 
just above (n. 404) respecting affection for and perception of 
truth, and respecting thought. By correspondence this and 
many other things relating to the subject, which cannot be 
explained in a few words, have been disclosed to me. Whereas 
love or the will corresponds to the heart, and wisdom or the 
understanding to the lungs, it follows that the blood vessels of 
the heart in the lungs correspond to affections for truth, and 
the ramifications of the bronchia of the lungs to perceptions 
and thoughts from those affections. Whoever will trace out all 
the tissues of the lungs from these origins, and disclose the 
analogy with the love of the will and the wisdom of the under- 
standing, will be able to see in a kind of image the things 
mentioned above (n. 404), and thereby attain to a confirmed 
belief. But since a few only are familiar with the anatomical 
details respecting the heart and lungs, and since confirming a 
thing by what is unfamiliar induces obscurity, I omit further 
demonstration of the analogy. 



K 406] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 233 

406. (9) Throuijh tliese three conjunctions love or the mill 
is in its sensitive life and in its actioe life. Love without the 
understanding, or aft'eetion which is of love without thought, 
which is of the understanding, can neither feel nor act in the 
body; since love without the understanding is as it were blind, 
and affection without thought is as it were in thick darkness, 
for the understanding is the light by which love sees. The 
wisdom of the understanding, moreover, is from the light that 
proceeds from the Lord as a sun. Since, then, the will's love, 
without the light of the understanding, sees nothing and is 
blind, it follows that without the light of the understanding 
even the bodily senses would be blind and blunted, not only 
sight and hearing, but the other senses also, — the other senses, 
because all perception of truth is a property of love in the 
understanding (as was shown above), and all the bodily senses 
derive their perception from their mind's perception. The 
same is true of every bodily act ; for action from love without 
understanding is like man's action in the dark, when he does 
not know what he is doing; consequently in such action there 
would be nothing of intelligence and wisdom. Such action 
cannot be called living action, for action derives its esse from 
love and its quality from intelligence. Moreover, the whole 
power of good is by means of truth ; consequently good acts in 
truth, and thus by means of truth; and good is of love, and 
truth is of the understanding. From all this it can be seen 
that love or the will through these three conjunctions (see 
above, n. 404) is in its sensitive life and in its active life. 

407. That this is so can be proved to the life by the con- 
junction of the heart with the lungs, because the correspond- 
ence between the will and the heart, and between the under- 
standing and the lungs, is such that just as the love acts with 
the understanding spiritually, so does the heart act with the 
lungs naturally : from this, what has been said above can be 
seen as in an image presented to the eye. That man has 
neither any sensitive life nor any active life, so long as the 
heart and the lungs do not act together, is evident from the 



234 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

state of the fetus or the infant in the womb, and from its state 
after birth. So long as man is a fetus, that is, in the womb, 
the lungs are closed, wherefore he has no feeling nor any ac- 
tion; the organs of sense are closed up, the hands are bound, 
likewise the feet ; but after birth the lungs are opened, and as 
they are opened man feels and acts ; the lungs are opened by 
means of the blood sent into them from the heart. That man 
has neither sensitive life nor active life without the co-operar 
tion of the heart and the lungs, is evident also in swoons, 
when the heart alone acts, and not the lungs, for respiration 
then ceases; in this case there is no sensation and no action, 
as is well known. It is the same with persons suffocated, 
either by water or by anything obstructing the larynx and 
closing the respiratory passage ; it is well-known that the ma,n 
then appears to be dead, he feels nothing and does nothing ; 
and yet he is alive in the heart; for he returns to both his 
sensitive and his active life as soon as the obstructions to the 
lungs are removed. The blood, it is true, circulates in the 
meantune through the lungs, but through the pulmonary arte- 
ries and veins, not through the bronchial arteries and veins, 
and these last are what give man the power of breathing. It 
is the same with the influx of love into the understanding. 

408. (10) Love or the will introduces wisdom or the under- 
standing into all things of its house. By the house of love or 
the will is meant the whole man as to all things of his mind ; 
and as these correspond to all things of the body (as shown 
above), by the house is meant also the whole man as to all 
things of his body, called members, organs, and viscera. That 
the lungs are introduced into all these things just as the 
understanding is introduced into all things of the mind, can be 
seen from what has been shown above, namely, that love or 
the will prepares a house or bridal chamber for its future wife, 
which is wisdom or the understanding (n. 402) ; and that love 
or the will prepares all things in its own hmnan form, that is, 
in its house, that it may act conjointly with wisdom or the 
understanding (n. 403). From what is there said, it is evident 



iV. 408] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 235 

that each and all things in the whole hody are so connected 
by ligaments issuing from the ribs, vertebrae, sternum, and 
diaphragm, and from the peritonaeum which depends on these, 
that when the lungs respire all are likewise drawn and borne 
along in alternate movements. Anatomy shows that the alter- 
nate waves of respiration even enter into the very viscera 
to their inmost recesses; for the ligaments above mentioned 
cleave to the sheaths of the viscera, and these sheaths, by 
their extensions, penetrate to their innermost parts, as do the 
arteries and veins also by their ramifications. From this it is 
evident that the respiration of the lungs is in entire conjunc- 
tion with the heart in each and every thing of the body ; and 
in order that the conjunction may be complete in every respect. 
even the heart itself is in pulmonic motion, for it lies in the 
bosom of the lungs and is connected with them by the auri- 
cles, and reclines upon the diaphragm, whereby its arteries 
also participate in the pulmonic motion. The stomach, too, is 
ip similar conjunction with the lungs, by the coherence of its 
oesophagus with the trachea. These anatomical facts are ad- 
duced to show what kind of a conjunction there is of love or 
the will with wisdom or the understanding, and how the two 
in consort are conjoined wdth all things of the mind; for the 
spiritual and the bodily conjunction are similar. 

409. (11) Love or the u'ill does nothing except in conjunc- 
tion ivith tvisdom or the understanding. For as love has no 
sensitive nor any active life apart from the understanding; 
and as love introduces the imderstanding into all things of the 
mind (as was shown above, n. 407, 408), it follows that love or 
the will does nothing except in conjunction with the under- 
standing. For what is it to act from love without the under- 
standing ? Such action can only be called irrational ; for the 
understanding teaches what ought to be done and how it ought 
to be done. Apart from the understanding love does not know 
this ; consequently such is the marriage between love and the 
understanding, that although they are two, they act as one. 
There is a like marriage between good and truth, for good is 



236 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

of love and truth is of the understandmg. In every particular 
thing of the universe as created by the Lord there is such a 
marriage, their use having relation to good, and the form of 
their use to truth. From this marriage it is that in each and 
every thing of the body there is a right and a left, the right 
having relation to the good from which truth proceeds, and 
the left to truth from good, thus to their conjunction. From 
this it is that there are pairs in man; there are two brains, 
two hemispheres of the brain, two ventricles of the heart, two 
lobes of the lungs, two eyes, ears, nostrils, arms, hands, loins, 
feet, kidneys, testicles, etc.: and where there are not pairs, 
there is a right and a left side, all this for the reason that good 
looks to truth that it may take form, and truth looks to good 
that it may have being. It is the same in the angelic heavens 
and in their several societies. On this subject more may be 
seen above (n. 401), where it is shown that love or the will is 
unable to effect anything by its human form without a mar- 
riage with wisdom or the understanding. Conjunction of evil 
and falsity, which is opposite to the conjunction of good and 
truth, will be spoken of elsewhere. 

410. (12) Love or the will conjoins itself to wisdom or the 
understanding^ and causes tvisdom or the understanding to he 
reciprocally conjoined to it. That love or the will conjoins it- 
self to wisdom or the understanding is plain from their corre- 
spondence with the heart and lungs. Anatomical observation 
shows that the heart is in its life's motion when the lungs are 
not yet in motion ; this it shows by cases of swooning and of 
suffocation, also by the fetus in the womb and the chick in the 
Qgg. Anatomical observation shows also that the heart, while 
acting alone, forms the lungs and so adjusts them that it may 
carry on respiration in them ; also that it so forms the other 
viscera and organs that it may carry on various uses in them, 
— the organs of the face that it may have sensation, the 
organs of motion that it may act, and the remaining parts of 
the body that it may exhibit uses corresponding to the affec- 
tions of love. From all this it can now for the first time be 



N. 410] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 237 

shown that as the heart produces such things for the sake of 
the various functions which it is afterwards to discharge in 
the body, so love, in its receptacle called the will, pi-oduces 
like things for the sake of the various affections that consti- 
tute its form, which is the human form (as was shown above). 
Now as the first and nearest of love's affections are affection 
for knowing, affection for understanding, and affection for see- 
ing what it knows and understands, it follows, that for these 
affections love forms the understanding and actually enters 
into them when it begins to feel and to act and to think. To 
this the understanding contributes nothing, as is evident from 
the analogy of the heart and lungs (of which above). From 
all this it can be seen, that love or the will conjoins itself to 
wisdom or the understanding, and not wisdom or the under- 
standing to love or the will; also from this it is evident that 
knowledge, which love acquires to itself by the affection for 
knowing, and perception of truth, which it acquires by the 
affection for understanding, and thought which it acquires by 
the affection for seeing what it knows and understands, are 
not of the understanding but of love. Thoughts, perceptions, 
and knowledges therefrom, flow in, it is true, out of the spir- 
itual world, yet they are received not by the understanding 
but by love, according to its affections in the understanding. 
It appears as if the understanding received them, and not 
love or the will, but this is an illusion. It appears also as if 
the understanding conjoined itself to love or the will, but this, 
too, is an illusion; love or the will conjoins itself to the under- 
standing, and causes the understanding to be reciprocally 
conjoined to it. This reciprocal conjunction is from love's 
marriage with wisdom, wherefrom a conjunction seemingly 
reciprocal, from the life and consequent power of love, is ef- 
fected. It is the same with the marriage of good and truth ; for 
good is of love and truth is of the understanding. Good does 
everything; and it receives truth into its house and conjoins 
itself with it so far as the truth is accordant. Good can also 
admit truths which are not accordant ; but this it does from an 



238 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

affection for knowing, for understanding, and for thinking its 
own things, whilst it has not as yet determined itself to uses, 
which are its ends and are called its goods. Of reciprocal con- 
junction, that is, the conjunction of truth with good, there is 
none whatever. That, truth is reciprocally conjoined is from 
the life belonging to good. From this it is that every man and 
every spirit and angel is regarded by the Lord according to 
his love or good, and no one according to his intellect, or his 
truth separate from love or good. For man's life is his love 
(as was shown above), and his life is qualified according as he 
has exalted his affections by means of truth, that is, according 
as he has perfected his affections by wisdom. For the affec- 
tions of love are exalted and perfected by means of truths, 
thus by means of wisdom. Then love acts conjointly with its 
wisdom, as though from it; but it acts from itself through 
wisdom, as through its own form, and this derives nothing 
whatever from the understanding, but everything from a kind 
of determination of love called affection. 

411. AH things that favor it love calls its goods, and all 
things that as means lead to goods it calls its truths; and 
because these are means they are loved and come to be of 
its affection and thus become affections in form; therefore 
truth is nothing else than a form of the affection that is of 
love. The human form is nothing else than the form of all 
the affections of love; beauty is its intelligence, which it pro- 
cures for itself through truths received either by sight or by 
hearing, external and internal. These are what love disposes 
into the form of its affections; and these forms exist in great 
variety; but all derive a likeness from their general form, 
which is the human. To the love all such forms are beautiful 
and lovely, but others are unbeautiful and unlovely. From 
this, again, it is evident that love conjoins itself to the under- 
standing, and not the reverse, and that the reciprocal conjunc- 
tion is also from love. This is what is meant by love or the 
will causing wisdom or the understanding to be reciprocally 
conjoined to it. 



N. 412] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 239 

412. What lias been said may be seen in a kind of image 
and thus corroborated by the correspondence of the heart with 
love and of the lungs with the understanding (of which above). 
For if the heart corresponds to love, its determinations, which 
are arteries and veins, correspond to affections, and in the 
lungs to affections for truth ; and as there are also other ves- 
sels in the lungs called air vessels, whereby respiration is car- 
ried on, these vessels correspond to perceptions. It must be 
distinctly understood that the arteries and veins in the lungs 
are not affections, and that respirations are not perceptions 
and thoughts, but that they are correspondences, that is, they 
act correspondently or synchronously ; likewise that the heart 
and the lungs are not the love and understanding, but corre- 
spondences : and inasmuch as they are correspondences the one 
can be seen in the other. ^Vhoever from anatomy has come to 
understand the whole structure of the lungs can see clearly, 
when he compares it with the understanding, that the under- 
standing does not act at all by itself, does not perceive nor 
think by itself, but acts wholly by affections which are of love. 
These, in the understanding, are called affection for knowing, 
for understanding, and for seeing truth (which have been 
treated of above). For all states of tlie lungs depend on the 
blood from the heart and from the vena cava and aorta; and 
respirations, which take place in the bronchial branches, pro- 
ceed in accordance with the state of those vessels ; for w^hen 
the flow of the blood stops, respiration stops. Much more may 
be disclosed by comparing the structure of the lungs with the 
understanding, to which the lungs correspond ; but as few are 
familiar with anatomical science, and to try to demonstrate or 
prove anything by what is unknown renders it obscure, it is 
not well to say more on this subject. By what I know of the 
structure of the lungs I am fully convinced that love through 
its affections conjoins itself to the understanding, and that the 
understanding does not conjoin itself to any affection of love, 
but that it is reciprocally conjoined by love, to the end that 
love may have sensitive life and active life. But it must not 



240 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Eifth 

be forgotten that man has a twofold respiration, one of the 
spirit and another of the body.; and that the respiration of the 
spirit depends on the fibers from the brains, and the respira- 
tion of the body on the blood-vessels from the heart, and from 
the vena cava and aorta. It is evident, moreover, that thought 
produces respiration ; it is evident, also, that affection, which 
is of love, produces thought, for thought without affection is 
precisely like respiration without a heart, a thing impossible. 
From this it is clear that affection, which is of love, conjoins 
itself to thought, which is of the understanding (as was said 
above), in like manner as the heart does in the lungs. 

413. (13) Wisdom or the understanding, from the 2)otency 
given to it hy love, can he elevated and can receive such things 
as are of light out of heaven, and perceive them. That man has 
the ability to perceive arcana of wisdom when he hears them, 
has been shown above in many places. This capacity of man 
is called rationality. It belongs to every man by creation. It 
is the capacity to understand things interiorly, and to decide 
what is just and right, and what is good and true; and by it 
man is distinguished from beasts. This, then, is what is meant 
when it is said, that the understanding can be elevated and re- 
ceive things that are of light out of heaven, and perceive them. 
That this is so can also be seen in a kind of image in the lungs, 
for the reason that the lungs correspond to the understanding. 
In tlie lungs it can be seen from their cellular substance, which 
consists of bronchial tubes continued down to the minutest air- 
cells, which are receptacles of air in respirations; these are 
what the thoughts make one with by correspondence. This cell- 
like substance is such that it can be expanded and contracted 
in a twofold mode, in one mode with the heart, in the other 
almost separate from the heart. In the former, it is expanded 
and contracted through the pulmonary arteries and veins, which 
are from the heart alone; in the latter, through the bronchial 
arteries and veins, which are from the vena, cava and aorta, and 
these vessels are outside of the heart. This takes place in the 
lungs, for the reason that the understanding is capable of being 



N. 413] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 241 

raised above its proper love, wliicli corresponds to the heart, 
and to receive light from heaven. Still, when the understand- 
ing is raised above its proper love, it does not withdraw from 
it, but derives from it what is called the affection for knowing 
and understanding, with a view to somewhat of honor, glory, 
or gain in the world; this clings to every love as a surface, 
and by it the love shines on the surface ; but with the wise, the 
love shines through. These things respecting the lungs are 
brought forward to prove that the understanding can be ele- 
vated and can receive and perceive things that are of the light 
of heaven ; for the correspondence is plenary. To see from 
correspondence is to see the lungs from the understanding, and 
the understanding from the lungs, and thus from both together 
to perceive proof. 

414. (14) Love or the tvill can in like manner he elevated 
and can receive such things as are of heat out of heaven pro- 
vided it loves ivisdom, its consort, in that degree. That the 
understanding can be elevated into the light of heaven, and 
from that light draw forth wisdom, has been shown in the 
preceding chapter and in many places above ; also that love or 
the will can be elevated as well, provided it loves those things 
that are of the light of heaven or that are of wisdom, has also 
been shown in many places. Yet love or the will cannot be 
thus elevated through anything of honor, glory, or gain as an 
end, but only through a love of use, thus not for the sake of 
self, but for the sake of the neighbor ; and because this love is 
given only by the Lord out of heaven, and is given by the Lord 
when man flees from evils as sins, therefore it is that love or 
the will can be elevated by these means, and cannot without 
these means. But love or the will is elevated into heaven's heat, 
while the understanding is elevated into its light. When both 
are elevated, a marriage of the two takes place there, which is 
called celestial marriage, because it is a marriage of celestial 
love and wisdom ; consequently it is said that love also is ele- 
vated if it loves wisdom, its consort, in that degree. The love 
of wisdom, that is, the genuine love of the human understand- 
16 



242 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Eifth 

ing is love towards the neighbor from the Lord. It is the 
same with light and heat in the world. Light exists without 
heat and with heat ; light is without heat in winter time, and 
with heat in summer time ; and when heat is with light all 
things flourish. The light with man that corresponds to the 
light of winter is wisdom without its love ; and the light with 
man that corresponds to the light of summer is wisdom with 
its love. 

415. This conjunction and disjunction of wisdom and love 
can be seen effigied, as it were, in the conjunction of the lungs 
with the heart. Por the heart can be conjoined to the cluster- 
ing vesicles of the bronchia by blood sent out from itself, and 
also by blood sent out not from itself but from the vena cava 
and the aoHa. Thereby the respiration of the body can be sepa- 
rated from the respiration of the spirit ; but when blood from 
the heart alone acts the respirations cannot be separated. Now 
since thoughts act as one with respirations by correspondence 
it is plain, from the twofold state of the lungs in respirations, 
that man is able to think and from thoughts to speak and act 
in one way when in company with others, and to think and 
from thought to speak and act in another way when not in 
company, that is, when he has no fear of loss of reputation ; for 
he can then think and speak against God, the neighbor, the 
spiritual things of the church, and against moral and civil laws ; 
and he can also act contrary to them, by stealing, by being 
revengeful, by blaspheming, by committing adultery. But in 
company with others, where he is afraid of losing reputation, 
he can talk, preach and act precisely like a spiritual, moral and 
civil man. From all this it can be seen that love or the will 
as well as the understanding can be elevated and can receive 
such things as are of the heat or love of heaven, provided it 
loves wisdom in that degree, and if it does not love wisdom, 
that it can as it were be separated. 

416. (15) Otherwise love or the ivill draws down ivisdom, or 
the understanding ^ from its elevation^ that it may act as one 
with itself. There is natural love and there is spiritual love. 



N. 41G] CONCERNING DIVINE L(JVE 243 

A man who is in natural and in spiritual love both at once, is 
a rational man : but one who is in natural love alone, although 
able to think rationally, precisely like a spiritual man, is not a 
rational man; for although he elevates his understanding even 
to heavenly light, thus to wisdom, yet the things of wisdom, 
that is, of heavenly light, do not belong to his love. His love, 
it is true, effects the elevation, but from desire for honor, glory^ 
and gain. But when he perceives that he gains nothing of the 
kind from that elevation (as is the case when he thinks Avith 
himself from his own natural love), then he does not love the 
things of heavenly light or wisdom; consequently he then 
draws down the understanding from its height, that it may act 
as one with himself. For example: when the understanding 
by its elevation is in wisdom, then the love sees what justice 
is, what sincerity is, what chastity is, even what genuine love 
is. This the natural love can see by its capacity to understand 
and contemplate things in heavenly light ; it can even talk and 
preach about these and explain them as at once moral and 
spiritual virtues. But when the understanding is not elevated, 
the love, if it is merely natural, does not see these virtues, but 
instead of justice it sees injustice, instead of sincerity deceit, 
instead of chastity lewdness, and soon. If it then thinks of 
the things it spoke of when its understanding was in elevation, 
it can laugh at them and speak of them merely as serviceable 
to it in captivating the souls of men. From all this it can be 
seen how it is to be understood that love, unless it loves wis- 
dom, its consort, in that degree, draws wisdom down from its 
elevation, that it may act as one with itself. That love is 
capable of elevation if it loves wisdom in that degree, can be 
seen above (n. 414). 

417. Now as love corresponds to the heart, and the under- 
standing to the lungs, the foregoing statements may be cor- 
roborated by their correspondence ; as, for instance, how the 
understanding can be elevated above its own love even into 
wisdom ; and how, if that love is merely natural, the under- 
standing is drawn down by it from that elevation. Man has a 



244 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

twofold respiration; one of the body, the other of the spirit. 
These two respirations may be separated and they may be con- 
joined; with men merely natural, especially with hypocrites, 
they are separated, but rarely with men who are spiritual and 
sincere. Consequently a merely natural man and hypocrite, 
whose understanding has been elevated, and in whose memory 
therefore various things of wisdom remain, can talk wisely in 
company by thought from the memory; but when not in com- 
pany, he does not think from the memory, but from his spirit, 
thus from his love. He also respires in like manner, inasmuch 
as thought and respiration act correspondently. That the 
structure of the lungs is such that they can respire both by 
blood from the heart and by blood from outside of the heart 
has been shown above. 

418. It is the common opinion that wisdom makes the man; 
therefore when any one is heard to talk and teach wisely he is 
believed to be wise ; yea, he himself believes it at the time, be- 
cause when he talks or teaches in company he thinks from the 
memory, and if he is a merely natural man, from the surface 
of his love, which is a desire for honor, glory, and gain ; but 
when the same man is alone he thinks from the more inward 
love of his spirit, and then not wisely, but sometimes insanely. 
From all this it can be seen that no one is to be judged of by 
wise speaking, but by his life ; that is, not by wise speaking 
separate from life, but by wise speaking conjoined to life. By 
life is meant love. That love is the life has been shown 
above. 

419. (16) Love or the will is purified in the understanding, 
if they are elevated together. From birth man loves nothing 
but self and the world, for nothing else appears before his 
eyes, consequently nothing else occupies his mind. This love is 
corporeal-natural, and may be called material love. Moreover, 
this love has become impure by reason of the separation of 
heavenly love from it in parents. This love could not be sepa- 
rated from its impurity unless man had a power to raise his 
understanding into the light of heaven, and to see how he 



N. 410] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 246 

ought to live in order that his love, as well as his understand- 
ing, may be elevated into wisdom. J)y means of the under- 
standing, love, that is, the man, sees what the evils are that de- 
file and corrupt the love ; he also sees that if he flees from those 
evils as sins and turns away from tliem, he loves the things 
that are opposite to those evils; all of whi(;h are heavenly. 
Then also he perceives the means by which he is enabled to 
flee from and turn away from those evils as sins. This the love, 
that is, the man, sees, by the exercise of his power to elevate 
his understanding into the light of heaven, which is the source 
of wisdom. Then so far as love gives heaven the first jjlace 
and the world the second, and at the same time gives the Lord 
the first place and self the second, so far love is purged of its 
uncleanness and is purified ; in other words, is raised into the 
heat of heaven, and conjoined with the light of heaven in 
which the understanding is ; and the marriage takes place that 
is called the marriage of good and truth, that is, of love and 
wisdom. Any one can comprehend intellectually and see ra- 
tionally, that so far as he flees from and turns away from theft 
and cheating, so far he loves sincerity, rectitude and justice , 
so far as he flees and turns away from revenge and hatred, 
so far he loves the neighbor ; and so far as he flees and turns 
away from adulteries, so far he loves chastity; and so on. And 
yet scarcely any one knows what there is of heaven and the 
Lord in sincerity, rectitude, justice, love towards the neighbor, 
chastity, and other affections of heavenly love, until he has 
removed their opposites. When he has removed the opposites, 
then he is in those affections, and therefrom recognizes and 
sees them. Previously there is a kind of veil interposed, that 
does, indeed, transmit to love the light of heaven ; yet inas- 
much as the love does not in that degree love its consort, wis- 
dom, it does not receive it, yea, may even contradict and rebuke 
it when it returns from its elevation. Still man flatters him- 
self that the wisdom of his understanding may be made ser- 
viceable as a means to honor, glory, or gain. Then man gives 
self and the world the first place, and the Lord and heaven 



246 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

the second, and wliat has the second place is loved only so far 
as it is serviceable, and if it is not serviceable it is disowned 
and rejected; if not before death, then after it. Erom all this 
the truth is now evident, that love or the will is purified in 
the understanding if they are elevated together. 

420. The same thing is imaged in the lungs, whose arteries 
and veins correspond to the affections of love, and whose res- 
pirations correspond to the perceptions and thoughts of the 
understanding, as has been said above. That the heart's blood 
is purified of undigested matters in the lungs, and nourishes 
itself with suitable food from the inhaled air, is evident from 
much observation. (1) That the blood is purified of undigested 
matter in the lungs, is evident not only from the influent 
blood, which is venous, and therefore filled with the chyle col- 
lected from food and drink, but also from the moisture of the 
outgoing breath and from its odor as perceived by others, as 
well as from the diminished quantity of the blood flowing back 
into the left ventricle of the heart. (2) That the blood nour- 
ishes itself with suitable food from the inhaled air is evident 
from the immense volumes of odors and exhalations continu- 
ally flowing forth from fields, gardens, and woods; from the 
immense supply of salts of various kinds in the water that 
rises from the ground and from rivers and ponds, and from the 
immense quantity of exhalations and effluvia from human 
beings and animals with which the air is impregnated. That 
these things flow into the lungs with the inhaled air is un- 
deniable: it is therefore undeniable also that from them the 
blood draws such things as are useful to it; and such things 
are useful as correspond to the affections of its love. For this 
reason there are, in the vesicles or innermost recesses of the 
lungs, little veins in great abundance with tiny mouths 'that 
absorb these suitable matters; consequently, the blood that 
flows back into the left ventricle of the heart is changed into 
arterial blood of brilliant hue. These facts prove that the 
blood purifies itself of heterogeneous things and nourishes 
itself with homogeneous things. That the blood in the lungs 



N. 420] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 247 

purifies and nourishes itself correspondently to the affections 
of the mind is as yet unknown ; but in the spiritual world it is 
very well known, for angels in the heavens find delight only 
in the odors that correspond to the love of their wisdom, while 
the spirits in hell find delight only in the odors that correspond 
to a love opposed to wisdom; these are foul odors, but the 
former are fragrant. It follows that men in the world impreg- 
nate their blood with similar things according to correspond- 
ence with the affections of their love ; for what the spirit of a 
man loves, his blood according to correspondence craves and 
by respiration attracts. From this correspondence it results 
that man as regards his love is purified if he loves wisdom, 
and is defiled if he does not love it. Moreover, all purification 
of man is effected by means of the truths of wisdom, and all 
pollution of man is effected by means of falsities that are 
opposite to the truths of wisdom. 

421. (17) Love or the ivill is defiled in the understanding 
and hij it, if they are not elevated together. This is because 
love, if not elevated, remains impure (as stated above, n. 419, 
420); and while it remains impure it loves what is impure, such 
as revenges, hatreds, deceits, blasphemies, adulteries, for these 
are then its affections that are called lusts, and it rejects what 
belongs to charity, justice, sincerity, truth, and chastity. Love 
is said to be defiled in the understanding, and by it; in the 
understanding, when love is affected by these impure things ; by 
the understanding, when love makes the things of wisdom to 
become its servants, and still more when it perverts, falsifies, 
and adulterates them. Of the corresponding state of the heart, 
or of its blood in the lungs, there is no need to say more than 
has been said above (n. 420), except that instead of the purifi- 
cation of the blood its defilement takes place; and instead of 
the nutrition of the blood by fragrant odors its nutrition is 
effected by stenches, precisely as it is respectively in heaven 
and in hell. 

422. (18) Love, tuhen purified hy ivisdom in the under- 
standing, becomes spiritual and celestial. Man is born natural, 



248 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

but in the measure in Avhich his understanding is raised mto 
the light of heaven, and his love conjointly is raised into the 
heat of heaven, he becomes spiritual and celestial; he then be- 
comes like a garden of Eden, which is at once in vernal light 
and vernal heat. It is not the understanding that becomes 
spiritual and celestial, but the love ; and when the love has so 
become, it makes its consort, the understanding, spiritual and 
celestial. Love becomes spiritual and celestial by a life ac- 
cording to the truths of wisdom which the understanding 
teaches and requires. Love imbibes these truths by means of 
its understanding, and not from itself; for love cannot elevate 
itself unless it knows truths, and these it can learn only by 
means of an elevated and enlightened understanding; and 
then so far as it loves truths in the practice of them so far 
it is elevated; for to understand is one thing and to will is 
another; or to say is one thing and to do is another. There are 
those who understand and talk about the truths of wisdom, 
yet neither will nor practise them. ^Yhen, therefore, love puts 
in practice the truths of light which it understands and 
speaks, it is elevated. This one can see from reason alone; 
for what kind of a man is he who understands the truths of 
wisdom and talks about them while he lives contrary to them, 
that is, while his will and conduct are opposed to them ? 
Love purified by wisdom becomes spiritual and celestial, for 
the reason that man has three degrees of life, called natural, 
spiritual, and celestial (of which in the Third Part of this 
work), and he is capable of elevation from one degree into 
another. Yet he is not elevated by wisdom alone, but by a 
life according to wisdom, for a man's life is his love. Conse- 
quently, so far as his life is according to wisdom, so far he 
loves wisdom ; and his life is so far according to wisdom as he 
purifies himself from uncleannesses, which are sins ; and so far 
as he does this does he love wisdom. 

423. That love purified by the wisdom in the understand- 
ing becomes spiritual and celestial cannot be seen so clearly 
by their correspondence with the heart and lungs, because no 



N. 423] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 249 

one can see the quality of the blood by which the lungs are 
kept in their state of respiration. The blood may abound in 
impurities, and yet not be distinguishable from pure blood. 
Moreover, the respiration of a merely natural man app(3ars the 
same as the respiration of a spiritual man. But the difference 
is clearly discerned in heaven, for there every one respires 
according to the marriage of love and wisdom; therefore as 
angels are recognized according to that marriage, so are they 
recognized according to their respiration. For this reason it 
is that when one who is not in that marriage enters heaven, 
he is seized with anguish in the breast, and struggles for 
breath like a man in the agonies of death; such persons, 
therefore tlu'ow themselves headlong from the place, nor do 
they find rest until they are among those who are in a respi- 
ration similar to their own; for then by correspondence they 
are in similar affection, and therefore in similar thought. 
From all this it can be seen that with the spiritual man it is 
the purer blood, called by some the animal spirit, which is 
purified; and that it is purified so far as the man is in the 
marriage of love and wisdom. It is this purer blood which 
corresponds most nearly to that marriage; and because this 
blood inflows into the blood of the body, it follows that the 
latter blood is also purified by means of it. The reverse is 
true of those in whom love is defiled in the understanding. 
But, as was said, no one can test this by any experiment on 
the blood; but he can by observing the affections of love, 
since these correspond to the blood. 

424. (19) Love, when defiled in the understanding and by 
it, hecomes natural, sensual, and corporeal. Natural love sepa- 
rated from spiritual love is the opposite of spiritual love ; be- 
cause natural love is love of self and of the world, and spirit- 
ual love is love to the Lord and love to the neighbor; and 
love of self and the world looks downward and outward, and 
love to the Lord looks upward and inward. Consequently 
when natural love is separated from spiritual love it cannot 
be elevated above what is man's own, but remains immersed 



250 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

in it, and so far as it loves it, is glued to it. Then if the un- 
derstanding ascends, and sees by the light of heaven such 
things as are of wisdom, this natural love draws down such 
wisdom, and joins her to itself in what is its own; and there 
either rejects the things of wisdom or falsifies them or encir- 
cles itself with them, that it may talk about them for repu- 
tation's sake. As natural love can ascend by degrees and be- 
come spiritual and celestial, in the same way it can descend by 
degrees and become sensual and corporeal, and it does descend 
so far as it loves dominion from no love of use, but solely 
from love of self. It is this love which is called the devil. 
Those who are in this love are able to speak and act in the 
same manner as those who are in spiritual love ; but they do 
this either from memory or from the understanding elevated 
by itself into the light of heaven. Nevertheless, what they 
say and do is comparatively like fruit that appears beautiful 
on the surface but is wholly rotten within; or like almonds 
which from the shell appear sound but are wholly worm-eaten 
within. These things in the spiritual world are called fanta- 
sies, and by means of them harlots, there called sirens, make 
themselves appear handsome, and adorn themselves with beau- 
tiful garments ; but when the fantasy is dissipated the sirens 
appear like ghosts, and are like devils who make themselves 
angels of light. For when that corporeal love draws its un- 
derstanding down from its elevation, as it does when man is 
alone and thinks from his own love, then he thinks against 
God in favor of nature, against heaven in favor of the world, 
and against the truths and goods of the church in favor of the 
falsities and evils of hell; thus against wisdom. From this 
the character of those who are called corporeal men can be 
seen : for they are not corporeal in understanding, but corpo- 
real in love; that is, they are not corporeal in understanding 
when they converse in company, but are so when they hold 
converse with themselves in spirit; and being such in spirit, 
therefore after death they become, both in love and in under- 
standing, spirits that are called corporeal. Those who in the 



N. 424] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 251 

world had been in a supreme love of ruling from the love of 
self, and had also surpassed others in elevation of understand- 
ing, then appear in body like Egyptian mummies, and in mind 
gross and silly. Who in the world at the present day is aware 
that this love in itself is of such a nature? Yet a love of rul- 
ing from love of use is possible, but only from love of use for 
the sake of the common good, not for the sake of self. It is 
difficult, however, for man to distinguish the one love from 
the other, although the difference between them is like that 
between heaven and hell. The differences between these two 
loves of ruling may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell 
(n. 551-565). 

425. (20) The capaeity to understand called rationality^ 
and the capacity to act called freedom, still remain. These two 
capacities belonging to man have been treated of above (n. 
264-267) . Man has these two capacities that he may from being 
natural become spiritual, that is, may be regenerated. For, as 
was said above, it is man's love that becomes spiritual, and 
is regenerated ; and it cannot become spiritual or be regenerated 
unless it knows, by means of its understanding, what evil is 
and what good is, and therefore what truth is and what falsity 
is. When it knows this it can choose either one or the other; 
and if it chooses good it can, by means of its understanding, 
be instructed about the means by which to attain to good. All 
the means by which man is enabled to attain good are provided. 
It is by rationality that man is able to know and understand 
these means, and by freedom that he is able to will and to do 
them. There is also a freedom to will to know, to understand, 
and to think these means. Those who hold from church doctrine 
that things spiritual or theological transcend the understanding, 
and are therefore to be believed apart from the understanding, 
know nothing of these capacities called rationality and freedom. 
These cannot do otherwise than deny that there is a capacity 
called rationality. Those, too, who hold from church doc- 
trine that no one is able to do good from himself, and conse- 
quently that good is not to be done from any will to be saved. 



252 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

cannot do otherwise than deny, from a principle of religion, the 
existence of both these capacities which belong to man. There- 
fore, those who have confirmed themselves in these things, 
after death, in agreement with their faith, are deprived of both 
these capacities; and in place of heavenly freedom, in which 
they might have been, are in infernal freedom, and in place of 
angelic wisdom from rationality, in which they might have 
been, are in infernal insanity ; and what is wonderful, they 
claim that both these capacities have place in doing what is evil 
and thinking what is false, not knowing that the exercise of 
freedom in doing what is evil is slavery, and that the exercise 
of the reason to think what is false is irrational. But it is to 
be carefully noted that these capacities, freedom and rational- 
ity, are neither of them man's, but are of the Lord in man, 
and that they cannot be appropriated to man as his ; nor in- 
deed, can they be given to man as his, but are continually 
of the Lord in man, and yet are never taken away from man ; 
and this because without them man cannot be saved, for with- 
out them he cannot be regenerated (as has been said above). 
Eor this reason man is instructed by the church that from 
himself he can neither think what is true nor do what is good. 
But inasmuch as man perceives no otherwise than that he 
thinks from himself what is true and does from himself what 
is good, it is very evident that he ought to believe that he 
thinks as if from hunself what is true, and does as if from 
himself what is good. For if he does not believe this, either 
he does not think what is true nor do what is good, and there- 
fore has no religion, or he thinks what is true and does what 
is good from himself, and thus ascribes to himself that which 
is Divine. That man ought to think what is true and do good 
as if from himself, may be seen m the Doctrine of Life for the 
New Jerusalem^ from beginning to end. 

426. (21) Spiritual and celestial love is love toward the 
neighbor and love to the Lord ^ and natural and sensual love is 
love of the world and love of self By love toward the neighbor 
is meant the love of uses, and by love to tlie Lord is meant 



N. 426] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 253 

the love of doing uses (as has been shown before). These 
loves are spiritual and celestial, because loving uses and doing 
them from a love of them, is distin(;t fi-oni tlie love of wliat is 
man's own; for whoever loves uses sjjiritually looks not to self, 
but to others outside of self for whose good he is moved. Op- 
posed to these loves are the loves of self and of the world, for 
these look to uses not for the sake of others but for the sake of 
self; and those who do this invert Divine order, and put self 
in the Lord's place, and the world in the place of heaven; as 
a consequence they look backward, away from the Lord and 
away from heaven, and looking backward away from these is 
looking to hell. (More about these loves may be seen above, n. 
424.) Yet man does not feel and perceive the love of perform- 
ing uses for the sake of uses as he feels and perceives the love 
of performing uses for the sake of self; consequently when he 
is performing uses he does not know whether he is doing them 
for the sake of uses or for the 6ake of self. But let him know 
that he is performing uses for the sake of uses in the measure 
in which he flees from evils ; for so far as he flees from evils, 
he performs uses not for himself, but from the Lord. For evil 
and good are opposites ; so far as one is not in evil he is in 
good. No one can be in evil and in good at the same time, 
because no one can serve two masters at the same time. All this 
has been said to show that although man does not sensibly per- 
ceive whether the uses which he performs are for the sake of 
use or for the sake of self, that is, whether the uses are spirit- 
ual or merely natural, still he can know it by this, whether or 
not he considers evils to be sins. If he regards them as sins, 
and for that reason abstains from doing them, the uses which 
he does are spiritual. And when one who does this flees from 
sins from a feeling of aversion, he then begins to have a sen- 
sible perception of the love of uses for the sake of uses, and 
this from spiritual enjoyment in them. 

427. (22) It is the same with charity and faith and their 
conjunction as ivith the will and understanding and their con- 
junction. There are two loves, according to which the heavens 



254 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

are distinct, celestial love and spiritual love. Celestial love is 
love to the Lord, and spiritual love is love towards the neigh- 
bor. These loves are distinguished by this, that celestial love 
is the love of good, and spiritual love the love of truth; for 
those who are in celestial love perform uses from love of good, 
and those in spiritual love from love of truth. The marriage 
of celestial love is with wisdom, and the marriage of spiritual 
love with intelligence; for it is of wisdom to do good from 
good, and it is of intelligence, to do good from truth, conse- 
quently celestial love does what is good, and spiritual love does 
what is true. The difference between these two loves can be 
defined only in this way, that those who are in celestial love 
have wisdom inscribed on their life, and not on the memory, 
for which reason they do not talk about Divine truths, but 
do them; while those who are in spiritual love have wisdom 
inscribed on their memory, therefore they talk about Divine 
truths, and do them from principles in the memory. Because 
those who are in celestial love have wisdom inscribed on their 
life, they perceive instantly whether whatever they hear is true 
or not; and when asked whether it is true, they answer only. 
It is, or It is not. These are they who are meant by the words 
of the Lord : — 

Let your speech be Yea, yea, Nay, nay {Matt. v. 37). 

And because they are such, they are unwilling to hear any 
thing about faith, saying. What is faith? is it not wisdom? 
and what is charity ? is it not doing ? And when told that faith 
is believing what is not understood, they turn away, saymg. 
The man is crazy. These are they who are in the third heaven, 
and who are the wisest of all. Such have they become who in 
the world have applied the Divine truths which they have 
heard immediately to the life by turning away from evils as 
infernal, and worshiping the Lord alone. These, since they are 
in innocence, appear to others as infants ; and since they never 
talk about the truths of wisdom and there is nothing of pride 
in their discourse, they also appear simple. Nevertheless, when 



N. 427] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 255 

they hear any one speaking, they perceive from the tone all 
things of his love, and from the speech all things of his intelli- 
gence. These are they who are in the marriage of love and 
wisdom from the Lord ; and who represent the heart region of 
heaven, mentioned above. 

428. Those, however, who are in spiritual love, which is 
love towards the neighbor, do not have wisdom inscribed on 
their life, but intelligence ; for it is of wisdom to do good from 
affection for good, while it is of intelligence to do good from 
affection for truth (as has been said above). Neither do these 
know what faith is. When faith is mentioned they under- 
stand truth, and when charity is mentioned they understand 
doing the truth ; and when told that they must believe, they 
call it empty talk, and ask. Who does not believe what is 
true? This they say because they see truth in the light of 
their own heaven ; therefore, to believe what they do not see 
they call either simplicity or foolishness. These are they 
who constitute the lung region of heaven, also mentioned 
above. 

429. But those who are in sx^iritual-natural love have nei- 
ther wisdom or intelligence inscribed on their life, but only 
something of faith out of the AVord, so far as this has been 
conjoined with charity. Inasmuch as these do not know what 
charity is, or whether faith be truth, they cannot be among 
those in the heavens who are in wisdom and intelligence, but 
among those who are in knowledge only. Yet such of them as 
have fled from evils as sins are in the outmost heaven, and 
are in a light there like the light of the moon by night ; w^hile 
those who have not confirmed themselves in a faith in what is 
unknown, but have cherished a kind of affection for truth are 
instructed by angels, and according to their reception of truths 
and a life in agreement therev»^ith, are raised into the societies 
of those who are in spiritual love and therefore in intelligence. 
Those become spiritual, the rest becoming spiritual-natural. 
But those who have lived in faith separate from charity are 
removed, and sent away into deserts, because they are not in 



256 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

any good, thns not in any marriage of good and truth, in wMcli 
all are who are in the heavens. 

430. All that has been said of love and wisdom in this 
Part may be said of charity and faith, if by charity spirit- 
ual love is understood, and by faith the truth whereby there 
is intelligence. It is the same whether the terms will and un- 
derstanding, or love and intelligence be used, since the will 
is the receptacle of love, and the understanding of intelli- 
gence. 

431. To this I will add the following notable experience : — 
In heaven all who perform uses from affection for use, because 
of the communion in which they live are wiser and happier 
than others ; and with them performing uses is acting sin- 
cerely, uprightly, justly, and faithfully in the work proper to 
the calling of each. This they call charity ; and observances 
pertaining to worship they call signs of charity, and other 
things they call obligations and favors ; saying that when one 
performs the duties of his calling sincerely, uprightly, justly, 
and faithfully, the good of the commmiity is maintained and 
perpetuated, and that this is to "be in the Lord," because all 
that flows in from the Lord is use, and it flows in from the 
parts into the community, and flows out from the community 
to the parts. The parts there are angels, and the community 
is a society of them. 



432. What man's beginning or primitive form is in the 
womb after conception no one can know, because it cannot be 
seen; moreover, it is made up of spiritual substance, which is 
not visible by natural light. Now because there are some in 
the world who are eager to investigate even the primitive 
form of man, which is seed from the father, from which con- 
ception is effected, and because many of these have fallen into 



N. 432] CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE 257 

the error of thinking that man is in his fulness from his first, 
which is the rudiment, and is afterwards perfected by growth, 
it has been disclosed to me what that rudiment or first is in its 
form. It has been disclosed to me by angels, to whom it was 
revealed by the Lord ; and because they had made it a part of 
their wisdom, and it is the joy of their wisdom to communi- 
cate to others what they know, permission having been granted, 
they presented before my eyes in the light of heaven a type of 
man's initial form, which was as follows : — There appeared as 
it were a tiny image of a brain with a delicate delineation of 
something like a face in front, with no appendage. This primi- 
tive form in the upper convex part was a structure of contigu- 
ous globules or spherules, and each spherule was a joining 
together of those more minute, and each of these in like manner 
of those most minute. It was thus of three degrees. In front, 
in the flat part, a kind of delineation appeared for a face. The 
convex part was covered round about with a very delicate skin 
or membrane which was transparent. The convex part, which 
was a type of the brain in least forms, was also divided into 
two beds, as it were, just as the brain in its larger form is 
divided into hemispheres. It was told me that the right bed 
was the receptacle of love, and the left the receptacle of wis- 
dom; and that by wonderful interweavings these were like 
consorts and partners. It was further shown in the light of 
heaven, which fell brightly on it, that the structure of this 
little brain within, as to position and movement, was in the 
order and form of heaven, and that its outer structure was in 
direct opposition to that order and form. After these things 
were seen and pointed out, the angels said that the two interior 
degrees, which were in the order and form of heaven, were the 
receptacles of love and wisdom from the Lord; and that the 
exterior degree, which was in direct opposition to the order and 
form of heaven, was the receptacle of hellish love and insanity ; 
for the reason that man, by hereditary corruption, is born into 
evils of every kind, and these evils reside there in the outer- 
mosts; and that this corruption is not removed unless the 
17 



258 ANGELIC WISDOM [Part Fifth 

higher degrees are opened, which, as was said, are the recepta- 
cles of love and wisdom from the Lord. And as love and 
wisdom are very man, for love and wisdom in their essence are 
the Lord, and this primitive form of man is a receptacle, it 
follows that in that primitive form there is a continual effort 
towards the human form, which also it gradually assumes. 



INDEX OF SCRIPTURE PASSAGES 



Note, — In this Index : 

Full-faced figures 

Italic figures 

Figures in parentheses 



. 1, 3, designate verses fully quoted. 
.1,3, designate verses given in substance. 
(1, 3), indicate verses merely referred to. 



GENESIS. 

i. S6 287, 358 

S6,S7 11, 18 

ii. 7 383 

7 60 

ix. 4 379 

EXODUS. 

xxxi. 3 383 

LEVITICUS. 

xvii. 14 379 

DEUTERONOMY. 

vi. 5 282 

xxxiv. 9 383 

2 SAMUEL. 

xxiii. 3, 4 233 

PSALMS. 

xxxvii. 6 .... 38 

li. 10 383 

Ixxii. 7 233 

Ixxxix. 15 38 

cxix. 7, 164 38 

ISAIAH. 

ix. 7 38 

xxix. 24 383 

XXX. 26 233 

xxxiii. 5 38 

Ix. SO 233 

JEREMIAH. 

xxiii. 5 38 



EZEKIEL. 

xxviii. (12, 13) 325 

xxxi. (3-9) 325 

xxxvi. 26 383 

xxxvii. 9 383 

DANIEL. 

V. 11, 12,14 383 

HOSEA. 

ii. 19 38 

MATTHEW. 

V. 37 427 

xvii. 1, 2 237 

xxii. 35 282 

37 383 

xxviii. 20 Ill 

JOHN. 

i. 4 38 

V. 26 4 

vi. 63 38, 149 

xi. (25) 4 

xiv. (6) 4 

17 149 

20, (21) 359 

20-24 116 

23 Ill 

XV. (4, 5) 359 

4-6 116 

7 116 

26 149 

xvi. 13 149 

14, (15) 149 

xvii. (23) 359 

XX. 22 383 

APOCALYPSE. 

i. 16 233 

(259) 



INDEX OF WORDS 



DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM 



ABSTRACT. 

Abstract things, being universals, are 
often better comprehended than things 
applied (n. 228j. 

ABUSE. 

Abuse of rationality and freedom 
(n. 267). 

ACONITES. 

Origin of aconites (n. 339). 

ACTS. 

Acts of the body contain in them all 
the prior things from which they exist 
(n. 277, 278). 

ACTION AND REACTION. 

Action derives its esse from love, its 
quality from intelligence (n. 406). In 
life alone there is action; reaction is 
caused by the action of life (n. 68). In 
things greatest and least of the uni- 
verse, both living and dead, there is ac- 
tion and reaction (n. 263). Without 
reaction, action would cease (n. 260). 
The equilibrium of all things is from ac- 
tion and reaction (n. 68, 263). 



ADAM. 

{See n. 287, 325). 
Adam (n. 117, 269). 



Errors respecting 



ADORATION 

And worship flow from softening of 
the heart and humiliation (n. 335). 

AFFECTION. 

Affection a determination of love 
(n. 410). Is of the will, because it is of 
love (n. 372). Arises from Divine Love 



(n. 33). Affection and thought are 
possible only by means of atmospheres 
purer than air (n. 176). From affection 
for knowing springs affection for truth; 
from affection for understanding springs 
perception of truth; and from affection 
for seeing truth springs thought (n. 404). 
Affection is related to thought as the 
tone is to speech (n. 372). Affection is 
not perceived except by something 
pleasant in thinking, speaking, and act- 
ing, which is not noticed (n. 364). Af- 
fection, thought, and action, are in a 
series of discrete degrees (n. 214). Affec- 
tions, which are of love, appear imaged 
forth in the face; and thoughts, which 
are of wisdom, are revealed in a kind of 
sparkle of the eyes (n. 365). Thoughts, 
perceptions and affections axe substances 
and forms, not entities abstracted from 
real and actual substance or form (n. 42); 
are not possible outside of their sub- 
jects, but are states of subjects (n. 209, 
224, 291). All operations of love or the 
will outside of the understanding have 
relation not to affections for truth, but 
to affections for good (n. 404). Affec- 
tions of love correspond to the blood 
(n. 423). See Thought, 

AIR. 

Air is the lowest of the three atmos- 
pheres (n. 176). Its pressure and action 
on the body (n. 176). 

ALL-PROVIDING. 

It can to some extent be seen and 
comprehended how God can be all-pro- 
viding (n. 21). 

ANATOMY. 

Confirmations drawn from the anatomy 
of the brain (n. 366); of the heart (n. 
(261) 



262 



INDEX OF WOKDS 



399); of the embryo (n. 401). Con- 
junction of the heart with the lungs (n. 
403, 408); structure of the lungs (n. 405, 
412); respiration of the lungs (n. 408); 
operations of the heart (n. 410); arteries 
veins, and air vessels (n. 412); purifica- 
tion and nourishment of the blood (n. 
420). {See also n. 365, 373.) 

ANGEL. 

Love and wisdom are what make the 
angel, and these two are the Lord's; 
angels are angels from the Lord, and not 
from what is their own (n. 114). Angels 
equally with men, have an internal and 
an external (n. 87). They breathe, 
speak, and hear in the spiritual world 
just as men do in the natural world (n. 
176). They have each and all things 
that men have on earth (n. 135). They 
appear in the place where their thought 
is (n. 285). All that appears around 
them is produced or created from them 
(n. 322). The angel of heaven and the 
man of the church act as one through 
conjunction (n. 118). How angels speak 
with man (n. 257). The joy of the 
wisdom of angels is to communicate to 
others what they know (n. 432). 

ANGELIC. 

The very angelic state is the recep- 
tion of love and wisdom in equal meas- 
ure (n. 102). The very angelic of 
heaven is Love Divine and Wisdom 
Divine (n. 114). 

ANIMAL KINGDOM. 

Forms of uses in this kingdom (n.316). 
Relation to man in each and all things 
of the animal kingdom (n. 61). 

ANIMALCULES. 

Noxious animalcules, their origin (n. 
341-343). 

ANIMALS. 

Their origin, and how they are pro- 
duced (n. 340, 346, 351). There are in 
them degrees of both kinds (n. 225). 
Marvelous things in their instinct (n. 
60, 61). The knowledge possessed by 



animals implanted in them (n. 134). 
Waves of effluvia continually flow forth 
from animals (n. 293). The animals 
which appear in the spiritual world are 
mere correspondences (n. 339). 

ANTIPODES. 

Those in the hells compared to the 
antipodes (n. 275). 

AORTA. 

{See n. 405, 412, 413, 415). 

APPEARANCES. 

Appearances are the first things out 
of which the human mind forms its un- 
derstanding, and can be shaken off only 
by the exploration of the cause (n. 40). 
So long as appearances remain appear- 
ances they are apparent truths; but 
when they are accepted as real truths 
they become falsities and fallacies (n. 
108). Effect of speaking from appear- 
ances (n. 349). {See also n. 7, 10, 73, 
109, 110, 113, 125, 363). 

APPETITES. 

Appetites are derivations from love 
or the will (n. 363). 

ARCANA. 

Arcana concerning the Lord (n. 221, 
223); the Word (n. 221); the natural 
mind in man (n. 257); the sun of the 
spiritual world (n. 294). 

ARMS. 

In the Word, "arms" signify power 
(n. 220). The right arm has reference 
to the good of truth, the left to the truth 
of good (n. 384, 409). 

ARTERIES. 

Pulsation of the arteries with spirits 
and angels (n. 391). Bronchial and pul- 
monary arteries (n. 405, 407, 412, 413, 
420). Arteries correspond to afi"ections, 
and in the lungs to affections for truth 
(n. 412, 420). 

ASCENSION. 

Threefold ascension of degrees of 
height (n. 235). There are six degrees 



INDEX OF WORDS 



263 



of ascent, — namely, three in the natural, 
and three in the spiritual world (n. 66, 

67). 

ASHUR, ASSYRIA. 

In the Word, "Ashur". or "Assyria" 
signifies the church in respect to intelli- 
gence (n. 325). 

ATHEISTS. 

Those who become atheists (n. 349). 
Their condition in the spiritual world 
(n. 357). 

ATMOSPHERES. 

Atmospheres are receptacles and con- 
tainants of heat and hght (n. 183, 191, 
296, 299). There are atmospheres in 
the spiritual world, just as in the natu- 
ral world, only the former are spiritual, 
while the latter are natural (n. 173, 178). 
Both are divided substances or least 
forms (n. 174). Difference between 
spiritual and natural atmospheres (n. 
175). The atmospheres in both worlds, 
in their outmosts, close into substances 
and matters such as are in the earth 
(n. 302-304). Respiration, speech, and 
hearing are effected by means of a low- 
est atmosphere which is called air; sight 
is possible only by means of an atmos- 
phere purer than air; thought and 
affection are not possible except by 
means of still purer atmosphere (n. 176). 
All things belonging to the bodies of 
spirits and angels are held together in 
connection, form, and order by means 
of atmospheres (n. 152, 176). Atmos- 
pheres are active forces (n. 178). There 
are degrees of both kinds in the atm,os- 
pheres of both worlds (n. 225, 184). 
(See also n. 147, 158, 300, 310). 

AURICLES. 

(See n. 403, 408). 

AUTUMN. 

In the Word, "autumn" signifies the 
decline of the church (n. 73). 

AZYGOS VENA. 
(See n. 405). 



BARK. 

How vegetation is brought about 
through the outer and inner hark (n. 

314). 

BASILISKS. 

Their origin (n. 341). 

BATS. 

Their origin (n. 339). 

BEASTS. 

Why they cannot speak (n. 255). The 
sensual man differs from the beast only 
in this, that he can fill his memory with 
knowledge, and think and speak there- 
from (n. 255). {See also n. 345). 

BEAUTY. 

The beauty of angels is a form of their 
love (n. 358, 411). 

BEES. 

Their wonderful doings (n. 355, 356). 

BELIEVE. 

To believe what is not understood is 
not faith (n. 427). To believe blindly 
the theological things which councils 
and certain leaders of the church have 
decreed, banishes from the sight of man 
everything of religion, that is, every- 
thing spiritual (n. 374). 

BETROTHALS 

Of love, or of the will, with wisdom, 
or the understanding (n. 402). 

BIRD 

Representing the affection of an an- 
gel (n. 344). The spiritual is like a bird 
of paradise (n. 374). Knowledge im~ 
planted in birds (n. 134). Wonderful 
instincts of birds (n. 353). 

BIRTH. 

The state of the animal before birth 
is like the state of the seed in the earth 
while taking root; the state after birth 
until the animal becomes prolific is like 
the growth of the tree until it reaches 
the state of fruit-bearing (n. 316). 



264 



INDEX OF WOEDS 



BLOOD. 

(See n. 370, 380, 401, 405). The af- 
fections of the love correspond to blood 
(n. 423). The blood in the lungs puri- 
fies and nourishes itself correspondently 
to the affections of the mind (n. 420). 
What the spirit of a man loves, his 
blood, according to correspondence, 
craves and attracts by respiration (n. 
420). Why blood, in the Word, is called 
the soul (n. 379). Arterial blood (n. 
420). 

BODY. 

The body of man is the mind's exter- 
nal which feels and acts (n, 369). All 
things of the body are derivatives, that 
is, are things woven together by fibers 
out of first principles, which are recep- 
tacles of love and wisdom (n. 369). All 
things of the body have relation to the 
heart and lungs (n. 372). The life of the 
body depends on the correspondence of 
its pulse and respiration with the pulse 
and respiration of the spirit (n. 390). 
The body is a form corresponding to the 
understanding and will (n. 136). For- 
mation of the body in the womb (n. 
400). The bodies of men can begin and 
continue to exist only under both suns 
(n. 112). The substances which con- 
stitute the cutaneous covering of the 
spiritual body (n. 257, 388). The Lord 
rose again with the whole body, differ- 
ently from any man (n. 221). 

BONES. 

How formed (n. 304). 

BRAIN. 

Its organization (n. 366, 373, 432). 
Injury to the brain (n. 365). The life 
of man in its first principles is in the 
brains, and in its derivatives in the body 
(n. 365). In the brain are substances 
and forms innumerable, in which every 
interior sense which pertains to the un- 
derstanding and will has its seat (n. 
42). The cerebellum is especially the 
organ of the will, and the cerebrum of 
the understanding (n. 384). (5ee also 
n. 367, 370, 409). 



BREADTH. 

In the Word, "breadth" signifies the 
truth of a thing (n. 71). 

BREAST. 

The dwelling-place of the heart and 
lungs (n. 402, 403). 

BREATH. 

Why men believe the soul or spirit 
to be an airy something like breath 
breathed out from the lungs (n. 383). 
The Lord called "the breath of life" 
(n. 383). 

BRONCHIA. 

Ramifications of the bronchia in the 
lungs, correspondence of (n. 405, 412- 
415). 

BUTTERFLIES. 

Metamorphosis of caterpillars into 
butterflies (n. 354). 

CANAAN. 

The state of that land corresponds to 
the state of its inhabitants (n. 345). 

CAPACITIES. 

Man has two capacities for life, from 
one of which he has will, from the 
other understanding (n. 30) Rationality 
and freedom are the two capacities 
from the Lord in man which distin- 
guish him from the beasts (n. 240, 264). 
Use and abuse of these (n. 267). Are 
never taken away; devils have them 
as well as angels (n, 162). 

CARDIAC. 

Cardiac kingdom of the heavens tL-.,t 
where love reigns (n. 381). Represented 
by those who are in the marriage of 
love and wisdom from the Lord (n. 427). 
Cardiac and pulmonic movements in 
the body (n. 391, 392). 

CARTILAGES. 

How formed (n. 304). 

CATERPILLARS. 

Their change into butterflies (n. 354). 



INDEX OF WORDS 



265 



CAUSE. 

A cause alone not possible without 
an end from which and an effect in which 
it is (n. 167). Tlie principal cause not 
perceived in the instrumental cause 
otherwise than as one with it (n. 4). 
Nothing of the real truth about cause 
can become known without a knowledge 
of degrees of both kinds (n. 188). All 
causes are in the spiritual world (n. 119). 
In causes there is nothing essential ex- 
cept the end (n. 197). Causes produce 
effects, not continuously but discretely 
(n. 185). Causes reveal effects (n. 119). 
To know effects from causes is to be 
wise; but to search for causes from effects 
is not to be wise (n. 119). Causes c^n 
be seen rationally yet not clearly ex- 
cept by means of effects (n. 375). See 
End and Effect. 

CELLULAR. 

Cellular substance in the lungs, of 
what it consists (n. 413); its two-fold 
action (n. 413). 

CHANGES. 

Changes of state impossible without a 
substantial form as a subject just as 
sight is impossible without an eye (n. 
273). 

CHARITY. 

Charity is all the work of his calling 
which a man does from the Lord (n. 253); 
is of affection (n. 214). Charity and 
faith are essentials of the church (n. 
253); are substance and form, and not 
abstractions; are not possible outside 
of subjects which are substances, but 
are states of subjects (n. 209). Char- 
ity, faith, and good works are in a series 
of discrete degrees (n. 214). Acting 
sincerely, uprightly, justly, and faith- 
fully in the work proper to the calling 
of each is what the angels call charity 
(n. 431). 

CHURCH. 

Difference between the churches be- 
fore and after the Lord's advent (n.233). 
By a man of the church is meant a man 
in whom the church is (m 118). A man 



of the church is an angel in respect to 
his interiors (n. 118). In the Word, 
times of the day and seasons of the year 
signify states of the church (n. 73). 

CINERITIOUS. 

Cineritious substances in the brain, 
what they are (n. 316). 

CIVIL MATTERS. 

Civil matters are not abstract but are 
substantial; do not exist outside of 
subjects which are substances, but are 
states of subjects (n. 209). 

CLOUDS. 

By "clouds," in the Word, are meant 
spiritual clouds, which are thoughts 
(n. 147). In the spiritual world, thoughts 
from truths appear as shining white 
clouds, but thoughts from falsities as 
black clouds, ib. 

COLORS. 

There are all kinds of colors in the 
spiritual world, of which red and white 
are the fundamental, the rest deriving 
their varieties from these and from their 
opposites, which are a dusky fire color 
and black (n. 380). (See also n. 348). 

COMMUNICATION. 

Communication between the three 
heavens is made only through corre- 
spondences (n. 202). Likewise between 
the natural and spiritual man or mind 
(n. 90, 252). Communication by cor- 
respondences is not sensibly felt (n. 
238); is perceived in the understanding 
only by the fact that truths are seen 
in light; and is perceived in the will 
only by the fact that uses aie performed 
from affection (n. 252). 

COMPOSITES. 

All composites consist of degrees of 
height or discrete degrees (n. 184, 190). 

CONATUS. 

Conatus does nothing of itself, but 
acts through forces corresponding to it, 
thereby producing motion; it is the all 
in forces, and through forces is the all 



266 



INDEX OF WOEDS 



in motion (n. 218). In earths there is 
a conatus to produce uses in forms (n. 
310-312). Within every thing spiritual 
there is a conatus to clothe itself with 
a body (n. 343). Living conatus in 
man is his will united to his understand- 
ing (n. 219). See Force and Motion. 

CONCEPTION. 

Conception of a man from his father 
is not a conception of life (n. 6). 

CONCLUSION 

Pertains to both love and wisdom 
(n 363). 

CONFIRM. 

The natural man is able to confirm 
whatever he wishes. Evils and falsities 
of every kind can be confirmed (n. 267). 
When confirmed in man they are per- 
manent, and come to be of his love and 
life (n. 268). 

CONFIRMATIONS. 

Confirmation in favor of the Divine 
from the wonderful things in nature 
(n. 351-356). Every one should be- 
ware of confirmations in favor of nature 
(n. 357). Confirming evil and falsity is 
a closing up of heaven (n. 268). 

CONJUNCTION. 

That there may be conjunction there 
must be reciprocation (n. 48, 115, 410). 
Conjunction of the Lord with an angel 
fn. 115). Of the spirit with the body 
(n. 390). Of the will and understand- 
ing; of charity and faith; of love and 
wisdom (n. 371-431). The conjunction of 
love and wisdom can be seen efiigied in 
the conjunction of the lungs and the 
heart (n. 415). Their conjunction by 
correspondence is of such a nature that 
as one acts so does the other (n. 405). 

CONSENT 

Pertains to both love and wisdom 
(n. 363). 

CONTIGUITY. 

By contiguity, not by continuity, can 
anything created be conjoined to tlie 
Lord Cn. 56). 



CONTINUITY. 

Influx is effected not by continuity 
but by correspondence (n. 88). What is 
continuous from God is God (n. 55). 

CONTRACTION. 

Contraction of the spiritual degree is 
like the twisting back of a spiral in the 
opposite direction (n. 254). 

CORPOREAL. 

Corporeal men and spirits, what they 
are (n. 424). 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

There is correspondence of spiritual 
things with natural, and thereby con- 
junction (n. 374). There is nothing 
in the universe which has not correspond- 
ence with something in man, not only 
with his affections and their thoughts, 
but also with his bodily organs and vis- 
cera; not with these as substances, but 
as uses (n. 324). Things that corre- 
spond act in a like manner, except that 
one is natural and the other spiritual 
(n. 399). The chief correspondences 
enumerated (n. 377). 

CORTICAL. 

The cortical substance of the brain, 
what it is (n. 366, 373). 

COVERING. 

Every discrete degree is made dis- 
tinct from the others by coverings of 
its own, and all the degrees together 
are made distinct by means of a general 
covering, which communicates with 
interiors and inmosts (n. 194). Cuta- 
neous covering of the spiritual body, 
what composes it (n. 257, 388). How 
vegetation is effected through its cov- 
erings (n. 314). 

CREATION. 

Everything has been created for 
man as its end (n. 170). In every thing 
created there are these three, end, cause, 
and effect (n. 154). To be "created 
into the image and likeness of God" is 
to be created into the form of love and 
wisdom (n. 287, 358). Creation of the 



INDEX OF WORDS 



267 



universe (n. 52-60, 151-156, 163-172); 
was not wrought from space to space, 
nor from time to time (n. 156); is 
brought within conception if space and 
time are removed from the thouglit 
(n. 155). The end of creation is that 
all things may return to tlie Creator, 
and that there may be conjunction (n. 
167-172). The end of the creation of 
the universe is the existence of the an- 
gelic heaven from the human race (n. 
329). In all forms of uses there is an 
image of creation (n. 313-316). 

CROCODILES. 

Whence they originated (n. 339, 341). 

DAYS. 

In the Word "days" signify states 
(n. 73). 

DEAD. 

Everything which derives its origin 
from the sun of the natural world is 
dead (n. 157). What is dead does not 
act at all from itself, but is acted upon 
(n. 157). He is said to be dead whose 
mind is a hell (n. 276). 

DEATH. 

When death of the body takes place 
(n. 390). What man becomes when 
he dies (n. 90). 

DECREASE. 

Decrease of spiritual heat and light 
is effected by degrees (n. 94, 186). In 
heaven, and in each society of heaven, 
light decreases from the middle to the 
outskirts (n. 253). 

DEGREES. 

Degrees are of a twofold kind, de- 
grees of height or discrete degrees, and 
degrees of breadth or continuous de- 
grees (n. 184-188). Lessenings or de- 
creasings from grosser to finer, or rather 
growths and increasings from finer to 
grosser, are called continuous degrees. 
Discrete degrees are entirely different, 
they are like end, cause, and effect (n. 
184). {See also n. 65-68). 



DELUSIONS. 

Delusions in tlie spiritual world (n. 

424). 

DENIAL. 

The denial of God, and in the Chris- 
tian world, the denial of the Divinity of 
the Lord, constitutes hell (n. 13). 

DERIVATIVES. 

All things of the body are derivatives, 
that is, are things woven together by 
means of fibers out of first principles, 
which are receptacles of love and wis- 
dom (n. 369). The will and under- 
standing are in their derivatives in the 
body (n. 365, 387). Wherever first 
principles go, their derivatives follow and 
cannot be separated (n. 369). 

DESIRES. 

Desires are derivatives from love 
(n. 363). 

DETERMINATION. 

Determination to action pertains to 
both love and wisdom (n. 363). 

DEVIL. 

The love of ruling from the love of self 
is called the " devil, " a.nd the affections 
of the false, with the thoughts arising 
out of that love, are called his "crew" 
(n. 273, 424). See Satan. 

DIAPHRAGM. 

Its relations to the lungs (n. 384, 402, 
403, 408). 

DIASTOLE. 
See &YSTOLE. 

DIFFERENCE. 

Difference between heat and light 
in the spiritual world, and heat and 
fight in the natural world (n. 89). Be- 
tween angels and men (n. 112). Be- 
tween in itself and from itself (n. 76). 
Between spiritual and natural atmos- 
pheres (n. 175). How the three heav- 
ens differ (n. 202). Difference between 
the life of a natural man and the life 
of a beast (n. 255). Between natu- 



268 



INDEX OF WORDS 



ral an4 spiritual, and between the 
thoughts of angels and those of men 
(n. 294, 295); between celestial love 
and spiritual love (n. 427); between 
spiritual and natural speech (n. 70, 295). 

DISCRETE. 

To act by what is discrete is to act 
by correspondences (n. 219). 

DISTANCE. 

Interior thought does not cause dis- 
tance, but exterior thought, which acts 
as one with the sight of the eyes (n. 130). 
Distances in the spiritual world are ap- 
pearances (n. 108-112, 113, 124); they 
are appearances according to spiritual 
affinities which are of love and wisdom, 
that is, of good and truth (n. 7, 10). 
What natural distance is (n. 41). 

DISTINCTLY ONE. 

Esse and Existere in God-Man are 
one distinctly (n. 14-16, 34). Likewise 
infinite things in God-Man (n. 17-22). 
So also end, cause, and effect (n. 169). 
Why they are said to be one distinctly 
(n. 14). 

DIVERSITY. 

Diversity in created things springs 
from this, that there are infinite things 
in God-Man, consequently things with- 
out limit in the spiritual sun (n. 155). 

DIVINE. 

The Divine is one and indivisible 
(n. 4). Apart from space it fills all the 
spaces of the universe (n. 69-72). It is 
in all time apart from time (n. 73-76). 
It is the same in things greatest and 
least (n. 77-82). It is in each and all 
things of the created universe (n. 59, 
60). It is not in one subject differently 
from what it is in another, but one cre- 
ated subject differs from another (n. 54). 
It is not varying and changeable, con- 
sequently is the same everywhere and 
always (n. 77). See God. 

BODY. 

The Divine Body of God-Man is 
meant by Divine Existere (n. 14). 



ESSE AND EXISTERE. 

Love and wisdom, taken together, are 
Divine Esse; but taken distinctly, love 
is called Divine Esse, and wisdom Di- 
vine Existere (n. 34). 

DIVINE ESSENCE. 

Divine Essence, which is the Creator, 
is Divine Love and Divine Wisdom 
(n. 33). It is one (n. 35). 

DIVINE LIFE 

Is the Divine Essence, and is one 
(n. 35). 

DIVINE LOVE AND DIVINE WIS- 
DOM. 
(.See Contents, Parts I. and II.). 

DIVINE SOUL. 

The Divine Soul of God-Man is meant 
by the Divine Esse (n. 14). 

DIVINE TRUTH. 

The Lord made Himself Divine Truth 
in ultimates by fulfilling all things of 
the Word concerning Himself in Moses 
and the Prophets (n. 221). 

DIVINUM A QUO. 

{The Divine from which). — In the 
trinity is called "the Father" (n. 146). - 

DUST. 

Damned dust, what it is (n. 341). 

DWELLING-PLACES. 

Dwelling-places of the Lord in man 
(n. 170, 395). Of angels and spirits 
are according to their reception of love 
and wisdom (n. 121). An angel, unlike 
man in the world, knows his own house 
and his own dwelling-place wherever he 
may go (n. 134). 

EAR. 

The appearance is that the ear hears, 
but the understanding hears through 
the ear (n. 363). From sensation man 
knows nothing of the numberless things 
in the ears (n. 22). The more interiorly 
the ear is looked into the more do won- 
ders present themselves and they are 



INDEX OF WORDS 



269 



interiorly more perfect according to dis- 
crete degrees (n. 201). 

EARTHS. 

Earths are the passive forces from 
which all effects have existence (n. 178). 
In earths there is a conatus to produce 
uses in forms, that is, forms of uses 
(n. 310-312). The first production from 
these earths, while they were still new, 
was the production of seeds (n. 312). 
Origin of earths (n. 302-30G). In the 
spiritual world there are earths, but 
they are spiritual (n. 173-178). 

EAST. 

The east in the spiritual world is 
where the Lord appears as a Sun, and 
from that the other quarters are deter- 
mined (n. 119-123). At every turn of 
their bodies the angels have the east 
before their faces (n. 105). In the 
Word, the "east," in the highest sense, 
signifies the Lord, and in a relative sense 
love to Him (n. 121, 122). In the spir- 
itual world those who are in a higher 
degree of love dwell in the east (n. 121). 

EDEN. 

The "Garden of Eden" describes man 
in regard to wisdom and intelligence 
(n. 325, 422). 

EFFECT. 

An e/feci alone, that is, an ejfect with- 
out a cause and its end, is impossible 
(n. 167). The eifect is the complex, 
containant, and base of causes and ends 
(n. 212). Every eifect is the fulness of 
causes (n. 217). From effects nothing 
but effects can be learned, and when they 
alone are considered no cause is brought 
to light (n. 119). Effects can only ap- 
pear as it were in the darkness of night, 
unless the causes of the effects are seen 
at the same time (n. 107). To know 
effects from causes is to be wise, but to 
search out causes from effects is not to 
be wise (n. 119). To see from effects 
only is to see from fallacies (n. 187). All 
effects which are called last ends, be- 
come anew first ends in an uninterrupted 
succession from the»First (n. 172). {See 
also n. 168, 256, 257). 



EFFLUVIA. 

A wave of effluvia is constantly flow- 
ing forth out of every object in nature 
(n. 293). Effects which these effluvia 
have on the blood (n. 420). 

EGGS. 

Propagation by seeds in the egg (n. 
342, 347, 351). 

ELEVATION. 

Elevation of man into the heat and 
light of heaven (n. 138, 256, 258, 422). 

END. 

An end alone without a cause and an 
effect is impossible (n. 167). The end 
begets the cause, and through the cause 
the effect (n. 189, 241). The end is the 
all of the cause, and also the all of the 
effect (n. 168, 197). There is a first 
end, middle end, and last end, or end, 
cause, and effect (n. 167, 197). Last 
ends become anew first ends in unin- 
terrupted succession (n. 172). The end 
of creation is, that all things may re- 
turn to the Creator and that there may 
be conjunction (n. 167-172, 329, 330). 
The ends of the whole creation were 
uses (n. 314). The end qualifies the 
means (n. 261). See Cause and Effect. 

ENJOYMENTS. 

Enjoyments of man's life are from 
the affections of his love; and pleasant- 
nesses are from the thoughts therefrom 
(n. 33). Enjoyments felt in the acts 
and deeds which are from any one's 
love are enjoyments of uses (n. 316). 
Enjoyments are derivatives from love 
(n. 363). 

ENLIGHTENMENT. 

All enlightenment is from the Lord 
alone (n. 150). Why enlightenm.ent is 
said to be effected by the Spirit of Jeho- 
vah (n. 100). The enlightenm,ent of 
the natural mind does not ascend by 
discrete degrees, but increases in a con- 
tinuous degree (n. 256). Before the 
coming of the Lord, the enlightenm,ent 
of men was mediate, but after His com- 
ing it was made immediate (n. 233). 



270 



INDEX OF WOEDS 



ENTITY. 

Imaginary entities (n. 43, 210). 

EPIGLOTTIS. 

(n. 382). 

EQUILIBRIUM. 

The equilibrium of all things is from 
action and simultaneous reaction (n. 
68, 263). Everything must be in equi- 
librium (n. 68). Equilibrium, is de- 
stroyed when action overcomes action, 
or the reverse (n. 263). 

ESSE. 

Esse is substance, and Existere is form 
(n. 43); see 15. Esse is not Esse unless 
it Exists (n. 15). Esse in itself is life 
itself (n. 76). By Divine Esse is meant 
the Divine Soul of God-Man (n. 14). 

ESSENCE. 

The essence of all love consists in con- 
junction (n. 47). The essence of spirit- 
ual love is doing good to others, not for 
the sake of self, but for the sake of 
others (n. 335). 



ETERNITY. 

What is eternity for the 



s (n. 76). 



ETHER 

(n. 176, 183, 223, 374). See Atmos- 
phere. 

EVIL. 

The origin of evil is from the abuse of 
man's rationality and freedom (n, 264- 
270). Evils and falsities confirmed with 
man are permanent, and come to be of 
his love and life (n. 268). All evils 
and their falsities, both engendered and 
acquired, have their seat in the natural 
mind (n. 270). Evils and falsities are 
in complete opposition to goods and 
truths (n. 271). See Hereditary. 

EXHALATIONS. 

Effect of exhalations upon the blood 
(n. 420). 

EXINANITTON. 

State of exinanition of the Lord,(n. 
234). 



EXISTERE. 

Existere is where Esse is, one is not 
possible apart from the other (n. 14). 
That which exists from Esse makes one 
with Esse (n. 15). 

EXTERIORS. 

The exteriors of the mind act as one 
with the exteriors of the body (n. 136). 

EXTERNALS. 

All the externals of the angels are cor- 
respondences of internals, but the corre- 
spondences are spiritual, not natural 

(n. 87). 

EYE. 

It is according to appearance that the 
eye sees; but it is the understanding 
that sees through the eye (n. 363). From 
sensation man knows nothing of the 
numberless things in his eyes (n. 22). 
The more interiorly the eyes are looked 
into the more do wonders increase. 
They are more perfect interiorly accord- 
ing to discrete degrees (n. 201). The 
eyes of man and the eyes of angels are 
formed for the proper reception of their 
own light (n. 91). 

FACES. 

Their infinite variety (n. 318). Faces 
of angels turned constantly towards the 
sun in the east (n. 129). 

FAITH. 

Faith in its essence is truth (n. 253, 
429). Faith is of thought (n. 214). 
See Charity. 

FALLACIES. 

Fallacies which prevail with the evil 
and with the simple arise from appear- 
ances confirmed (n. 108). 

FALSE. 
See Evil. 

FETUS. 

State of the fetus in the womb (n. 399, 
401, 402, 407, 410, 432). 



INDEX OF WOltDS 



271 



FIBERS. 

Where the origin of the fibers is, there 
is the origin of life (n. 305, 3GG). Action 
of fibers (n. 3GG; see also n. 207, 254, 367, 
3G9, 370, 400). Motor fibers (n. 190, 
192, 207, 215, 254, 277). Nervous fibers 
(n. 190, 192). 

FIBRILS. 

Their multitude compared to the 
multitude of rays going forth from the 
stars (n. 366). 

FIBRILLARY. 

Fibrillary substance of the brain (n. 
366). 

FINITE. 

The finite can exist only from the In- 
finite (n. 44). 

FIRE. 

Fire is dead and the solar fire is death 
itself (n. 89). The difference between 
spiritual fire, which is Divine Love, and 
natural fire, is like the difference be- 
tween what is alive and what is dead 
(n. 93). How the fire of the spiritual 
sun is adapted to angels in heaven by 
spiritual atmospheres, and in like man- 
ner the fire of the natural sun is adapted 
to men (n. 174). "Fire" in the Word, 
signifies love (n. 87); also the Lord as 
to Divine Love (n. 98). 

FIGMENTS. 

Mere figments of reason (n. 43, 210). 

FIRSTS. 

The first principles or firsts of life are 
in the brains (n. 365). By life in first 
principles is meant will and understand- 
ing (n. 365). First things are each and 
all things of the animal kingdom(n. 65). 

FLIES. 

Their origin (n. 338, 339). 

FLOW-IN. 

Everything that flows in through 
the spiritual mind is from heaven, while 
everything that flows into the natural 
mind is from the world (n. 261). All 



I inflowino is perceived and felt according 
to recipient forms and their states 
(n. 275). 

FLOWERS. 

They are more perfect interiorly 
according to discrete degrees (n. 201). 
A wave of effluvia constantly flows 
forth out of flowers (n. 293). 

FOOLISH. 

In the Word, he that doeth not is 
called foolish (n. 220). 



FOLKES. 

President of the 
(n. 344). 



Royal Society 



FORCE. 

Force is conatus made active; it is 
produced by conatus, and produces mo- 
tion (n. 218). Living forces in man are 
the interior constituents of his body 
(n. 219). It is contrary to order for 
dead force to act on living force (n. 166). 
Perfection of forces (n. 200). Active, 
mediate, and passive forces (n. 178). 
{See 311, 340, 344, 392). 

FOREHEAD. 

Contracted when man exerts the mind 
and thinks (n. 365). 

FORM. 

Form in itself is Divine V/isdom (n. 
44-46). The substantial form of the 
natural mind (n. 273). The human form, 
is nothing else than the form of all the 
affections of love (n. 411). The begin- 
ning or primitive form of man (n. 432). 
Material/orTw of man (n. 388). Form 
of the will (n. 410). Form,s of vegeta- 
bles and animals, what produces them 
(n. 340). Origin of the forms of man's 
members, etc. (n. 370). Every spiritual 
form is like itself in what is greatest and 
what is least (n. 273, 275). What 
causes forms in the natural world to be 
fixed and enduring (n. 340). Forms 
are the containants of uses (n. 46). 
Forms of uses (n. 307-318). The form 
varies according to the excellence of the 
use (n. -80). There is no substance 



272 



INDEX OF WOEDS 



without form (n. 209, 223, 229). Sub- 
stance and form (n. 41). 

FORMATION. 

Formation of the body in the womb 
(n. 400). 

FOUNTAINS. 

The fountains of all things of man's 
life are the Divine Love and Divine 
Wisdom (n. 33). 

FOXES. 

Their origin (n. 339). 

FREEDOM. 

Freedom is the ability to do what is 
good and true. It is a capacity of the 
will (n. 240, 264, 425). By virtue of 
freedom and rationality man is man, 
and is distinguished from beasts (n. 240, 
264). These capacities are not man's, 
but are the Lord's in man (n. 116, 425). 
They are never taken away; they are 
with every man, good and evil alike 
(n. 162, 240, 247, 266, 425). The use 
and abuse of these capacities (n. 267). 
Freedom in doing what is evil is slavery 
(n. 425). 

FROGS. 

Their origin (n. 339, 345). 

FRUITS 

Are more perfect interiorly according 
to discrete degrees (n. 201). A wave 
of effluvia emanates unceasingly from 
fruits (n. 293). 

FULNESS. 

What it is to be in fulness (n. 217, 
221). 

GIFTS. 

In the heavens all the necessaries of 
life are free gifts (n. 334). 

GLANDULAR SUBSTANCES. 

Glandular substance of the brain, in 
what it consists (n. 366). 

GLOBE. 

The terraqueous globe is as a kind of 
base and support (n. 105, 100). 



GLORIFICATION. 

Glorification of the Lord (n. 234)^ 
Described (n. 221). 

GLORY. 

A glory surrounds each love like the 
brightness of fire (n. 266). The Lord 
is to be adored, worshiped, and glorified, 
not for His own glory, but for man's 
sake (n. 335). 

GOD. 

God is Love itself because He is Life 
itself (n. 4-6). He is not in space (n. 7- 
10, 21). He is very Man (n. 11-13, 16, 
97). Existing not from Himself, but 
in Himself (n. 16). All things of the 
created universe, viewed in reference to 
uses, represent man in an image, and 
this proves that God is Man (n. 319- 
326). God by virtue of His own essence 
is called "Jehovah" (n. 100). God 
alone is Substance in itself, and there- 
fore Esse itself (n. 283). In God we 
live, move, and have our being (n. 301). 
See Jehovah and Lokd; see also the 
Contents, Part I. 

GOD-MAN. 

The God-Man has a body and every- 
thing pertaining to body (n. 18). From 
these come all like things in man (n. 22). 
All things from the one God-Man (n. 23- 

27). 

GOOD. 

Everything that proceeds from love 
is called good (n. 31). All good things 
that have existence in act are called 
uses (n. 336). All good is of love (n. 84, 
402, 406); of spiritual heat (n. 253); is 
from the Lord and nothing of good is 
from man (n. 394). The whole power 
of good is by means of truth (n. 406). 
Good acts in truth, thus by means of 
truth (n. 406). 

GRANDFATHERS. 

Hereditary evils are from the father, 
thus from grandfathers and great-grand- 
fathers, successively transmitted to off- 
spring (n. 269). 



INDEX OF WORDS 



273 



GREATEST. 

The Divine in things greatest and 
least is the same (n. 77-82). Tlie great- 
eat things in which there are degrees 
of both kinds (n. 225). 

GYRATION. 

Gyration from right to left tends 
downward, from left to right, upward. 
Follows the flow of the interiors (n, 270). 

HANDS. 

In the Word, "hands" signify power, 
and the "right hand" superior power 
(n. 220). The "work of the hands of 
Jehovah" means the work of the Di- 
vine Love and the Divine Wisdom 
(n. 59). Why inductions into the min- 
istry are performed by the laying on of 
/lands (n. 220). 

HEAD. 

The head rules the body under it at 
will, for the understanding and will have 
their seat in the head (n. 25). Those 
in hell appear head downward and feet 
upward (n, 275). Several heads on one 
body (n. 24). 

HEARING 

Is predicated of attention and giving 
heed, which pertain to the understand- 
ing (n. 363). Hearing is effected by 
means of the lowest atmosphere called 
air (n, 176). Hearing is in the ear, and 
not in the place where the sound origi- 
nates, and is an affecting of the sub- 
stance and form of the ear. Does not 
go out from the ear to catch the sound, 
but the sound enters the ear and affects 
it. It is not something volatile flow- 
ing from its organ, but is the organ con- 
sidered in its substance and form 
(n. 41), Communicates immediately 
through fibers with the brains, and de- 
rives therefrom its sensitive and active 
life (n. 365). See Sense. 

HEART. 

The heart and the lungs are life's two 
fountains of motion (n. 291). So long 
as the heart is moved, love with its vital 
18 



heat remains and preserves life (n. 390). 
Tiie heart is more perfect interiorly 
according to discrete degrees (n. 201). 
Tlie will corresponds to the heart (n. 378). 
The heart corresponds to love or good 
(n. 402). In the Word, "heart" signi- 
fies the love of the will (n. 383). 

HEAT. 

The heat which goes forth from the 
spiritual sun in its essence is love (n. 
5, 32, 363). The first proceeding of love 
is heat (n. 95). In the spiritual world 
there is continuous heat (n. 161). The 
heat of the spiritual world in itself is 
alive, but the heat of the natural world 
in itself is dead (n. 89). The heat of the 
natural world can be vivified by the 
influx of heavenly heat (n. 88). Heat 
has existence not in love itself, but from 
love in the will and thence in the body 
(n. 95). Spiritual heat is the good of 
charity (n. 83, 84). It is obtained by 
shunning evils as sins (n. 246). Vital 
heat, its origin (n. 379). Heat corre- 
sponds to love (n. 32). See also Con- 
tents, Part II. 

HEAVEN. 

The whole heaven, and all things 
therein, look to one God (n. 25, 26). 
The whole heaven in the aggregate re- 
sembles a single man (n. 288, 381). 
Heaven is divided into regions and 
provinces according to the members, 
viscera, and organs of man (n. 288). 
There are three heavens arranged ac- 
cording to discrete degrees (n. 202, 275). 
The heavens are divided into two king- 
doms, the celestial and the spiritual 
(n. 381). 

HEIGHTS. 

In the Word, "height" signifies de- 
grees of good and truth (n. 71). The 
sun in the spiritual world appears in a 
middle altitude, why (n. 105). 

HELL. 

There are three hells, and they are 
distinct according to three degrees of 
height or depth opposite to the three 
heavens (n. 275). The hells are not dis- 



274 



INDEX OF WORDS 



tant from men, but are about them, 
yea, within those who are evil (n. 343). 
iSee also n. 339, 341.) 

HEMISPHERES. 

Hemispheres of the brain, why there 
are two (n. 384, 409). The right is the 
receptacle of love, the left of wisdom 
(n. 432). 

HERBS. 

Poisonous herbs, etc., their origin 
(n. 338, 339, 341). 

HEREDITARY EVILS. 

Hereditary evils are from fathers, ■ 
thus from grandfathers and great-grand- 
fathers successively transmitted to off- 
spring (n. 269). Hereditary corruption 
is not removed unless the higher degrees 
are opened, which are the receptacles of 
love and wisdom from the Lord (n. 432), 

HERESY. 

An abominable heresy (n. 130). 
Every heresy is confirmed by its ad- 
herents (n. 267). 

HIGHER. 

In the Word, "higher" signifies inner 
(n. 206). It is according to order for 
the higher to act upon the lower, and 
not the reverse (n. 365). "The Most 
High" signifies the inmost (n. 103). 
The highest of successive order becomes 
the innermost of simultaneous order 
(n. 206). 

HOURS. 

"Hours," in the Word, signify states 
(n. 73). 

HOUSE. 

By the house of the will is meant the 
whole man (n. 408). 

HUMAN DIVINE. 

(n. 11, 12, 233.) In the trinity is 
called "the Son" (n, 146). The Human 
Divine is the inmost in every created 
thing (n. 285). The two Humans of 
the Lord (n. 221). 



HUMILIATION. 

Adoration and worship flow forth 
from humiliation (n. 335). 

IDEAS. 

Spiritual and natural ideas (n. 7, 294, 
306). Spiritual idea derives nothing 
from space, but it derives its all from 
state. In natural idea there is space, 
for it is formed out of such things as are 
in the world (n. 7). Natural and spir- 
itual ideas differ according to degrees 
of height (n. 294). In all the heavens 
there is no other idea of God than that 
He is a Man, which is the same as the 
idea of a Human Divine (n. 11). Every 
nation in the spiritual world has its 
place allotted in accordance with its 
idea of God as a Man (n. 13). Ideas of 
thought (n. 1, 69, 71, 223, 224). In the 
natural world man forms the ideas of 
his thought, and thereby his under- 
standing from space and time (n. 69). 

IGNORANCE. 

Ignorance of the man of the church 
of what love and wisdom are (n. 188). 

IMAGE. 

The created universe, viewed as to 
uses, is the image of God (n. 298, 64). 
Things created repeat in an image things 
that are in the Lord (n. 223). In all 
forms of uses there is a kind of image of 
creation (n. 313); and an image of man 
(n. 317); and of the Infinite and the 
Eternal (n. 318). All things of the cre- 
ated universe, viewed in reference to 
uses, represent man in an image (n. 319). 
The natural mind that is in evils and in 
falsities therefrom is a form and image 
of hell (n. 273). Countless things in the 
spiritual sun come into existence, as in 
an image in the created universe (n.l55). 
In Genesis, by the "image of God" is 
meant the Divine Wisdom (n. 358). 

IMPURE. 

Impure things of the will in the un- 
derstanding (n. 421). 

INFINITE. 

God is infinite, not only because He is 
very Esse and Existere in itself, but be- 



INDEX OF WORDS 



275 



cause in Him there are infinite things 
(n, 17). An infinite without infinite 
things in it is infinite in name only (ib). 
The infinite things in God-Man appear 
in heaven, in angel, and in man as in a 
mirror (n. 19, 21). In God-Man infinite 
things are one distinctly (n. 17-22). 

INFLUX. 

Influx is effected by correspondences, 
and it cannot be effected by continuity 
(n. 88). There is an unceasing influx 
out of the spiritual world into the natu- 
ral (n. 340). No physical influx into 
the spiritual operations of the soul is 
possible (n. 166). There are two forms 
into which the operation by influx takes 
place, the vegetable and the animal form 
(n. 346). Influx of light into the three 
degrees of life in man that belong to his 
mind (n. 245). Mediate and immediate 
influx (n. 233), 

INNERMOST. 

The innermost of simultaneous order 
is the highest of successive order (n. 
•206). 

INSECTS. 

(n. 62, 341, 342). Noxious insects, 
whence their origin (n. 339, 342). Won- 
derful things presented by the smallest 
insects (n. 352, 373). 

INTELLIGENCE. 

It is of intelligence to do good from 
affection for truth (n. 427, 428). Those 
who are in spiritual love have intelli- 
gence inscribed on their life (n. 428). 
To think from causes is of intelligence 
(n. 202). 

INTENTION. 

The thought of the will is called in- 
tention (n. 215). 

INTERIORS. 

The interiors of the body correspond 
to its exteriors, through which actions 
come forth (n. 219). The interiors which 
are not open to view can in no way 
be discovered except through a knowl- 
edge of degrees (n. 184). Interiors when 



opened, interiors when closed (n. 138). 
Interiors of the mind make one with 
interiors of the body (n. 137). 

INTERNALS. 

See Externals. 

JEHOVAH. 

Jehovah is Esse itself, uncreate and 
infinite (n. 4). God the Creator of the 
universe is called "Jehovah," which is 
from the verb to be, because He alone 
is (n. 282, 100, 151). In the New Tes- 
tament, Jehovah is called "the Lord" 
(n. 282). 

JUDGE. 

Why it is said in the Word that "man 
shall be judged according to his deeds" 
(n. 281). 

JUDGMENT. 

By "righteousness and judgment," 
in the Word, are meant Divine Love 
and Divine Wisdom (n. 38). See Last 
Judgment, 

KIDNEYS ETC. 

Why there are two (n. 384, 409). 
Wonderful things and interior perfec- 
tions of kidneys (n, 201). 

KINGDOMS. 

Two kingdom,s in the heavens, the 
celestial and the spiritual (n. 101, 232, 
381). The celestial kingdom, is called 
heaven's cardiac kingdom, and the spir- 
itual is called heaven's pulmonic king- 
dom (n. 381). To these is added a 
third, wherein are men in the world, and 
this is the natural kingdom, (n. 232). 
Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal king- 
doms (n. 61, 65, 313-316). 

LANGUAGE OR SPEECH. 

Speech is from the thought (n. 26). It 
is effected by means of a lowest atmos- 
phere which is called air (n. 176). Spirit- 
ual speech has nothing in common with 
natural speech (n. 163). There is no 
word of spiritual language the same as 
any word of natural language (n. 295). 
Natural and spiritual speech commimi- 



276 



INDEX OF WORDS 



cate only by correspondence (n. 306). 
Angelic speech (n. 26, 295). 

LAST JUDGMENT. 

Errors concerning it (n. 386). See 
Judgment. 

LEFT. 

In the angel and in the man all the 
left parts correspond to wisdom from 
love, or to truth from good (n. 127, 384, 
409). 

LENGTH. 

"Length," in the Word, signifies the 
good of a thing (n. 71). 

LICE. 

Their origin (n. 338, 339, 342, 345) 

LIFE. 

Esse itself is called "Jehovah, " and 
Life itself, or Lije in itself (n. 4, 76). 
Life is the Divine Essence (n. 35). God 
alone is Life, and His lije is Divine Love 
and Divine Wisdom (n. 363, 400). Man's 
very lije is love or will (n. 1, 2, 3, 399). 
Love and wisdom and will and under- 
standing therefrom, make the very 
lije of man (n. 363). The lije of man 
in its first principles is in the brains, 
and in its derivatives in the body (n. 
365). Such as lije is in its first princi- 
ples such it is in the whole and in every 
part (n. 366). By means of first prin- 
ciples lije is in the whole from every 
part, and in every part from the whole 
(n. 367). Lije acts into the natural 
according to any induced change of 
form (n. 166). Man is not lije, but a 
recipient of lije (n. 4). Spiritual lije is 
a lije conformed to the Divine precepts 
(n. 248). In the Word, by "Zi/e" is 
meant the Divine Love (n. 38). 

LIGAMENTS, 
(n. 403, 408). 

LIGHT. 

The light that proceeds from the 
spiritual sun in its essence is wisdom 
(n. 5, 32, 363). The first proceeding of 
wisdom is light (n. 95). There is con- 



tinuous light in the spiritual world (n. 
161). The light of the spiritual world 
in itself is alive, but the light of the 
natural world in itself is dead (n. 89). 
The light of the world can be illumined 
by the influx of heavenly light (n. 88). 
Light has existence not in wisdom, but 
in the thought of the understanding, and 
thence in the speech (n. 95). The light 
of men is Divine truth (n. 383). Spirit- 
ual light flows in with man through 
three degrees (n. 242-247). Light cor- 
responds to wisdom (n. 32). Spiritual 
light is the truth of faith (n. 83, 84). 
In the Word, by "light" is meant the 
Lord's Divine Wisdom (n. 38, 98). See 
also the Contents, Part 11. 

LIKENESS. 

In Genesis the Divine Love is meant 
by the "likeness of God" (n. 358). 

LIVE. 

Why all men, the good as well as the 
evil, live for ever (n. 240). To live, 
move, and be in God, (n. 301). 

LIVER. 

From sensation man knows nothing 
of his liver (n. 22). Is more perfect 
interiorly according to discrete degrees 
(n. 201). 

LIVING. 

What is living disposes what is dead 
in obedience to itself, and forms it for 
uses, which are its ends, but not the re- 
verse (n. 166). One is said to be alive 
whose mind is a heaven (n. 276). 

LOCUSTS. 

Their origin (n. 339, 345). 

LOINS. 

Why there are two (n. 384, 409). 

LORD. 

The Lord is Love itself because He is 
Life itself (n. 4-6). He is Very Man 
(n. 11-13, 285). He is the Very and 
Only God, who rules the universe (n. 
103). He alone is Heaven (n. 113-118). 
He rose again with His whole body, dif- 



INDEX OF WORDS 



277 



ferently from any man (n. 221). When 
the Lord manifests Himself to the an- 
gels in person, He manifests Himself as 
a Man, and this sometimes in the spirit- 
ual sun and sometimes outside of it (n. 
97). The Lord is present with all, but 
with each according to reception (n. Ill, 
124). To be in the Lord is to perform 
the duties of one's calling sincerely, up- 
rightly, justly, and faithfully (n. 431). 
See the Contents. See also God and 
Jehovah. 

LOVE. 

To feel the joy of another in oneself, 
that is loving; but to feel one's own 
joy in another, and not the other's joy 
in oneself is not loving (n. 47). Love is 
the life of man (n. 1-3, 399). It is the 
esse of life (n. 14, 358, 368). The essence 
of alUc»?;e consists in conjunction (n. 47). 
The conjunction of love is by reciproca- 
tion (n. 48). Love consists in this, that 
its own should be another's (n. 47). 
Love h&,s use for an end, and intends it, 
and brings it forth by means of wisdom 
in. 297). Love alone is like an esse 
without its existere (n. 139). Love and 
wisdom are the real and actual substance 
and form, which constitute the subject 
itself (n. 40, 224). Celestial love is 
love to the Lord, or the love of good 
(n. 426, 427); those who are in this love 
have wisdom inscribed on their life 
(n. 427, 428). Love and wisdom are 
not abstract things; they are not possi- 
ble outside of their subjects, but are 
states of these (n. 209, 224). Love to 
the Lord is nothing else than committing 
the precepts of the Word to life, the sum 
of which is to flee from evils because 
they are hellish, and devilish, and to do 
good because it is heavenly and Divine 
(n. 237). By this love is meant a love 
of doing uses (n. 426). (See also 141, 
142, 427). Spiritual love is love towards 
the neighbor, and the love of truth (n. 
426, 427); those who are in that love 
have intelligence inscribed on their life 
(n. 427, 428). Love towards the neigh- 
bor is a spiritual love of uses (n. 237); 
by that love is meant a love of uses 
(n. 426). Natural love is of self and of 
the world (n. 424, 416). Natural love 



separate from spiritual love (n. 424). 
The love of self and the love of the world, 
are infernal loves (n. 396). By cre- 
ation they are heavenly, for they are 
loves of the natural man serviceable to 
spiritual loves, as a foundation is to a 
house (n. 396). Natural-spiritual love 
(n. 429). Corporeal-natural love (n. 
419). Corporeal love (n. 424). Love 
of ruling from love of self, and love of 
ruling from the love of use (n. 142, 424). 
See also Contents Part V. 

LOVE AND WISDOM. 

There is a union of Love and Wisdom 
in every Divine work, from which it has 
perpetuity, yea, its everlasting dura- 
tion (n. 36). 



LOWER. 

In the Word, 
(n. 206). 



'lower" signifies outer 



LOWEST. 

The lowest in successive order be- 
comes the outermost in simultaneous 
order (n. 206). In each kingdom of 
nature, the lowest things are for the 
use of the middle, and the middle for 
the use of the highest (n. 65). 

LUNGS. 

The lungs correspond to the under- 
standing (n. 413); to wisdom or truth 
(n. 402). The understanding corre- 
sponds to the lungs (n. 382, 383). Par- 
ticulars concerning the lungs (n. 413). 
Are more perfect interiorly according to 
discrete degrees (n. 201). Why there 
are two lobes of the lungs (n. 384, 409). 
See Heart, Structure 

MACHIAVELLI. 

Machiavelli and his followers (n. 267). 

MALIGNITY. 

Malignity of evil increases according 
to the degree in which the spiritual 
mind is closed up (n. 269). 

MAN. 

Man is a recipient of life (n. 4, 68). 
The conception of a man from his father 
is not a conception of life, but only a 



278 



INDEX OF WORDS 



conception of the first and purest form 
capable of receiving life (n. 6). The 
nature of man's beginning or primitive 
form by conception (n. 432). A man 
is not a m,an from face and body, but 
from understanding and will (n. 251). 
Man is born an animal, but becomes a 
man (n. 270). Every man as to the 
interiors of his mind is a spirit, and is in 
the spiritual world in the midst of angels 
and spirits there (n. 90, 92). The spirit 
of m,an is m,an, because it is receptive 
of love and wisdom from the Lord (n. 
287). There are in every man degrees 
of both kinds (n. 225, 236). In the 
Lord the three degrees of height are 
infinite and uncreate, but in m,an the 
three degrees are finite and created (n. 
230-235). A wave of effluvia con- 
stantly flows forth o]at of man (n. 293). 
Man is a form of all uses, and all the 
uses in the created universe correspond 
to those uses in him (n. 298). The 
spiritual m,an, the natural m,an, and 
the spiritual-natural man (n. 250-255). 
The spiritual man is altogether distinct 
from the natural, and there is no other 
communication between them than such 
as there is between cause and effect 
(n. 251). The natural man is a menial 
and servant, and the spiritual m,an is a 
master and a lord (n. 249). How man 
is distinguished from beasts (n. 247). 
Because God is a Man He has a body 
and everything pertaining to it (n. 18). 
See also Contents, Parts III. and V. 

MARRIAGE. 

Marriage between love and wisdom, 
between will and understanding, and 
between good and truth (n. 402, 409, 
410, 419). Between celestial love and 
wisdom, and between spiritual love and 
intelligence (n. 414, 423, 427). 

MARROW. 

Spinal marrow (n. 366). 

MATTER. 

Its origin (n. 302, 305, 158, 311, 340). 
In the substances and matters of which 
earths consist, tliere is nothing of the 
Divine in itself, but still they are from 
the Df'vine in itself (n. 305). 



MEANS. 

All the m,eans by which man is en- 
abled to attain good are provided (n. 
425, 171). The end qualifies the means 
(n. 261). 

MEASURE OF TIME. 
Whence derived (n. 73). 

MEDIATIONS. 

There are continual mediations from 
the first to outmosts, and nothing can 
have existence except from a prior to 
self, and finally from the first (n. 303). 

MEDITATION. 

Meditation is the thought of the spirit 
(n. 404). 

MEDULLA OBLONGATA. 
Its composition (n. 366). 

MEDULLARY. 

Medullary substance of the brain 
(n. 366). 

MEMBERS. 

Members, organs and viscera of a 
man (n. 22, 370, 376, 377, 384, 385, 408). 

METALS. 

Their composition (n. 190, 192, 207). 
There are in them degrees of both kinds 
(n. 225). They are more perfect in- 
teriorly according to discrete degrees 
(n. 201). A wave of effluvia constantly 
emanates from them (n. 293). 

MICROCOSM. 

Man in respect to his understanding 
and will may be called a world or micro- 
cosm (n. 251). He was so designated 
by the ancients (n. 323). At the pres- 
ent day it is not known why he was so 
called (n. 319). 

MIDDLE THINGS. 

Each and all things of the vegetable 
kingdom are m.iddle things (n. 65). 
See Primes and Outmosts. 

MIND. 

The mind of man consists of a will 
and an understanding (n. 239, 372, 387). 
The interiors of men which belong to 



INDEX OF WORDS 



279 



their minds are separated by discrete 
degrees (n. 186, 203). Man has a natu- 
ral mind, a spiritual mind, and a celes- 
tial mind (n. 239, -200). The natural 
m,ind consists of spiritual substances, 
and at the same time of natural sub- 
stances (n. 257, 260, 270, 273). It 
envelopes and encloses the spiritual 
mind and the celestial mind (n. 260). 
It has its seat in the brains in its first 
principles (n. 273). The mind impels 
the body and all its belongings at will 
(n. 387). The natural mind in form or 
in image is a world, while the spiritual 
mind in its form or image is a heaven 
(n. 270). The spiritual m,ind derives 
its form from the substances of the 
spiritual world only (n. 270). The natu- 
ral mind is coiled into gyres from right 
to left, but the spiritual mind into gyres 
from left to right (n. 270). The higher 
region of the natural rnind is called the 
rational, and the lowest region is called 
the sensual (n. 254). See Contents, 
Part III. and V. 

MINERAL KINGDOM. 

The forms of the uses of this kingdom, 
(n. 313). The relation to man in respect 
to each and all things of the m.ineral 
kingdom (n. 61). 

MINERALS. 

Minerals are interiorly more perfect 
according to discrete degrees (n. 201). 

MINUTE. 

There can be nothing so minute as not 
to have in it degrees of both kinds (n. 
223). 

MISUSE. 

Misuse of the capacity to raise the 
understanding above the love (n. 395). 
Misuse of uses does not do away with 
use (n. 331). 

MITES. 

Their origin (338, 339). 

MOON. 

What is meant by "the light of the 
moon being as the light of the sun" 
(n. 233). 



MORAL. 

Things moral are not abstract but are 
substances; they are not possible out- 
side of subjects which are substances, 
but are states of subjects, that is, of 
substances (n. 209). 

MORNING. 

In the Word, "morning^' signifies the 
first state of the cliurch (n. 73). 

MOTHS. 

Their origin (n. 338, 339). 

MOTION. 

Motion is produced by forces, and is 
the outmost degree of conatus; through 
motion, conatus exerts its power(n. 218). 
In m,otion there is nothing essential ex- 
cept active force (n. 197). Living m,o- 
tion in man is action which is produced 
through living forces by the will united 
to the understanding (n. 219). Conatus 
force and m,otion are no otherwise con- 
joined than according to discrete de- 
grees, conjunction of which is not by 
continuity, but by correspondences (n. 
218). Cardiac and pulmonic m,otion (n. 
381). See Effort and Force, 

MUSCLE. 

Its composition (n. 190, 192, 197). 
Is more perfect interiorly according to 
discrete degrees (n. 201), 

NATION. 

Every nation in the spiritual world 
has its place allotted in accordance with 
its idea of God as a Man (n. 13), 

NATURAL, 

All that springs forth and continues 
to exist from the sun of the natural 
world is called natural (n. 159). There 
does not exist a natural which does not 
derive its cause from the spiritual 
(n. 134). The natural man (n. 251). 
The spiritual-na^umZ man (n. 429). 
The sensual-na/uraZ man (n. 144, 162, 
254). How the natural man becomes 
spiritual (n. 248). 

NATURAL MIND, 
See Mind. 



280 



INDEX OF WORDS 



NATURALISM. 

Its origin (n. 69). 

NATURE 

In itself is wholly inert (n. 166). In 
itself it is dead (n. 159, 340). In man 
and in animals it appears as if alive, 
because of the life which accompanies 
and actuates it (n. 159). All things 
of nature are from love and wisdom (n. 
46). Nature contributes nothing what- 
ever to the production of plants and 
animals (n. 344). Nature has produced 
and does produce nothing, but the Di- 
vine out of itself and through the spirit- 
ual world has produced all things (n. 349, 
356). To nature can be ascribed no more 
than this, that it serves the spiritual in 
fixing those things which flow in un- 
ceasingly into nature (n. 344). The 
folly of those who ascribe all things to 
nature (n. 162, 166); their state in the 
spiritual world (n. 357); some are ex- 
cusable (n. 350). 

NECK. 

All fibers descend from the brains 
through the neck into the body, and 
none ascend from the body through the 
neck to the brain (n. 365). 

NEGATION. 

The negation of God constitutes hell, 
and in the Christian world the negation 
of the Divinity of the Lord (n. 13). 

NERVES. 

Their composition (n. 190, 192, 366). 
{See n. 197, 388). 

NEWTON. 

His abhorrence of the idea of nothing 
applied to vacuum (n. 82). 

NIGHT. 

In the Word, "night" signifies the end 
of the church (n. 73). 

NOON. 

In the Word, "noon" signifies the ful- 
ness of the church (n. 73). 



NORTH. 

In the Word, ''north" signifies wis- 
dom in shade (n. 121). In the spiritual 
world, those who are in a lower degree 
of wisdom dwell in the north (n. 121). 

NOSE. 

The nose corresponds to the percep- 
tion of truth (n. 254). The appear- 
ance is that the nose smells, but the 
understanding smells by virtue of its 
perception (n. 363). "Nostrils," in the 
Word signify perception (n. 383). 

NOTHING. 

To make anything out of nothing is a 
contradiction (n. 55, 283). The uni- 
verse was not created out of nothing 
(n. 283). In nothing no real activity 
of mind is possible (n. 82). 

NUPTIALS. 

What is understood by the nuptials 
of love and wisdom, or of the will and 
understanding (n. 404). 

OBJECT. 

The object of this work is to uncover 
causes, that effects may be seen from 
them (n. 188). 

OBJECTS. 

In spiritual light objects of thought 
are truths, and objects of sight are like 
those in the natural world, but corre- 
spondent to their thoughts (n. 70). 

ODORS. 

Effect which odors have on the blood 
(n. 420). Foul smells in the hells (n. 
339, 341, 420). Odors in the heavens 
(n. 420). 

OMNIPOTENCE. 

The omnipotence of God (n. 9, 72, 

221). 

OMNIPRESENCE. 

The omnipresence of God (n. 7, 9, 
21, 69, 71, 72). God is omnipresent, be- 
cause He is not in space (n. 147). 



INDEX OF WORDS 



281 



OMNIPROVIDENT. 

It may be seen in a measure how God 
is able to be omniprovident (n. 21). 

OMNISCIENCE. 

Omniscience of God (n. 9, 21, 72). 

ONE. 

Love and wisdom proceed from the 
Lord as one, but are not received as one 
by the angels (n. 125). The heat and 
light in proceeding from the Lord are 
one (n. 99). See Distinctly One. 

ONLY. 

That is called the Only from which 
everything else proceeds (n. 45). In all 
things the first is singly supreme in the 
subsequent things, yea, it is the sole 
thing in them (n. 197). 

OPERATION. 

Operation by influx into vegetable and 
animal forms (n. 346). 

ORDER. 

Successive and simultaneous order of 
discrete degrees (n. 205-208). 

ORGANIC. 

Organic substance (n. 191, 192, 197, 
200). Organic forms (n. 208). 

ORGANIZATION. 

Organization of the will and under- 
standing (n. 373). 

ORGANS. 

Their composition (n. 190). Organs 
of sense (n. 366, 407). Organs of mo- 
tion (n. 366). (See n. 207, 370, 376, 
377, 384, 385, 400, 401, 408, 410). 

ORIGIN. 

Origin of man (n. 346); of the affec- 
tions and thoughts (n. 33); of evil (n. 
264-270); of vital heat (n. 379); of 
animals and vegetables (n. 339, 340, 
346); of animalcules and noxious in- 
sects (n. 342); of substance and matter 
(n. 302); of earths (n. 302-306). 



OUTERMOST. 

The outermost of simultaneous order is 
the lowest of successive order (n. 206). 

OUTMOST. 

The outmost of each series, that is to 
say, use, action, and doing, is the com- 
plex and containant of all things prior 
(n. 215). Every outmost consists of 
things prior, and these of their firsts 
(n. 208). Every outmost is sheathed 
about and thereby rendered distinct 
from its things prior (n. 278). In every 
outmost there are discrete degrees in 
simultaneous order (n. 207, 208). The 
degrees of height are in fulness and in 
power in their outmost degree (n. 217- 
221). The lowest spiritual separated 
from what is above it produces evil uses 
(n. 345). All things of the mineral 
kingdom are last things (n. 65). 

OWLS, SCREECH OWLS. 
Their origin (n. 339). 

PAIRS. 

Why with man there are pairs in all 
the things of his body (n. 127, 384, 409). 

PANCREAS. 

From sensation man knows nothing 
of the pancreas (n. 22). It is more per- 
fect interiorly according to discrete de- 
grees (n. 201). 

PARALLELISM. 

Parallelism between the vegetation 
of a tree and the vivification of man 
(n. 316). Between spiritual and natu- 
ral uses (n. 333). 

PEACE. 

The state of peace corresponds to 
spring-time on earth (n. 105). 

PERCEIVE. 

To perceive as our own what is of the 
Lord (n. 115, 116). 

PERCEPTION. 

Perception pertains to wisdom (n. 
363). Common perception (n. 365). It 
comes by influx from heaven (n. 361). 



282 



INDEX OF WORDS 



Why many of the learned have de- 
stroyed their common perception (n. 
361). No man of sound reason ever 
lacks perception of truth so long as 
he has an affection for understanding 
truth (n. 404). The perception of truth 
springs from an affection for under- 
standing (n. 404). Perceptions are sub- 
stances and forms, and not entities ab- 
stracted from substance and form (n.42). 
Perceptions flow in out of the spiritual 
world, yet are received, not by the un- 
derstanding, but by love according to 
its affections in the understanding (n. 
410). See Affections and Thoughts. 

PERFECTION. 

Perfection itself is in the Lord and 
from Him in the spiritual sun (n. 204). 
All perfections increase and ascend along 
with degrees and according to them 
(n. 199-204). Perfection of forced is 
perfection of all things that are actuated 
and moved by life, in which, however, 
there is no life (n. 200). Perfection of 
life is perfection of will and understand- 
ing (n. 200). Perfection of forms and 
perfection of forces make one (n. 200). 
Perfection of the universe, whence it 
comes (n. 227). 

PERITONEUM. 

Its relation to the lungs (n. 408). 

PERPETUITY. 

The perpetuity of every Divine work 
is from the union of love and wisdom 
(n. 36). 

PLEURA. 

Its relation to the heart and lungs 
(n. 384, 402, 403). 

PLURALITY. 

A plurality of Gods impossible (n. 27). 

POISONS. 

Their origin (n. 339). 

POLLUTION. 

All pollution of man is effected by 
means of falsities that are opposite to 
the truths of wisdom (n. 420). 



PREACHER 

Affected by zeal (n. 148). 

PRESENCE. 

Presence of the Lord, how He is every- 
where (n. 299). Presence of angels, how 
it is realized (n. 291). Man is able by 
means of thought to be present as it 
were elsewhere, in any place however 
remote (n. 285). 

PRIMITIVE. 

The primitive of man is seed from the 
father, by which conception is effected 
(n. 432). What it is in the womb after 
conception (n. 432). 

PRINCIPLES. 

First principles in man are the recep- 
tacles of love and wisdom (n. 369). By 
life in first principles is meant the will 
and the understanding (n. 365). Will 
and understanding are in their first 
principles in the brains (n. 365, 387, 
403). Such as life is in first principles 
such it is in the whole and in every part 
(n. 366). By means of first principles 
life is in the whole from every part, and 
in every part from the whole (n. 367). 
First principles in the brain which ap- 
pear like glands, the multitude of them 
compared to the multitude of stars (n. 
366, 373). 

PRIOR THINGS. 

Prior things consist of their firsts (n. 
208). They are more perfect than sub- 
sequent things (n. 204). From prior 
things posterior things can be seen, but 
not the reverse (n. 119). 

PROCEEDING. 

The first proceeding from the Lord's 
Love and Wisdom is that fiery spiritual 
[substance] which appears before the 
angels as a sun (n. 97, 152, 290, 300). 

PROCEEDING DIVINE. 

The Proceeding Divine in the trinity 
is called the "Holy Spirit" (n. 146). 
What the Proceeding Divine or tlie Holy 
Spirit is (n. 146-150). 



INDEX OF WORDS 



283 



PRODUCTION. 

Production of seed was the first pro- 
duction from the eartlis (n. 312). 

PROGRESSION. 

The proyression of all things in the 
universe from firsts to outmosts, and 
from outmosts to firsts (n. 304, 314, 
31G). 

PROPAGATION. 

Propagation of subjects of the vege- 
table and animal kingdoms (n. 347). 

PROVINCES. 

The whole angelic heaven is divided 
into regions and provinces, according to 
the members, viscera, and organs of 
man (n. 288). 

PULMONARY PIPES. 

Their existence in minute insects 
(n. 373). 

PULMONIC KINGDOM. 

The pulmonic kingdom of heaven is 
that where wisdom predominates (n. 
381). In it are those who are ixi love 
towards their neighbor (n. 428). (See 
also n. 391, 392). 

PULSE. 

(See n. 378). Man's spirit as well as 
his body has pulse and respiration, and 
these flow into the pulse and respiration 
of the body, and produce them (n. 390, 
391); there is a correspondence be- 
tween them (n. 390). 

PURIFICATION. 

Purification of the love in the under- 
standing, how it is effected (n. 419, 420).- 
All purification of a man is effected by 
means of the truths of wisdom (n. 420). 
Purification of the blood (n. 420, 423). 

QUALITY. 

That which is not in a form has no 
quality, and what has no quality is not 
anything (n. 15, 223). 

QUARTERS. 

Quarters in the spiritual world (n. 119 
-128). The quarters in that world are 



not determined from the south, as in 
the natural world, but from the east 
(n. 120, 132); they are not determined 
by the sun of the spiritual world, but by 
the inhabitants there (n. 120); accord- 
ing to their reception of love and wis- 
dom (n. 124-128, 132). The variety of 
reception of love and wisdom gives rise 
to the quarters in the spiritual world 
(n. 12G). Man as to his spirit is in some 
quarter of the spiritual world, whatever 
quarter of the natural world he may be 
in (n. 126). 

RAMIFICATIONS. 

Ramifications of the bronchial tubes 
of the lungs (n. 405, 412). They corre- 
spond to the perceptions and thoughts 
from the affections for truth (n. 405). 

RATIONAL. 

The rational of man is the highest 
point of the understanding (n. 237, 254). 
Man's rational is in appearance as if it 
were of three degrees (n. 258). The 
rational man is he who is in natural and 
in spiritual love both at once (n. 416). 
Man can become rational, by elevation, 
even to the third degree (n. 258). How 
the rational is perfected (n. 332). The 
rational is the higher region of the natu- 
ral degree (n. 254). 

RATIONALITY. 

Rationality is the capacity by which 
man is able to understand what is true 
and what is good; it is a capacity of the 
understanding (n. 240, 264, 413, 425); 
it is with every man by creation, con- 
sequently by birth, and united with 
freedom distinguishes him from the 
beasts (n. 264, 413). A bad man en- 
joys this capacity equally with a good 
man (n. 266). It is never taken away 
from man (n. 247, 258, 264). It does 
not exist with a man until his natural 
mind reaches maturity (n. 266). It may 
be absent when the externals have been 
injured by accident (n. 259). The 
rational power to think what is false is 
irrational (n. 425). 

RATS. 

Their origin (n. 339, 341). 



284 



INDEX OF WORDS 



REACTION. 

In everything created by God there 
is reaction (n, 68, 260). Reaction is 
caused by the action of hfe (n. 68). See 
Action. 

REASON. 

All things of human reason join and 
as it were center in this, that there is 
one God (n. 23). Human reason, on 
what it depends (n. 23). Human rea- 
son is such as to be unwilling to yield 
assent unless it sees a thing from its 
cause (n. 291). How reason becomes 
unsound (n. 23). 

RECEIVE. 

To receive more of heat than of light, 
and conversely (n. 101). Man is able to 
receive wisdom even to the third degree, 
but not love, unless he flees from evils 
as sins and looks to the Lord (n. 242). 

RECEPTACLES. 

{See n. 191, 223). Two receptacles 
and abodes for Himself, called will and 
understanding, have been created and 
formed by the Lord in man; the will for 
His Divine Love and the understanding 
for His Divine Wisdom (n. 358-361, 364, 
410). Divine Love and Wisdom re- 
ceived in three degrees (n. 242). 

RECEPTION. 

Reception of the Divine Good and the 
Divine Truth is according to man's 
application of the laws of order,which 
are Divine truths (n. 57). 

RECIPIENTS OF LIFE. 

Angels and men are such (n. 4-6). 
Man is a recipient in the degree in which 
he is affected by those things which are 
from God, and thinks from that affec- 
tion (n. 33). All things in the created 
universe are recipients of the Divine 
Love and the Divine Wisdom of God- 
Man (n. 55-60). 

RECIPROCATION. 

Reciprocation is necessary that there 
may be conjunction (n. 115, 170). What 
gives the ability to reciprocate (n. 116). 



Reciprocal conjunction of love and wis- 
dom; of the will and understanding; 
of good and truth (n. 385, 410). These 
reciprocal conjunctions are from the 
love (n. 411). 

RED. 

Red corresponds to love (n. 380). 

REFLECTION. 

Reflection pertains to wisdom or the 
understanding (n. 363). 

REFORMATION. 

Reformation and regeneration are 
effected through the reception of love 
and wisdom from the Lord, and then 
through the opening of interior degrees 
of the mind in their order (n. 187, 263). 

REGENERATION 

See Reformation. To be regener- 
ated is from being natural to become 
spiritual (n. 425). 

RELATION. 

There is a general relation of all things 
to God, as well as the particular relation 
to man (n. 64). The relation to man in 
each and all things of the animal, vege- 
table, and mineral kingdoms (n. 61). 

RELIGION. 

Those who have confirmed the falsi- 
ties of their religion continue in the 
same after their life in the world (n. 

268). 

REPRESENTATION. 

Angelic representation of the corre- 
spondence of the will and understanding 
with the heart and lungs (n. 376). 

RESEMBLANCE. 

Resemblance of races to their first pro- 
genitors (n. 269) 

RESPIRATION. 

How effected (n. 176, 412). Man has 
a twofold respiration, one of the spirit, 
the other of the body; on what they 
each depend (n. 412, 417). The respira- 
tion of the spirit in man flows into the 
respiration of the body, and produces it 



INDEX OF WORDS 



285 



(n. 390, 391). There is a correspondence 
between them (n. 390). These two 
respirations may be separated, and may 
be conjoined (n. 415, 417). Thought 
produces respiration (n. 412). Angels 
and spirits breathe just as men do (n. 
176, 391). The respirations of the lungs 
correspond to the perceptions and the 
thoughts of the understanding (n. 420). 

RESURRECTION. 

The Lord rose again with the whole 
body, differently from man (n. 221). 

RETURN. 

Return of all things to the Creator 
(n. 167-172). 

REVELATION. 

Every man is taught respecting the 
Divine precepts, not by immediate 
revelation, but by others who know 
them from religion (n. 249). 

RIBS. 

Their relation to the lungs (n. 403, 
408). 

RIGHT. 

The "right hand," in the Word, sig- 
nifies superior power (n. 220). "Sitting 
at the right hand of the power and might 
of God" signifies to have all power (n. 
221). In angel and man the right parts 
correspond to love from which is wis- 
dom or to good from which is truth (n. 
127, 384, 409). 

SATAN. 

The love of possessing the goods of 
others by every evil device is called 
"Satan" (n. 273). Cunning villainies 
and subtleties are the "satanic crew" 
(n. 273). See Devil. 

SCORPIONS. 

Their origin (n. 339, 341). 

SEASONS. 

The four seasons of the year, in the 
Word, signify states of the church (n.73). 

SEE. 

An angel can see God both within 
himself and also without himself (n. 



130). No one while he is in evil can see 
good, but he who is in good can see evil 
(n. 271). When man thinks from wis- 
dom he sees things as it were in light 
(n. 95). Why those who are in the one 
world cannot see those who are in the 
other world (n. 91). To see from effects 
only is to see from fallacies (n. 187). 
Seeing is predicated of the understand- 
ing (n. 363). 

SEED. 

The seed which is from the father is 
the first receptacle of life, but such a 
receptacle as it was with the father (n. 
269). The production of seeds was the 
first production from the earths while 
they were still new (n. 312). In seeds 
there is an endeavor to multiply and to 
fructify themselves infinitely and eter- 
nally (n. 60). Interiorly they are more 
perfect according to discrete degrees 
(n. 201). 

SELFHOOD. 

The angel's selfhood, like man's, is 
evil (n. 114). 

SENSATIONS. 

Sensations are not things abstract 
from the organs of sensation (n. 210). 
Sensations are ultimately derived from 
love and wisdom (n. 363). 

SENSE. 

Sense is an affecting of the substance 
and form of the organ (n. 41). The 
affecting of the substance and form 
which causes sense is not a something 
separate from the subject, but only 
causes a change in it, the subject re- 
maining the subject then as before and 
afterwards (n. 41). The external senses 
of the body communicate immediately 
through fibers with the brains, and de- 
rive therefrom their sensitive and active 
life (n. 365). All the bodily senses de- 
rive their perception from their mind's 
perception (n. 406). 

SENSUAL. 

Sensual men are the lowest natural 
men, who are incapable of thinking 
above the appearances and fallacies of 



286 



INDEX OF WORDS 



the bodily senses (n. 249). The sensual 
is the lowest region of the natural de- 
gree (n. 254). 

SERIES. 

One thing is from another in a three- 
fold series (n. 212). The outmost of 
each series is the complex and contain- 
ant of all things prior (n. 215). 

SERPENTS. 

Their origin (n. 339, 341). 

SIGHT. 

Sight is possible only by means of an 
atmosphere purer than air (n. 176). 
Sight is not a something volatile flowing 
from its organ, but is the organ consid- 
ered in its substance and form; when 
this is affected sensation is produced (n. 
41). Sight is in the eye which is the 
subject, and is an affecting of the sub- 
ject (n. 41). Sight does not go out from 
the eye to the object, but the image of 
the object enters the eye, and affects its 
substance and form (n. 41). The sense 
of sight communicates immediately 
through fibers with the brain, and de- 
rives therefrom its sensitive and active 
life (n. 365). The grossness of bodily 
sight {n. 352). See Sense. 

SIMILITUDE. 

Likeness between generals and partic- 
ulars, or between greatest and least 
(n. 227). 

SIMPLE. 

The simple see more clearly what is 
good and true than those who think 
themselves their superiors in wisdom 
(n. 361). 

SIMPLES. 

Simples are more perfect than com- 
posites, because they are more naked 
and less covered over with substances 
and matters devoid of Ufe (n. 204). The 
more sim.ple anything sim,ple is the more 
exempt from injury it is, because it is 
more perfect (n. 204). Without such 
pre-eminent perfection in things sim,ple. 
neither man nor any kind of animal 



could have come into existence from 
seed and could afterwards continue to 
exist; nor could the seeds of trees and 
shrubs vegetate and bear fruit (n. 204). 

SIRENS. 

Their fantastic beauty (n. 424). 

SKIN. 

The skin by which man is enveloped 
is the subject of touch (n. 41). The 
substance and form of the skin cause it 
to feel whatever is applied to it (n. 41). 

SLEEP. 

In sleep the lapse of time is not no- 
ticed (n. 74). What becomes of conatus 
and forces in man during sleep (n. 219). 

SLOANE, SIR HANS, 
(n. 344). 

SMALL. 

There is nothing so small that has not 
in it degrees of both kinds (n. 223). 



SMELL. 

The sense of smell is in the nostrils, 
and is an affecting of the nostrils by 
odoriferous particles touching them 
(n. 41). The smell is not a something 
volatile flowing from its organ, but is 
the organ considered in its substance 
and form; and when the organ is af- 
fected sensation is produced (n. 41). 
The sense of smell communicates imme- 
diately through fibers with the brains, 
and derives therefrom its sensitive and 
active life (n. 365). To sm,ell is pre- 
dicated of perception (n. 363). See 
Sense. 

SOCIETIES. 

In heaven, societies are divided ac- 
cording to all the differences of heav- 
enly love (n. 141). Angelic societies are 
countless and in like order as the glands 
of the brain (n. 366). 

SOUL. 

The soul in its very esse is love and 
wisdom in man from the Lord (n. 395, 
398). There can be no soul apart from 



INDEX OF WORDS 



287 



its body, nor body apart from its soul 
(n. 14), Every man's soul is in a spirit- 
ual body after it has cast off the material 
coverings which it carried about in the 
world (n. 14). Fruitless researches of 
tlie learned into the operations of the 
soul in the body (n. 394). How the 
soul acts upon the body and effects all its 
operations (n. 398-431). Soul of beasts 
(n. 34G). "Soul," in the Word, signi- 
fies the understanding, also the wisdom 
of the understanding (n. 383). 

SOUND. 

Sound which is articulated into words 
all comes forth from the lungs through 
the trachea and epiglottis (n. 382). The 
angels recognize a man's love from his 
tone in speaking, his wisdom from articu- 
lation, and his knowledge from the 
meaning of the words (n. 280). Beasts 
utter sounds in accordance with the 
knowledge pertaining to their love (n. 
255). 

SOUTH. 

In the Word, "south" signifies wis- 
dom in light (n. 121). In the spiritual 
world those in a higher degree of wisdom 
dwell in the south (n. 121). 

SPACE. 

Space is a property of nature (n. 69, 
70). Space is in each and all things in 
the world as seen by the eye (n. 7). In 
the spiritual world there appear to be 
spaces, yet they are only appearances 
(n. 7). Spaces there are not fixed as in 
the natural world, but are changeable 
according to states of life (n. 70). States 
of love correspond to space (n. 70). 
Space is in natural, but not in spiritual 
ideas (n. 7, 111). To think according to 
space concerning God is to think con- 
cerning the expanse of nature (n. 9). 
The Lord cannot advance through 
spaces, but is present with each one 
according to reception (n. 111). See 
Time. 

SPEAKING. 

Speaking by degrees is abstract (n. 
196). 



SPEECH. 

See Language. 

SPHERE. 

Encompassing sphere (n. 291). Every 
one in the spiritual world is encompassed 
by a sphere consisting of substances set 
free and separated from his body (n. 
292). A sphere flows forth from all 
things that appear in that world (n. 
293). The sphere of affections and of 
thoughts therefrom, which encompasses 
each angel, manifests his presence to 
others far and near (n. 291). 

SPIDERS. 

Their origin (n. 339). 

SPIRAL. 

The contraction of the spiritual de- 
gree is like the twisting back of a spiral 
in the opposite direction (n. 254, 263). 

SPIRIT. 

Man in the world of spirits is called 
an angelic spirit if he is preparing for 
heaven, an infernal spirit if he is pre- 
paring for hell (n. 140). In the Word, 
"spirit" signifies the understanding and 
the wisdom of the understanding (n. 
383). Corporeal spirits (n. 424). Ani- 
mal spirit, what it is (n. 423). The 
Holy Spirit is the Truth itself which 
proceeds from the Lord (n. 149). The 
Holy Spirit is the Lord, and not a God 
who is a person by Himself (n. 359). 
In the Word, the "Holy Spirit" and 
"Spirit of God" signify Divine Wisdom, 
and therefore Divine Truth which is 
the light of men (n. 383, 149). 

SPIRITUAL. 

The heat and light that proceed from 
the Lord as a sun are what in an eminent 
sense are called the spiritual (n. 100). 
The spiritual flows down from its sun, 
even to the outmosts of nature, through 
three degrees (n. 345). The lowest spir- 
itual or spiritual-natural can be sepa- 
rated from its higher parts (n. 345). 
Evil uses are effected on the earth by 
the lowest spiritual separated from 
what is above it (n. 345). The spiritual 



288 



INDEX or WORDS 



impels nature to act, as what is living 
impels what is dead (n. 340). It pro- 
duces the forms of plants and animals, 
filling them with matters from the 
earth, that they may become fixed 
and enduring (n. 340). The spiritual 
furnishes the soul, and the material the 
body (n. 343). What the spiritual and 
what the natural man is (n. 251). Things 
spiritual are substances, and not ab- 
stract; they are not possible outside of 
subjects which are substances, but are 
states of subjects, that is, substances 
(n. 209). 

SPIRITUAL FIRE. 

That fiery spiritual [substance] which 
appears before the angels as a sun, 
is the first proceeding from the Lord's 
Love and Wisdom (n. 97). 

SPLEEN. 

From sensation alone man knows 
nothing of the spleen (n. 22). 

SPRING. 

In the Word, "spring" signifies the 
first state of the church (n. 73). There 
is a perpetual spring in all the angelic 
heavens (n. 105). Spring-time corre- 
sponds to a state of peace (n. 105). 

STATE. 

State is predicated of love, of life, of 
wisdom, of affections, of joys there- 
from, and in general, of good and truth 
(n. 7). In angelic ideas of thought, in- 
stead of space and time there are states 
of life; instead of spaces, such things as 
have reference to states of love, and in- 
stead of times, such things as have ref- 
erence to states of wisdom (n. 70). Living 
and dead states (n. 161). 

STALKS. 

Stalks, in the forms of the vegetable 
kingdom, are their outmosts. Clothed 
with layers of bark they represent the 
globe clothed with earths (n. 314). 

STERNUM. 

Its relation to the lungs (n. 408). 



STOMACH. 

From sensation alone man knows 
nothing of the innumerable things which 
compose his stomach (n. 22). In what 
way the stomach is connected with the 
lungs (n. 408). 

STONES. 

Their composition (n. 190, 192, 207). 
There are in them degrees of both kinds 
(n. 225). They are interiorly more per- 
fect according to discrete degrees (n. 
201). A wave of effluvia is constantly 
flowing forth from stones (n. 293). 

STRIATA CORPORA. 
{See n. 366). 

STRUCTURE. 

Structure of the Ivmgs (n. 405, 412, 
417). 

SUBJECT. 

A subject has substantial existence 
(n. 373). Men are subjects which can 
be recipients of the Divine Love and 
Wisdom as of themselves (n. 170). That 
which men think of outside of a sub- 
ject as something hovering or floating 
is only an appearance of the state of the 
subject in itself (n. 40-42). 

SUBSISTENCE. 

The subsistence of the universe and of 
all things belonging to it is from the 
spiritual sun. Subsistence is perpetual 
existence (n. 152, 153). 

SUBSTANCE. 

The substance that is substance in it- 
self is the sole substance (n. 197, 300). 
Substance in itself is the Divine Love 
(n. 44-46). All things have been created 
out of a substance which is substance in 
itself (n. 283). Spiritual substances be- 
come substances at rest, and in the natu- 
ral world fixed substances called mat- 
ters (n. 302). Substances of which the 
earths consist (n. 305, 306, 310). Spirit- 
ual and natural substances of which the 
natural mind consists (n. 257, 388). 
Organic substances which are the recep- 
tacles and abodes of the thoughts and 



INDEX OF WORDS 



289 



affections in the brains (n. 191, 192, 
197). Substance is not possible apart 
from form (n. 209, 229). Substance 
and form (n. 41). 

SUBSTANTIATED. 

Substantiated or composite things do 
not arise out of a substance so simple 
that it is not a form from lesser forms 
(n. 229). 

SUFFOCATION, SWOONING. 

State of the heart and lungs during 
suffocation and in swoons (n. 407). 

SUMMER. 

In the Word, "summer" signifies a 
state of fulness of the church (n. 73). 

SUN. 

There are two suns through which 
all things were created by the Lord, the 
sun of the spiritual world and the sun 
of the natural world (n. 153). The 
spiritual sun is not the Lord Himself, 
but is the Divine Love and Wisdom 
proceeding from Him (n. 86, 93, 97, 
290, 291, 151-156). The sun of the natu- 
ral world is pure fire from which every- 
thing of life has been withdrawn; but 
the sun of the spiritual world is fire in 
which there is Divine life (n. 89, 157). 
The spiritual sun is the one only sub- 
stance from which all things are (n. 
300). It appears in heaven at a mid- 
dle altitude (n. 103-107). In the Word, 
the "sun" signifies the Lord as to Di- 
vine Love and Divine Wisdom together 
(n. 98). See Contents, Part II. 

SWAMMERDAM. 
(See n. 351.) 

SWEDENBORG. 

The sight of his spirit was opened 
that he might see the things which are 
in the spiritual world, and afterwards 
describe that world (n. 85, 355). He saw 
the Lord as a sun (n. 131). An entire 
society of heaven appeared to him as 
one angel-man (n. 79). He was raised 
up into heaven to the angels, and was 
then in the spirit outside the body (n. 
391, 394). 
19 



SWINE. 

Their origin (n. 339). 

SYSTOLE. 

The motions of the heart, systolic and 
diastolic, cliange and vary according to 
the affections of each one's love (n. 378). 

TASTE. 

Taste is an affecting of the substance 
and form of the tongue; the tongue is 
the subject (n. 41). Taste is not a 
something volatile flowing from its or- 
gan, but is the organ itself considered 
in its substance and form, and when the 
organ is affected sensation is produced 
(n. 41). The sense of taste communi- 
cates immediately by fibers with the 
brains, and derives therefrom its sensi- 
tive and active life (n. 365). Tasting is 
predicated of perception (n. 363). See 
Sense. 

TENDONS. 

Their origin (n. 304), 

THINK. 

To think from causes and ends is a 
mark of higher wisdom, but to think of 
these is a mark of lower wisdom. To 
think from ends is of wisdom; to think 
from causes is of intelligence; and to 
think from effects is of knowledge (n. 
202). Thinking sensually and materi- 
ally, is thinking in nature from nature, 
and not above nature (n. 351). 

THORAX. 
{See n. 403.) 

THOUGHT. 

Thought is not possible except by 
means of an atmosphere purer than 
air (n. 176). Thought is nothing but 
internal sight (n. 404). It pertains to 
wisdom and the understanding (n. 363). 
Inmost thought, which is the perception 
of ends, is the first effect of life (n. 2). 
All thoughts with man arise from Divine 
Wisdom (n. 33). Affections and thoughts 
are substances and forms, and not enti- 
ties abstracted from a real and actual 
substance and form (n. 42, 316). Spirit- 



290 



INDEX OF WORDS 



ual thought has nothing in common with 
natural thought (n. 163). Thought from 
the eye closes the understanding, but 
thought from the understanding opens 
the eye (n. 46). The affection which is 
of love produces thought, and thought 
produces respiration (n. 412). Thought 
flows into the lungs, and through the 
lungs into speech (n. 391). Thought 
corresponds to the respiration of the 
lungs (n. 383). See Affection. 

TIGERS. 

Their origin (n. 339). 

TIME. 

Time is proper to nature (n. 69, 73, 
161). Measures of time (n. 73). In the 
spiritual world the progressions of life 
appear to be in tim,e; but since state 
there determines tim,e, time is only an 
appearance (n. 73). Tim,e there is noth- 
ing but quality of state. Times in the 
spiritual world are not fixed as in the 
natural world, but are changeable ac- 
cording to the states of life (n, 70). 
Times there have relation to states of 
wisdom (n. 70). It makes one with 
thought from affection (n. 74). See 
Space. 

TONGUE. • 

The appearance is that the tongue 
tastes, but the understanding tastes by 
virtue of its perception (n. 363). From 
sensation alone man knows nothing of 
the innumerable things in his tongue 
(n. 22). It is interiorly more perfect 
according to discrete degrees (n. 201). 

TOUCH. 

The sense of touch is not in the things 
which are applied, but in the sub- 
stance and form of the skin which are the 
subject; the sense itself is nothing but 
an affecting of the subject by the things 
applied (n= 41). The sense of touch 
communicates immediately through 
ribers with the brains, and derives 
therefrom its sensitive and active life 
(n. 365). Touching with the hand signi- 
fies communicating (n. 220). See Sense. 



TRACHEA. 

{See n. 382, 408.) 

TRANSMISSION. 

Transm,ission of the love of evil from 
parents to their offspring (n. 269). 

TRANSPARENT. 

The forms receptive of heat and light 
in man are transparent from birth, like 
crystal glass (n. 245, 255): they trans- 
mit spiritual light as crystal glass trans- 
mits natural light (n, 245). 

TREES AND SHRUBS. 

How they are produced (n. 346). 
There are in them degrees of both kinds 
(n. 225). A wave of effluvia is constanty 
flowing forth out of them (n. 293). 

TRINE. 

In every thing of which anything can 
be predicated there is the trine which is 
called end, cause, and effect (n. 209, 154, 
167-172, 296-301). 

TRINITY. 

The trinity in the Lord is called 
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; the Di- 
vine from which [Creative Divine] is 
called the Father; the Human Divine 
the Son; and the proceeding Divine, 
the Holy Spirit (n. 146). 

TRUTH. 

Everything that proceeds from wis- 
dom is called truth (n. 31). Truth is 
nothing else than a form of affection, 
that is, of love (n. 411). Truth is of 
the understanding (n. 406, 410). All 
truths are of spiritual light (n. 253). 

TRUTHS. 

Apparent truths are appearances ac- 
cording to which every one may think 
and speak; but when they are accepted 
as real truths, then apparent truths be- 
come falsities and fallacies (n. 108). 

TURN. 

Angels turn their faces constantly to 
the Lord (n. 129-134); all their interiors 



INDEX OF WORDS 



291 



both of mind and body are turned to 
the Lord as a sun (n. 135-139). Every 
spirit, whatever his quality, turns to his 
ruling love (n. 140-145). 

TYRE. 

"Tyre," in the Word, signifies the 
church as to knowledges of good and 
truth (n. 325). 

UNDERSTANDING. 

The understanding is the receptacle 
of wisdom (n. 360); of intelligence (n. 
430). It has an organic form, or a form 
organized out of the purest substances 
(n. 373). It is the light by which the 
love sees (n. 406, 96). It can be in 
spiritual light even where the will is not 
in spiritual heat. It does not lead the 
will, but only teaches and shows the 
w^ay (n. 244). It does not conjoin 
itself to the will, but the will conjoins 
itself to the understanding (n. 410). It 
corresponds to the lungs (n. 382-384). 
See Will and Thought. 

UNION. 

Union of love with wisdom, and of 
wisdom with love (n. 35-37). Of spirit- 
ual heat with spiritual light, and con- 
versely (n. 99). Reciprocal union causes 
oneness (n. 35). 

UNITING. 

Uniting of two into one, whence it is 
(n. 15). 

UNIVERSAL. 

The universal of all things is Love and 
Wisdom (n. 28). 

UNIVERSE. 

The universe in general is divided into 
two worlds, the spiritual and the natu- 
ral (n. 163). The universe regarded as 
to uses is an image of God (n. 64, 169). 
All things in the universe are recipients 
of the Divine Love and the Divine Wis- 
dom of God-Man (n. 55). There is a 
correspondence of each and every thing 
which takes form in the universe with 
each and every thing of man (n. 52). 
See Contents, Part IV. 



URETERS. 

Why they are in pairs (n. 384). 

USES. 

Those things are called uses which 
from the Lord are by creation in order 
(n. 298, 307, 316, 335, 336). All uses, 
as ends of creation, are in forms (n. 307). 
Use is like a soul, and its form is like a 
body (n. 310). Use has relation to 
good, and its form to truth (n. 409). 
All uses are brought forth by the Lord 
out of outmosts (n. 310). All the uses 
in the created universe correspond to 
uses in man (n. 298). Evil uses were 
not created by the Lord, but originated 
together with hell (n. 336-348). All 
things that are evil uses are in hell, and 
all things that are good uses are in 
heaven (n. 339). All good things that 
have existence in act are called good 
uses, and all evil things that have exist- 
ence in act are called evil uses (n. 336). 
How man may know whether the uses 
he does are spiritual or merely natural 
(n. 426). Performing uses is acting 
sincerely, uprightly, justly and faith- 
fully in the work proper to one's calling 
(n. 431). See n. 65-68; and Contents 
Part IV. 

VACUUM. 

Vacuum is nothing (n. 373, 299). 
Conversation of angels with Newton on 
the subject of vacuum (n. 82). 

VARIETY. 

Whence are the varieties of all things 
in the created universe (n. 300, 155). 
Variety of generals, and variety of par- 
ticulars (n. 155). The varieties of love 
are limitless (n. 368). In the varieties 
of things there is an image of the Infi- 
nite and Eternal (n. 318). Variety 
obscures (n. 228). 

VEGETABLE KINGDOM. 

The forms of uses in that kingdom (n, 
314). A relation to man arising out of 
each and all things of the vegetable 
kingdom (n. 61). 

VEGETABLES. 

The forms of vegetables, whence they 
are, and how produced (n. 314, 340, 346. 



292 



INDEX OF WORDS 



351). Degrees of both kinds are in 
them (n. 225). Marvels presented in 
their production (n. 60, 61, 340). A 
wave of effluvia is constantly flowing 
forth from vegetables (n. 293). 

VEINS. 

{See n. 399, 400, 408, 420). Vena 
Cava (n. 405, 412, 413, 415); bronchial 
veins (n. 405, 407, 413); pulmonary 
veins (n. 405, 407, 412, 413, 420). Veins 
correspond to the affections, and in the 
lungs to the affections of truth (n. 412, 
420). 

VENTRICLES. 

Ventricles of the heart, why there are 
two (n. 384, 409). Right ventricle (n. 
405). Left ventricle (n. 401, 405, 420). 

VESSELS. 

Vessels of the heart (n. 207, 399, 400, 
412). The hlood-vessels of the heart in 
the lungs correspond to the affections of 
truth (n. 405). The air-vessels corre- 
spond to perceptions (n. 412). 

VISCERA. 

(See n. 201, 207, 370, 373, 376, 377, 
384, 385, 400, 401, 408, 410). Their 
composition (n. 190). 

VISIBLE THINGS. 

The visible things in the created uni- 
verse bear witness that nature has pro- 
duced and does produce nothing, but 
that the Divine out of itself and through 
the spiritual world has produced and 
does produce all things (n. 349-357). 

VIVIFICATION. 

Why vivification is said to be effected 
by the Spirit of Jehovah (n. 100). 

WATERS. 

Waters are the mediate forces (n. 178). 
In the spiritual world there are waters 
just as in the natural world, but they 
are spiritual (n. 173-178). 

WAYS. 

Ways in the spiritual world (n. 145)- 

WEEKS. 

In the Word, "weeks" signify states 
(n. 73). 



WEST. 

In the Word, "west " signifies a dimin- 
ishing love towards the Lord (n. 121). 
In the spiritual world those who are in 
a lower degree of love are in the west 
(n. 121). 

WHOLE. 

The whole has existence from the 
parts, and the parts have permanent 
existence from the whole (n. 367). 

WILL. 

The will is the receptacle of love (n. 
360). The will is the entire man as re- 
gards his very form (n. 403). The will 
and understanding are distinct from 
each other, as love and wisdom are dis- 
tinct (n. 361). They are substance and 
form, and not abstract things; they are 
not possible outside of subjects which 
are substances, but are states of sub- 
jects (n. 209, 42). They are organic 
forms, or forms organized out of the 
purest substances (n. 373). They have 
been so created as to be distinctly two, 
and yet make one in every operation 
and in every sensation (n. 395-397). 
The will leads the understanding, and 
causes it to act as one with itself (n. 
244). The will corresponds to the heart 
(n. 378). See Contents, Part V. 

WIND. 

Why man believes the soul or spirit 
to be wind, or any airy something like 
breath from the lungs (n. 383). 

WINTER. 

In the Word, "winter" signifies the 
end of the church (n. 73). 

WISDOM. 

Wisdom is the existere of life from the 
esse, which is love (n. 14, 358, 368). It is 
nothing but an image of love, for in 
wisdom love presents itself to be seen 
and recognized (n. 358). It is from 
love, and is its form (n. 368). It is the 
cause of which love is the end, and use 
the effect (n. 241). It does not beget 
love, but only teaches how man ought 
to live, and it shows the way in which he 
ought to go (n. 244). Wisdom without 



INDEX OF WORDS 



293 



love is like an existere without its ease; 
it is like the light of winter (n. 139). 
It is of wisdom to do good from affec- 
tion for good (n. 428). See Contents, 
Part V. See also Love. 

WISE, 

He that doeth is called a wise man 
in the Word (n. 220). Man is not to be 
judged of by wise speaking, but by his 
life (n. 418). 

WOLVES. 

Their origin (n. 339). 

WOMB. 

Formation of man in the womb (n. 6, 
356, 400). State of the infant in the 
womb (n. 407, 410). In the animal king- 
dom the body is formed by a seed de- 
posited in a womb or ovum; in the vege- 
table kingdom seeds are the beginnings, 
the womb or ovum is like the ground 
(n. 316). 

WONDERFUL THINGS. 

By the wonderful things which every 
one sees in nature he may confirrn him- 
self in favor of the Divine, if he will (n. 
351-356). Wonderful things which the 
instincts of animals present (n. 60). 

WORD. 

Why the Lord is called "the Word" 
(n. 221). There are three senses in the 
Word, according to the three degrees, 
the celestial sense, the spiritual sense, 
and the natural sense (n. 221). A word 
is a kind of resultant, involving tone, 
articulation, and meaning (n. 280). In 
each single word of the Word there is 
something spiritual from Divine Wis- 
dom and something celestial from Di- 
vine Love (n. 280). 

WORK. 

In every Divine work there is a union 
of love and wisdom (n. 36). 

WORKS, DEEDS. 

All things which are of the three de- 
grees of the natural mind are included 
in deeds (n. 277-281). From the deeds 
of a man we judge of the thought of his 



will (n. 215). All things of charity and 
faith are present in good works (n. 214- 
220). On this account "works" are so 
often mentioned in the Word (n. 215, 
220). 

WORLD. 

There are two worlds, the spiritual 
and the natural (n. 83, 163). In exter- 
nal appearance they are entirely alike, 
but as to internal appearance they are 
entirely unlike (n. 163, 173, 321). They 
are totally distinct, and communicate 
only by correspondences (n. 83). In 
the spiritual world there are all things 
that take form in the natural world 
in its three kingdoms (n. 52, 321). All 
these things are correspondences, and 
take form according to the affections 
and consequent thoughts of the angels 
(n. 322). The spiritual world is wher- 
ever man is, and in nowise away from 
him. Every man as regards the inte- 
riors of his mind is in the spiritual world 
in the midst of spirits and angels there 
(n. 92). The spiritual world includes 
heaven, and hell, and the world of spirits 
(n. 140, 339). 

WORLD OF SPIRITS. 

Every man after death comes first 
into the world of spirits, which is mid- 
way between heaven and hell (n. 140). 

WORMS. 

Noxious worms, their origin (n. 341, 
342, 339). Metamorphosis of wormt 
(n. 354). Silkworms (n. 61, 356). 

WRITE. 

Why some can think and speak well, 
but cannot write well (n. 361). 

WRITING. 

There is nothing of spiritual writing 
like natural writing except the letters, 
each of which contains an entire mean- 
ing (n. 295). These two writings have 
communication only by correspondences 
(n. 306). 

ZENITH. 

Why in the spiritual world the sun 
never appears in the zenith (n. 105). 



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